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This also applies to Malian investors such as the Tomota group who is planning to provide irrigation for approximately hectares of various oilseeds sunflower, soya bean and jatropha Jatropha curcas for the production of biofuel Brondeau, This industrial group has a complete chain of agricultural equipment and produces mainly potatoes, corn, wheat and rice.

However, information available to date remains rather vague and disparate.

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Based on the good results of the 4 5 campaign tonnes of rice and tonnes of vegetable products , the target of producing 1. Tests on the use of fish cages have had successful results Moutta, The installation of approximately floating cages has created 1, jobs. This is particularly true for the tomato crop. The means of transferring the products to various potential consumption centres have never been properly investigated. This promises future job opportunities.

This experience would allow them to get a similar job on other sites. Priority will be given to women and children [ It is mainly characterised by its purpose which is not profit, but the continuation of the family circle. The family circle generally includes many people from different generations. These family farms, because of their purpose and the need to reduce any risks climate, parasites , always combine several economic activities: However, they may also supply local markets Cirad, The socio-economic and environmental role of family farming is finally being recognised and these farms have many supporters both among international organisations de Schutter, as well as associative forums.

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It has since been refocused on West Africa in Family farming is simply reduced to subsistence economy. The policy of agropoles is based on the belief that small-scale farmers cannot rise to the challenge of feeding African countries Dagorn, Jamart, Jorand, Only intensive farming and imported technologies can. So, now that we have been successful, we are not going to turn them down. However, the proportion actually allocated to support family farming is not given.

Rice yields have increased four-fold, from 1. Farmers, encouraged by economic incentive measures production and sale deregulation , quickly adopted innovative farming techniques such as transplanting and compartmentalisation of land plots, all the more so that they were quickly effective. The percentage of people living in poverty remains high, but its severity was much lower in that area than in the rest of rural Mali Adamcsewski, The reduction in actual poverty is therefore only relative.

The high natural population growth and the arrival of a new population a population of 62, in the Office du Niger area in , more than , in Adamcsewski, , in a context with limited development of new irrigated land due to funding ability, has resulted in a decrease in available land per family 7. The aim was to raise awareness on the farmers' distress due to the lack of land, the payment of water rates and the price of expensive and poorly distributed fertilisers Kane, Because of the high fertiliser price, farmers cannot use the needed doses.

This contributes to farming debt leading to disinvestments: This debt hinders any investment, weakens the intensification process and is the first reason for eviction. It does not look like local farmers have been given the means to undertake any real change. The average farm size is estimated at 3. The bulk of the rice put on the market comes from a minority of prosperous farms with larger irrigated areas and often managed by non-resident employees. Land allocations have always been temporary, and farmers are still subjected to very strict specifications. The creation of a residential lease now allows farming families to keep their homes in case of eviction.

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However, the most common annual farming contract CAE remains very uncertain: This type of tenure is normally restricted to undeveloped land, but this means that land used for rain-fed crops or livestock can be transferred under these allocations. For example, while the agreement with Libya provides for a long-term lease free of charge, the agreement concerning the Markala Sugar Project PSM involves a long-term lease with land fees which the financial value is estimated at FCFA 2,,, over the year duration of the lease.

Djire, Keita, Diawara, The lease contract between the ON and M3 SA stipulates that M3 SA can sub-let its land within the terms of the contract but can only do so once the land has been developed. Malibya, on the other hand, does not have the right to assign or rent the land it has been allocated to third parties without written agreement from the Malian party. As such, renting or selling land plots is very common, although difficult to evaluate because of their illegal nature. A large proportion of ON land has not yet been registered with the state and requires the taking of customary rights and compensation for the holders Djire, Keita, Diawara, These investors were applying for large areas of land used by farmers and transhumant herders Djire, Keita, Diawara, N-Sukala and Tomota began to clear the land without sufficient public consultation.

Tomota cleared around ha in the same way as Malibya. Local people were not adequately informed through the public consultation required by the decree concerning the environmental and social impact studies. They said that they received no prior compensation. The project will also allocate either rice or sugarcane fields, at their choice, to people who have lost their arable land.

However, compensation amounts are not regular incomes for indefinite durations, and longer-term impacts remain to be seen. For instance, no allocation is made in the Malibya project and no responsibility is taken with regards to local communities being evicted from their village: At least 16 villages were displaced Brondeau, ; Adamczewski, Compensation initially valued at 24 million Euros has been reduced to Euros and has not been paid in full Adamczewski, Some fields located in villages near the project were partly covered with rubble extracted when digging the canal. Moreover, facilities for CGC, the Chinese company in charge of the construction of the infrastructure, were located on the main transhumance route for livestock Brondeau Since then, water is regularly released in the area located at the end of the canal at PK40, flooding parts of Tangana.

Local villagers have developed an infrastructure for irrigated crops on the area flooded during the release of water. These initiatives have been condemned by management at the Office du Niger. The same figures appear in the agreement with M3 SA. The water supply priority given to Malibya as Sosumar Djire, Keita, Diawara, , as part of the agreement granted by the Malian state Brondeau, , is likely to generate competitive if not conflictual relationships with crop and livestock farmers and fishermen downstream of the project as well as with other countries bordering the Niger River Brondeau, ; Adamczewski, ; Hertzog and al, The question is whether these water rights given to the Libyan project can be transferred to other operators.

These lower flows are largely due to the silting and proliferation of invasive plant species Scom, Skip to main content. All Auction Buy It Now. Fluent French Without the Faux Pas.

Quelles aires protégées pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest ?

Madeleine - Jacques Brel - Belgique 2. Derborence - Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz - Suisse 3. Le fou des marais - Jean-Luc Raharimanana - Madagascar 6. Prussian explorer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt was described by Darwin as 'the greatest scientific traveller who ever lived'.

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Advanced Units text French Edition. The Golden Age 's 's. Especially impressive are the photo series of epic duels, such as the one between Jacques Anquetil and Raymond Poulidor. In the Gambian protected areas, activities related to ornithology make it possible for local residents to increase their incomes and in Equatorial Guinea, the creation of the national park of Monte Alen has made it possible to create a certain number of jobs for forest guards and guides Mortier, In general in Central Africa, certain protected areas have made it possible to offer new services, to catalyze new activities and to generate new resources through ecotourism Vives, Government institutions responsible for the management of protected areas in seven African countries.

This makes it possible for them to be more efficient and to undertake actions that are sustainable. Monitoring wildlife in Niger Monitoring wildlife in the protected areas of Niger is carried out by the Directorate of Wildlife, Fishing and Aquaculture DFPP and consists of carrying out inventory operations for a certain number of wildlife species. This makes it possible to regularly assess the animal populations in the protected areas and to better understand their habitats and their population dynamics.

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Health monitoring is also provided by the animal disease control project PACE financed by the European Union to detect and notify animal diseases ahead of time in the national park W and three other wildlife reserves. A network of agents who conduct observations in target zones is coordinated at the national level by a team of veterinaries and forestry officers. In collaboration with Birdlife International, the wildlife government services undertake annual inventories of wild birds in the humid zones.

As for populations of giraffes and of manatees, they benefit from special monitoring carried out in collaboration with the ECOPAS-W project.

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Small wildlife rodents, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, etc… in contrast, benefit from very little attention. The management of protected areas is still very centralized, even if several projects show a real willingness to work with local communities. In the framework of annual activity plans, these financial means are managed in various autonomous frameworks in general imposed by funders.

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  5. Regular audits are carried out to ensure that funds are correctly used by the managers. The degradation of ecosystems and the erosion of biodiversity are very high. The underlying causes of the loss of biodiversity in these forests are increasing human population density, extreme poverty and low environmental governance. Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, To these factors can be added modifications related to global climatic changes.

    Fournier and Millogo-Rasolodimby, these proceedings. In Gambia, it is hunting that seems to be the most problematic for biodiversity. For this author, hunting large wildlife is a much greater threat for the forest parks of the sub-region than the destruction of habitats as this activity is less visible and thus more difficult to control.

    Poaching also constitutes a serious threat to the wildlife of desert regions such as northern Niger Anthelme et al. Finally, mining exploitation threatens certain protected areas such as the Nimba Mountains in Guinea Carey et al. The threats to biodiversity, which are above all poaching and forest exploitation, are growing but remain at quite a low rate in comparison with most of the other tropical forest zones of the world Partnership for the Congo Basin Forests, However, commercial hunting is an activity which has intensified during these last fifteen years Vives, It constitutes one of the most serious threats for the maintenance of the biological equilibrium of the ecosystem of the Dja Fotso, Generally, Culverwell shows that the protected areas of Cameroon suffer mostly from poaching but also from overgrazing, forest exploitation, non-sustainable fishing techniques, agriculture in certain zones, excessive immigration and criminal destruction.

    The deforestation rate in the country is 0. The mountain forests and the atlantic coastal forests are the most endangered in Central Africa as they are relatively small in extent and they are also at the same time submitted to heavy human pressures Doumenge et al. These two sites have in addition been for several years on the Unesco World Heritage list of endangered sites. In Central Africa, the situation has been tragic with the armed conflicts of the nineties see, for example, Shalukoma, Mena Wa Mena, these proceedings but Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea have been relatively spared.

    It seems in addition that numerous forest reserves in Cameroon should be reclassified and provided with a protection status that is much higher Doumenge et al. Box 2 shows the 7 most important shortcomings that limit the efficiency of the management of protected areas in Cameroon. They reflect well the preoccupations of a certain number of other West and Central African countries.

    Seven important shortcomings in the management of protected areas in Cameroon 1. The financial and logistical means and the human resources allocated to protected areas are insufficient. In Equatorial Guinea, for example, in spite of the existence of an adequate network of 13 protected areas Doumenge et al. Apart from this, the institutional framework that could grant responsibility to local communities in the management of natural resources is generally absent.

    There are no databases and the knowledge of natural resources, of the process of their evolution and the components of biological diversity is still very poor. The data concerning the management of environmental resources and biological diversity are very insufficient. Finally, the gap between the demographic dynamics, the needs of the people and available exploitable resources remains very wide. Thus, most countries have ratified international conventions aimed at the conservation of natural resources, that they have developed national strategies and various action plans on these themes and that several transborder initiatives have been developed.

    These resolutions are a determining contribution, as they reinforce the authority of national bodies and supplement external assistance Doumenge, Dates of ratification or effectiveness of the main international conventions by seven African countries B: In the same way, the conventions on climate change and on desertification control are important but they have less direct influence on the management strategies of protected areas.

    Each of the conventions includes obligations for both parties, but the papers presented at this seminar indicate that the commitments made are not always respected.

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    New and additional financial and human resources are needed to ensure the efficient management of the networks of protected areas. The policies are hardly adapted to the legal dispositions of most of the conventions that have been ratified. Table VII presents an example of the evolution of the main results achieved in Benin by the Ministry of the Environment, Habitat and Urbanism since the presentation of the Convention on Biological Diversity at the Rio summit in Principal results of the Ministry of the Environment, Habitat and Urbanism of Benin in the framework of the conservation of biological diversity.

    National strategies and action plans for the conservation of biological diversity are of course the beacon planning documents for the management of protected areas of different countries. Most of the seven countries studied have produced such a strategy but are having difficulty achieving the objectives set in this document. The level of performance observed is often determined by the funds available for carrying out the activities programmed Hele, in Fosi Mbantenkhu, The Poverty Reduction Strategies of the different countries thus integrate little by little certain elements relating to biological diversity and protected areas.

    The implementation of these programs is being carried out in the framework of an expanded concertation that includes all the actors representatives of the private sector, partner governments and civil society, including notably the communities of the peripheries and involves contractual commitments between the management of the parks and local communities. In Ivory Coast, the Framework Program has been set up to remedy shortcomings in the concerted approach, a lack of a sense of ownership by local residents in the peripheries in conservation actions and in the limitations of the institutional framework box 3.

    Involvement of local residents of the peripheries in all the phases of the project. This extraordinary protected area is also integrated into two other international initiatives. The second is a project coordinated by Unesco that aims at reinforcing the scientific and technical capacities of 6 biosphere reserves of the arid zones of West Africa.

    This program has supported the creation of a regional strategy for the protected marine areas of West Africa Collectif, The objectives of this network are to 1 maintain technical capacities in the field, 2 reinforce the synergies and the exchange of experiences and skills among nation-states, 3 impose a global and regional vision of the management of classified spaces in the sub-region and their natural resources Vives-Aveling, Cameroon has also developed several transborder initiatives with the Congo, the Central African Republic and Gabon, such as the trinational protected area of the Sangha created in It also includes two contiguous national parks with Nigerian and Chadian protected areas Sandwith et al.

    Their objectives are to improve understanding of the forests of Central Africa, to promote a sustainable management of the forests of the Congo basin and to improve the quality of life of the residents of the region PFBC,