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Digital Sheet Music for Sieben Klavierstücke, No. 7 by Robert Schumann, scored for Piano Solo, id
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These two hexachords alternate regularly throughout the piece, but the internal order of the notes is freely permuted from one occurrence to the next Harvey , 23; Kohl , ; Rigoni , Leonard Stein 's suggestion that the outermost layer of proportion numbers could be replaced by changing metronome values, calculated from the fastest speed possible for the smallest note-values, was later incorporated into the published score as a footnote, but has been dismissed by one writer as "superfluous" and "a mistake", holding that "the piece is playable in its own terms" by any pianist who can play Chopin , Liszt , or Beethoven Maconie , According to one writer, the piece is a study in vertical note groups treated as electronic tone mixtures Maconie , , though Stockhausen composed it ten months before his first practical experience in an electronic studio.

It consists of thirty groups, each of one bar, ranging in length from 1 8 to 5 8 and grouped in five multiples ranging from 4 to 8: Their exact nature and disposition, however, are a matter of debate Rigoni , —27; Sabbe , 36— According to another analysis, it is the pattern of the first five notes, and thus a proportioned time structure based on fives runs through the entire piece Schnebel , — Analyses of the pitch material have fallen broadly into two camps.

One, initiated by Robin Maconie , 63 , holds that the piece is constructed from chromatic tetrachords; the other, founded by Dieter Schnebel , and continued by Jonathan Harvey , 24—27 , maintains that the basis is actually a five-note set, consisting of that same tetrachord plus a note a minor third above 0,1,2,3,6 , and ordered as a series: In a passing reference to this piece, the Dutch composer Ton de Leeuw presents these same five notes in ascending scale order, which he describes as "rudiments of the note series", but does not explain whether his diagram is to be understood as an ordered row or an unordered collection Leeuw , — Nevertheless, its "note points", are collected into groups and layers by means of some features that remain constant e.

This piece is written in strictly linear two-part counterpoint, and features progressive shortening of fundamental durations by serial fractions. Each note is either followed or preceded by a rest, and so the termination of a note can serve as a reference to a point in time as an alternative to the beginning of the note playing the same role Maconie , — The identities of the two contrapuntal strands are achieved not through register or pitch material, but solely through dynamics: However, these distinct dynamic categories are eroded over the course of the piece by the increasing addition of intermediate dynamic values Frisius , Pierre Boulez was an early admirer of the piece: Two others on the contrary describe it as a succession of chromatic aggregates, organized primarily by registral position.

This starts from fixing the notes in a perfectly regular pattern of minor ninths, "wrapping around" from the extreme high to the extreme low register or low to high, depending on the direction taken as the upper or lower limit of the keyboard is reached twice , so as to create an unbroken cycle. In the ascending direction: From this starting disposition, progressive changing of note registers somehow plays a role in shaping the subsequent course of the piece Frisius , ; Frisius , 73; Rigoni , His decision to again compose for conventional instruments was prompted chiefly by a renewed interest in unmeasurable, " irrational " factors in instrumental music.

These were expressed by such things as modes of attack involving complex physical actions, or the interplay of metrical time with durations determined subjectively, by physical actions notated as grace notes , to be played "as fast as possible" Toop , Stockhausen's collective term for these kinds of subjective elements is "variable form" Stockhausen , , The first four pieces of this second set, V—VIII , originally conceived to be of about the same size as pieces I—IV , were composed fairly rapidly, during Having gotten this far, however, Stockhausen seems to have found them unsatisfactory for two reasons: Over the course of this second set, it becomes increasingly easier to perceive the overall, as opposed to local, structure, as the basic types of material become more highly differentiated and are isolated from each other by increasingly significant use of silence Smalley , The original plan for these six pieces, drafted early in , is based on the following number square Toop a , 93; Toop , The first row is an all-interval series , and the remaining rows are transpositions of the first onto each of its members Toop a, 93— One basic idea for this set is that each piece should have a different number of main sections from 1 one to 6 , each identified by a different tempo.

Toop a , 94— Another five squares are derived from this first one, by starting with its second, third, etc. These six squares "furnish a sufficiently large number of proportions for all the pieces in the cycle, but apart from determining the tempo groups and main subdivisions, they do very little to precondition the actual content of each piece, or indeed the number of features to which the squares are applied" Toop a , 95— Stockhausen drastically revised and expanded this early version, bringing the grace-note groups into less extreme registers, then using the result as a background for an entirely new set of superimposed figurations based on series quite unrelated to the original material Toop , The piece is in six sections, each in a different tempo, with the fastest tempos in the middle and the slowest at the end.

Each section is made up of several groups, of great variety and distinctiveness, ranging from a single, short note near the end of the sixth section to a group of forty-seven notes in the third section Harvey , 35— These three possibilities are doubled to six by the use or non-use of the pedal Toop , A specific color tints such a "head"—or core—of a sound structure, by means of the intervals of the notes which ring together.

7 Charakterstücke, Op.7 (Mendelssohn, Felix)

Stockhausen , This piece has been described as "the s counterpart of a Chopin nocturne, elegant and crystalline" Toop , The symmetrical pitch structure was probably modelled on the interlocking chords at the beginning of Webern 's Symphony, but the narrow, claustrophobic high register of the piano piece and its "spasmodic, twitching rhythms" combine to give it a character suitable only for a short piece Toop , — On 5 December , shortly after completing the second version, Stockhausen wrote to his friend Henri Pousseur , expressing great satisfaction with his new piece, which had taken three months and now came to fourteen pages quoted in Toop b , 26; Toop , 23 , and to Karel Goeyvaerts he wrote "It's pure, but alive" Toop , By January , however, he had decided the harmony was not "clean" enough, and completely rewrote the piece again Toop b , 26; Toop , A notational innovation introduced in the final version of this piece is the graphical indication of tempo changes on a line staff.

A rising line indicates accelerando , a descending line represents ritardando , and the line vanishes altogether when there is a rest. This notation is more precise than the traditional indications Maconie , ; Rigoni , The process of composition already had entailed a number of revisions, and Stockhausen finally abandoned this version, evidently in part because of the drastic reduction in rhythmic subtlety, but also because of persistent difficulties in avoiding strong tonal implications caused by the chosen serial conception of the pitch structure.

Like the original, discarded piece, the new version is divided into five tempo-defined sections MM 40, Although note is counterbalanced by a group of grace notes preceding its next entry, and by other tones, the opening few bars "tend to group around this unassailable centre" Grant , This is achieved by silently depressed keys and by use of the middle pedal, in order to release the dampers so that certain notes may be set into sympathetic vibration by striking other notes.

In this way many different timbres can be created for the same pitch. The repetitions of these central notes makes them particularly obvious Stockhausen , It consists of two tempo groups tempo no. These ideas are alternated and juxtaposed, and finally resolved in the appearance of a new texture of irregularly spaced fast periodic groups in the upper register Smalley , 31— Stockhausen deliberately exploits the impossibility of playing all four tones of the repeated chords at exactly the same time and intensity another example of "variable form" , so that the tones constantly and involuntarily shift in prominence.

The idea of this repeated-chord variability was inspired by an improvisation Mary Bauermeister made on the piano in Doris's and Karlheinz's apartment in Cologne-Braunsfeld when, probably with non-European music in mind, she repeated a single chord on the piano, varying finger-pressure slightly on the individual chord tones from one repetition to the next to produce a kind of micro-melody Bauermeister , The rhythmic proportions throughout this piece are governed by the Fibonacci series Kramer , —25 , used both directly 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, etc.

Frisius , The performance of them requires the performer to wear gloves with the fingers cut away Godwin , Over the course of the piece, there is a process of mediation between disorder and order. From a uniform initial state of great disorder, there emerges an increasing number of ever more concentrated figures. By the end, the figures become unified into a higher supraordinate Gestalt Stockhausen , Stockhausen abandoned the original plan for this piece, which prescribed three large sections, and replaced it with a new plan based on scales of seven elements.

A basic series beginning with the strongest contrasts and progressing toward the central value was chosen: The overall form is produced from this series in a complex way, resulting in a seven-phase form, to which Stockhausen added an eighth, preliminary section which compresses the seven main phases into a single one Henck b , There are at least thirteen separate dimensions organised into seven-degree scales Henck b , 17— Pitches are the only thing not organised in sevens.

However, the score was not finished in time for Tudor to learn it, and subsequently his international touring did not leave him in a position to do so. Consequently, the piece was finally premiered by Frederic Rzewski on 10 October , during the third Settimano Internazionale Nuova Musica in Palermo. On 22 December Rzewski made the first recording for commercial release, in the Ariola sound studios in Berlin Henck b , 5—6.

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The mobile structure and graphic layout of the piece resembles that of Morton Feldman 's Intermission 6 for 1 or 2 pianos of , in which 15 fragments are distributed on a single page of music with the instruction: In the same year, Earle Brown had composed Twenty-five Pages for 1—25 pianists, in which the pages are to be arranged in a sequence chosen by the performer s , and each page may be performed either side up and events within each two-line system may be read as either treble or bass clef Anon. When David Tudor, who at the time was preparing a version of Feldman's piece, was in Cologne in , Stockhausen asked him,.

Tudor and Schonfield , Apart from the layout on the page, Feldman's piece has nothing in common with Stockhausen's composition. Rather than rhythmic cells, its components are single tones and chords, with no rhythmic or dynamic indications Frisius , The performer may begin with any fragment, and continue to any other, proceeding through the labyrinth until a fragment has been reached for the third time, when the performance ends. Markings for tempo, dynamics, etc.

Sieben Klavierstücke, No. 7 Sheet Music by Robert Schumann

Though composed with a complex serial plan, the pitches have nothing to do with twelve-tone technique but instead are derived from the proportions of the previously composed rhythms Truelove , —25; Truelove , The durations are founded on a set of matrices all of which have six rows, but with numbers of columns varying from two to seven.

These matrices "amount to sets of two-dimensional 'scales'" Truelove , The first row of each of these rhythm matrices consists of a sequence of simple arithmetic duration values: These "two-dimensional scales" are then permuted systematically Truelove , , — , and the six resulting, increasingly larger matrices were combined together to form the columns of a new, complex Final Rhythm Matrix of six columns and six rows Truelove , , — Stockhausen's design appears to have been to select an equal number of fragments from each row degree of complexity of subdivision and each column overall duration of the fragment , except for the first column shortest duration and last row most complex subdivision.

This is suggested by the fact that he originally selected column 6, row 3 for the last fragment marked with an x in the illustration , then changed his mind in favor of the lower-right cell Truelove , When writing out the fragments, Stockhausen doubled the note values from the ones in the matrix Truelove , , so that, in the score, fragments 1—4, 5—7, 8—10, 11—13, 14—16, and 17—19 have overall durations of 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, and 28 quarter notes, respectively. Within each of these groups there is a "main text" of melody or chords.

Klavierstücke (Stockhausen) - Wikipedia

Interspersed into these are groups of grace-note chords and clusters, as well as tremolos, trills, and harmonics, and these two levels are constructed independently Toop , One of the earliest analysts of this piece, Konrad Boehmer , 71—84 , observed the distinct sets of group durations but, apparently not having seen the sketches, established a different taxonomy and made a mistake counting the duration of one group.

Since Boehmer's labels have been used by a number of later writers Hellfer ; Rigoni ; Trajano , the correspondence with the numeration from the sketches may be useful:. The nineteen fragments are then distributed over the single, large page of the score in such a way as to minimize any possible influence on spontaneity of choice and promote statistical equality Boehmer , Tudor wrote to apologise, and Steinecke accepted that he would have to settle for the European premiere, but then Tudor planned to play the piece in Paris two weeks before Darmstadt.

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  • However, Tudor fell seriously ill early in July and had to cancel his European tour, and so the European premiere took place on 28 July , the last day of the courses, in the Orangerie at Darmstadt, in two different versions played by the pianist Paul Jacobs and billed in the programme book as the world premiere Misch and Bandur , , , — However, this set never got beyond the planning stages Toop ,