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Anthony Comstock QPM (March 7, – September 21, ) was a United States Postal Inspector and politician dedicated to ideas of Victorian morality.
Table of contents
- Comstock crushes Brandywine 58-31
- Anthony Comstock's "Chastity" Laws
- Anthony Comstock
- Anthony Comstock - Wikipedia
Comstock crushes Brandywine 58-31
In actuality, law enforcement agents often looked the other way when it came to anti-birth control laws, but the statutes remained on the books. The case that grew out of her arrest resulted in the Crane decision, which allowed women to use birth control for therapeutic purposes. The decision made it possible for doctors to distribute contraceptives across state lines. While this decision did not eliminate the problem of the restrictive "chastity laws" on the state level, it was a crucial ruling.
Physicians could now legally mail birth control devices and information throughout the country, paving the way for the legitimization of birth control by the medical industry and the general public.
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After losing nearly all his property and possessions in Nevada, Comstock prospected for some years in Idaho and Montana without success. In September , while prospecting in Big Horn country, near Bozeman, Montana , he committed suicide with his revolver. The ore was first extracted through surface diggings, but these were quickly exhausted and miners had to tunnel underground to reach ore bodies.
Unlike most silver ore deposits, which occur in long thin veins, those of the Comstock Lode occurred in discrete masses often hundreds of feet thick. Sometimes, the ore was so soft it could be removed by shovel. Although this allowed the ore to be easily excavated, the weakness of the surrounding rock resulted in frequent and deadly cave-ins. The excavations were carried to depths of more than 3, feet 1, m eventually, after years of work. The cave-in problem was solved by the method of square set timbering invented by Philip Deidesheimer , : Previously, timber sets consisting of vertical members on either side of the diggings ribs capped by a third horizontal member to support the back roof , creating a tunnel drift.
However, the Comstock ore bodies were not veins, but sporadic pockets too large for this method. Instead, as ore was removed it was replaced by timbers set as a cube six feet on a side ribs , front face or top back , all at the same time. Thus, the ore body would be progressively replaced with a timber lattice. Often these voids stopes would be re-filled with waste rock from other diggings after ore removal was complete. By this method of building up squares of framed timbers, an ore body of any width may be safely worked to any height or depth.
Deidesheimer was appointed to the Ophir as mine manager for his ingenious idea. Early in the history of Comstock mining, there were heavy flows of water to contend with. This called for pumping machinery and apparatus, and as greater depth was attained, larger pumps were demanded. All the inventive genius of the Pacific Coast was called into play, and this resulted in construction of some of the most powerful and effective steam and hydraulic pumping equipment to be found anywhere in the world.
Initially, the water was cold, but the deeper workings cut into parts of the mountain where there were heavy flows of hot water mines don't always work in digging ore. Some parts of a mining operation could be deepening the existing shaft, or exploring for more ore bodies.
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Lives were lost by falling into sumps of this water hot from the geothermal pockets. The hot water called for fans, blowers and various kinds of ventilation apparatus, as miners working in heated drifts had to have a supply of cool air. Compressed air for running power drills and for driving fans and small hoisting engines was adopted in the Comstock mines. Several new forms of explosives for blasting were also developed. Great improvements were also made in the hoisting apparatus and cages used to extract ore and transport the miners to their work.
As the depth of the diggings increased, the hemp ropes used to haul ore to the surface became impractical, as their self-weight became a significant fraction of their tensile strength breaking weight. After hemp rope, iron chains began to become more common. However, fracture was quick, at around half a millisecond. In Wilhelm Albert had studied and reported on the failure of the iron chains and began creating a twisted metal cabling known as Albert Rope.
Anthony Comstock's "Chastity" Laws
In Andrew Smith Hallidie manufactured wire rope : Another innovation, were spring loaded cages. The only way in and out of a shaft mine, was in the cage, cabled to the hoist. All products, men and supplies, as well as recoverable ore, travels up and down the shaft in a cage. When the hemp rope or chains broke, the cage would plummet uncontrolled to the bottom of the shaft, killing its occupants or destroying its load.
Cages were open to the front and rear, with I-beams on both sides to support the floor. The outside of the I-beams slid through wooden guides up and down the shaft, top to bottom. Spring loaded cages were designed with two swivel rods at the top of the cage, one each attached to the I-beams through bolts and lifted in the center. The outside of the rods were designed to be wider than the cage with a bulbous, round head at the end, notched with teeth molded into the rods.
The weight of the cage being lifted, lifted the rods, released the teeth and tightened the spring, allowing the cage to move freely. If the chain or cable broke, the springs would force the rods down and the teeth would dig into the wood, stopping the cage. In the Americans knew nothing about silver mining. Osborn built two arastras , for the patio process , at the Ophir claim, and Gabriel Maldonado, a Mexican of Spanish descent, "began to smelt some of his rich ore in little adobe furnaces, Mexican fashion", after purchasing Penrod's share of the "Mexican" mine.
The Americans introduced stamp mills for crushing the ore, and pans to hasten the process of amalgamation. Some of the German miners, who had been educated at the mining academy of Freiberg , were regarded as the best then existing to work with argentiferous ores. Bagley introduced a variation of the Freiberg process, using the revolving barrel process of amalgamation, and chloridizing- roasting of ores , after the stamp dry-crushed.
While the barrel process was an improvement on the patio, it was found not to be well adapted to the rapid working of the Comstock ores as pan amalgamation. The Comstock eventually developed the Washoe process of using steam-heated iron pans, which reduced the weeks required by the patio process to hours. In the early days of pan processing of ores, there were tremendous losses in precious metals and quicksilver mercury. Almost every millman was experimenting with some secret process for the amalgamation of ore.
Anthony Comstock - Wikipedia
They tried all manner of trash, both mineral and vegetable, including concoctions of cedar bark and sagebrush tea. At that time, untold millions in gold, silver and quicksilver were swept away into the rivers with the tailings. The Carson river and the Lake Lahontan carry warnings against mercury. Although many patterns and forms of amalgamating pans were invented and patented, there was much room for improvement.
Improvements were made from time to time, resulting in reductions in losses of metals, but none of the apparatus in use on the Comstock was perfect. Before railroads were built, all freight and passengers were transported by teams of from 10 to 16 horses or mules. Ore was hauled to the mills by these teams, which also brought to the mines all the lumber required for construction among other things.
Teams also hauled over the Sierra all the mining machinery, all supplies required by both mines and mills, as well as goods and merchandise needed by the stores and businesses. Each team hauled trains of two to four wagon loads.
From to , great quantities of goods were transported across the Sierra to and from California on the backs of mules. When the Central Pacific Railroad line was completed to the Truckee Meadows , this hauling was bi-directional from Reno to Virginia City via the Geiger Grade wagon road, for transfer to rail for delivery to points east and west.
Ground was broken on the Virginia and Truckee Railroad on February 18, and by January 28, the most difficult "crookedest" section from Virginia City to Carson City was completed. When silver was first discovered on the Comstock, the flow of water from natural springs was adequate to supply the needs of the miners and small towns of Virginia City and Gold Hill, Nevada.
As population increased, wells were dug for domestic needs, and the water in several mine tunnels was added to the available supply. As the mills and hoisting works multiplied, the demand for water for use in steam boilers became so great that it was impossible to supply it without creating a water shortage among the residents, now thousands in number.
Water from wells and tunnels in the surrounding mountains was soon exhausted. It became imperative to look toward the main range of the Sierra Nevada mountains, where there was an inexhaustible supply. Hermann Schussler , a Swiss-trained engineer of great repute who had planned waterworks in San Francisco, was brought to the Comstock to plan and design the new works. Surveys were made in , and the first sections of pipe laid June 11, and the last on July 25 the same year.