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Emotions, he decided, were behavioural traits which evolved. Darwin pointed out how the human face is adapted to show many of these emotions: it has.
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This still left open the question of whether the opposite of approach in the prefrontal cortex is better described as moving away Direction Model , as unmoving but with strength and resistance Movement Model , or as unmoving with passive yielding Action Tendency Model. Support for the Action Tendency Model passivity related to right prefrontal activity comes from research on shyness [74] and research on behavioral inhibition. Another neurological approach proposed by Bud Craig in distinguishes two classes of emotion: Derek Denton calls the latter "primordial emotions" and defines them as "the subjective element of the instincts, which are the genetically programmed behavior patterns which contrive homeostasis.

They include thirst, hunger for air, hunger for food, pain and hunger for specific minerals etc. There are two constituents of a primordial emotion--the specific sensation which when severe may be imperious, and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act. Joseph LeDoux differentiates between the human's defence system, which has evolved over time, and emotions such as fear and anxiety. He has said that the amygdala may release hormones due to a trigger such as an innate reaction to seeing a snake , but " then we elaborate it through cognitive and conscious processes.

Lisa Feldman Barrett highlights differences in emotions between different cultures, [81] and says that emotions such as anxiety " are not triggered; you create them. They emerge as a combination of the physical properties of your body, a flexible brain that wires itself to whatever environment it develops in, and your culture and upbringing, which provide that environment. Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions.


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Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry , emotions are examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans. Nursing studies emotions as part of its approach to the provision of holistic health care to humans.

List of emotions

Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes. In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience , scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood.

In linguistics , the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education , the role of emotions in relation to learning is examined. Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social interactions. In sociology , emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social patterns and interactions, and culture. In anthropology , the study of humanity, scholars use ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human activities.

Some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of communication sciences , critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers. A focus on emotions in organizations can be credited to Arlie Russell Hochschild 's concept of emotional labor. The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet, [83] an e-mail distribution list representing a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings.

The list was established in January and has over members from across the globe. In economics , the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the role of emotions on purchase decision-making and risk perception.

In criminology , a social science approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory and studies of "toughness," aggressive behavior, and hooliganism. In law , which underpins civil obedience, politics, economics and society, evidence about people's emotions is often raised in tort law claims for compensation and in criminal law prosecutions against alleged lawbreakers as evidence of the defendant's state of mind during trials, sentencing, and parole hearings.

In political science , emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making. In philosophy , emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics , the philosophy of art for example, sensory—emotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality , and the philosophy of music see also Music and emotion.

In history , scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is one of the tools of interpretation. In literature and film-making, the expression of emotion is the cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies , scholars study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages. Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology , a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior.

Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to ecology and evolution.

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Ethologists often study one type of behavior for example, aggression in a number of unrelated animals. The history of emotions has become an increasingly popular topic recently, with some scholars [ who? Historians, like other social scientists, assume that emotions, feelings and their expressions are regulated in different ways by both different cultures and different historical times, and the constructivist school of history claims even that some sentiments and meta-emotions , for example Schadenfreude , are learnt and not only regulated by culture.

Historians of emotion trace and analyse the changing norms and rules of feeling, while examining emotional regimes, codes, and lexicons from social, cultural, or political history perspectives. Others focus on the history of medicine , science , or psychology. What somebody can and may feel and show in a given situation, towards certain people or things, depends on social norms and rules; thus historically variable and open to change. Furthermore, research in historical trauma suggests that some traumatic emotions can be passed on from parents to offspring to second and even third generation, presented as examples of transgenerational trauma.

A common way in which emotions are conceptualized in sociology is in terms of the multidimensional characteristics including cultural or emotional labels for example, anger, pride, fear, happiness , physiological changes for example, increased perspiration, changes in pulse rate , expressive facial and body movements for example, smiling, frowning, baring teeth , and appraisals of situational cues. When people enter a situation or encounter with certain expectations for how the encounter should unfold, they will experience different emotions depending on the extent to which expectations for Self, other and situation are met or not met.

People can also provide positive or negative sanctions directed at Self or other which also trigger different emotional experiences in individuals. Turner analyzed a wide range of emotion theories across different fields of research including sociology, psychology, evolutionary science, and neuroscience.

Based on this analysis, he identified four emotions that all researchers consider being founded on human neurology including assertive-anger, aversion-fear, satisfaction-happiness, and disappointment-sadness. These four categories are called primary emotions and there is some agreement amongst researchers that these primary emotions become combined to produce more elaborate and complex emotional experiences. These more elaborate emotions are called first-order elaborations in Turner's theory and they include sentiments such as pride, triumph, and awe.

Emotions can also be experienced at different levels of intensity so that feelings of concern are a low-intensity variation of the primary emotion aversion-fear whereas depression is a higher intensity variant. Attempts are frequently made to regulate emotion according to the conventions of the society and the situation based on many sometimes conflicting demands and expectations which originate from various entities.

The expression of anger is in many cultures discouraged in girls and women to a greater extent than in boys and men the notion being that an angry man has a valid complaint that needs to be rectified, while an angry women is hysterical or oversensitive, and her anger is somehow invalid , while the expression of sadness or fear is discouraged in boys and men relative to girls and women attitudes implicit in phrases like "man up" or "don't be a sissy". Some cultures encourage or discourage happiness, sadness, or jealousy, and the free expression of the emotion of disgust is considered socially unacceptable in most cultures.

Some social institutions are seen as based on certain emotion, such as love in the case of contemporary institution of marriage. In advertising, such as health campaigns and political messages, emotional appeals are commonly found. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaigns emphasizing the fear of terrorism. Sociological attention to emotion has varied over time. He explained how the heightened state of emotional energy achieved during totemic rituals transported individuals above themselves giving them the sense that they were in the presence of a higher power, a force, that was embedded in the sacred objects that were worshipped.

These feelings of exaltation, he argued, ultimately lead people to believe that there were forces that governed sacred objects. In the s, sociologists focused on different aspects of specific emotions and how these emotions were socially relevant. For Cooley , [91] pride and shame were the most important emotions that drive people to take various social actions. During every encounter, he proposed that we monitor ourselves through the "looking glass" that the gestures and reactions of others provide.

Depending on these reactions, we either experience pride or shame and this results in particular paths of action.

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Retzinger [92] conducted studies of married couples who experienced cycles of rage and shame. Drawing predominantly on Goffman and Cooley's work, Scheff [93] developed a micro sociological theory of the social bond. The formation or disruption of social bonds is dependent on the emotions that people experience during interactions. Based on interaction ritual theory, we experience different levels or intensities of emotional energy during face-to-face interactions. Emotional energy is considered to be a feeling of confidence to take action and a boldness that one experiences when they are charged up from the collective effervescence generated during group gatherings that reach high levels of intensity.

These studies show that learning subjects like science can be understood in terms of classroom interaction rituals that generate emotional energy and collective states of emotional arousal like emotional climate. Apart from interaction ritual traditions of the sociology of emotion, other approaches have been classed into one of 6 other categories Turner, including:. This list provides a general overview of different traditions in the sociology of emotion that sometimes conceptualise emotion in different ways and at other times in complementary ways.

Many of these different approaches were synthesized by Turner in his sociological theory of human emotions in an attempt to produce one comprehensive sociological account that draws on developments from many of the above traditions. Emotion regulation refers to the cognitive and behavioral strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience.

Cognitively oriented schools approach them via their cognitive components, such as rational emotive behavior therapy. Yet others approach emotions via symbolic movement and facial expression components like in contemporary Gestalt therapy. Research on emotions reveals the strong presence of cross-cultural differences in emotional reactions and that emotional reactions are likely to be culture-specific. This implies the need to comprehend the current emotional state, mental disposition or other behavioral motivation of a target audience located in a different culture, basically founded on its national political, social, economic, and psychological peculiarities but also subject to the influence of circumstances and events.

In the s, research in computer science, engineering, psychology and neuroscience has been aimed at developing devices that recognize human affect display and model emotions. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences , psychology , and cognitive science. The data gathered is analogous to the cues humans use to perceive emotions in others. Another area within affective computing is the design of computational devices proposed to exhibit either innate emotional capabilities or that are capable of convincingly simulating emotions.

Emotional speech processing recognizes the user's emotional state by analyzing speech patterns. The detection and processing of facial expression or body gestures is achieved through detectors and sensors. In the late 19th century, the most influential theorists were William James — and Carl Lange — Lange was a Danish physician and psychologist. Working independently, they developed the James—Lange theory , a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions. The theory states that within human beings, as a response to experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth.

Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause. Silvan Tomkins — developed the Affect theory and Script theory. The Affect theory introduced the concept of basic emotions, and was based on the idea that the dominance of the emotion, which he called the affected system, was the motivating force in human life. Some of the most influential theorists on emotion from the 20th century have died in the last decade.

They include Magda B. Arnold — , an American psychologist who developed the appraisal theory of emotions; [] Richard Lazarus — , an American psychologist who specialized in emotion and stress, especially in relation to cognition; Herbert A. Simon — , who included emotions into decision making and artificial intelligence; Robert Plutchik — , an American psychologist who developed a psychoevolutionary theory of emotion; [] Robert Zajonc — a Polish—American social psychologist who specialized in social and cognitive processes such as social facilitation; Robert C.

Solomon — , an American philosopher who contributed to the theories on the philosophy of emotions with books such as What Is An Emotion?: Classic and Contemporary Readings Oxford, ; Peter Goldie — , a British philosopher who specialized in ethics, aesthetics, emotion, mood and character; Nico Frijda — , a Dutch psychologist who advanced the theory that human emotions serve to promote a tendency to undertake actions that are appropriate in the circumstances, detailed in his book The Emotions ; Jaak Panksepp , an Estonian-born American psychologist, psychobiologist, neuroscientist and pioneer in affective neuroscience.

Influential theorists who are still active include the following psychologists, neurologists, philosophers, and sociologists:.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Emotion disambiguation. For other uses, see Emotional disambiguation. Functional accounts of emotion. Evolution of emotion and Evolutionary psychology. Two-factor theory of emotion. This section includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Emotions portal Affect measures Affective forecasting Emoticons Emotion and memory Emotion Review Emotional intelligence Emotions in virtual communication Empathy Facial feedback hypothesis Fuzzy-trace theory Group emotion Neuroendocrinology Social emotion Social sharing of emotions Two-factor theory of emotion Yerkes—Dodson law. Our emotional feelings reflect our ability to subjectively experience certain states of the nervous system. The Nature of emotion: Emotional processing, but not emotions, can occur unconsciously. Retrieved 11 November Annual Review of Psychology.

The psychological construction of emotion. Annual Review of Sociology.

The emotions that make a film a hit... or a miss

From passions to emotions: The Book of Human Emotions. Little, Brown, and Company. The Merriam-Webster dictionary 11th ed. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Emotions across languages and cultures: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Ten Issues of Contentment. An Interview with Dr. And how can they be measured? Evolutionary approaches to depression.

Informational and motivational functions of affective states. Handbook of motivation and cognition: Thus, James alluded to intentionality , the feature of some mental processes in virtue of which they are essentially about or directed toward an object. Many theorists following James have revised his analysis by including perception, and with it intentionality, as an essential part of emotion.

Indeed, some theorists have claimed that an emotion is just a special kind of perception. But the common metaphor of colour does not do justice to emotional experience. Emotion is not something that is distinct from and somehow overlays an experience; the experience is part of the structure of the emotion itself. The experiential structures of emotion include, first and foremost, intentionality and what the emotion is about—a person, an act, an event, or a state of affairs.

Astrid S - Emotion

Such theories are often very similar, varying mainly in their emphasis on the primary importance of belief as opposed to evaluative judgment. Emotions involve knowledge, beliefs, opinions, and desires about the world. Thus, feeling must include not only bodily feelings but the cognitively rich experiences of knowing, engaging, and caring. The experiential dimension of an emotion includes not only physical sensations but the experience of an object and its environment through the unique perspective provided by that emotion.

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The experience of being angry at Smith, for example, consists to a large extent in the experience of Smith from a certain perspective—e. The experience of being in love with Jones consists to a large extent in the experience of Jones from another perspective—e. The experiences of anger and love also include various thoughts and memories and intentions to act in certain ways. Emotional experience also includes pleasure and pain, as Aristotle insisted, but rarely as isolated feelings. More often, different aspects of an emotion are pleasurable or painful, as thoughts or memories may be pleasurable or painful.

The emotion as such may be pleasurable or painful e. But, again, emotional matters are not always so straightforward. By smiling one indicates friendliness and perhaps lack of intent to cause harm; by frowning one conveys the opposite. The emotional expressions that are so evident in the face and body serve as the first means of communication between a mother and her infant. We laugh together and our mutual good humour increases and strengthens our pleasure. But this aspect includes much more than communication. It also includes the social constitution, or social construction, of emotions with and through other people.

Even the basic emotions, which are generally assumed to have a neurological core, are shaped to a large extent by social factors. Social context determines the causes of emotions in an obvious sense: A Vodou Voodoo curse, for example, produces terror in one society but only bemusement in another. A husband who sees his wife in the company of another man becomes jealous in one society but may be indifferent in another. All emotions involve cognition , and all are influenced by moral values and evaluative concepts, many if not all of which are learned.

The concepts of right and wrong, appropriate and inappropriate and their proper application are learned in the specific circumstances of each group or society. An expression of anger is utterly inappropriate in most public circumstances in Japan, but it is quite to be expected at an urban intersection in the United States. The cultural meaning of an emotion is also and obviously socially determined. In Tahiti anger is considered extremely dangerous and is even demonized; in the Mediterranean it is often a sign of virility, suggesting righteousness.

This is not to say that the social influences on emotion are limited to their cultural interpretations. The emotions themselves are constituted , at least in part, by such interpretations. The socially constituted part of an emotion may be smaller in basic emotions than in cognitively rich emotions such as moral indignation and romantic love, but culture as well as biology, social differences as well as individual differences, determine what emotions there are and whether, where, and when it is appropriate to have them. The fact that emotions involve behaviour, thoughts, and culture raises the question of whether or to what extent emotions are rational.

For philosophers such as Plato c. But behaviour and thoughts can be rational or irrational, and culture imposes its own standards of rationality. To that extent, at least, overt emotional expressions and thoughts can be judged according to such standards. In anger, people often act and think irrationally. But what is less often emphasized is that anger can result in behaviour and thoughts that are quite rational, in the sense that they are strategically successful in articulating or channeling the emotion into constructive action.

The thoughts that one has in anger may also be accurate and insightful—e. And culture, of course, imposes its own criteria for deciding which expressions and thoughts are rational, as well as which emotions it is rational to have in which circumstances. To be jealous in certain cultures and in certain circumstances may be perfectly appropriate and therefore rational.

But in other cultures or other circumstances jealousy is inappropriate and therefore irrational. An emotion can also be rational or irrational in two more specific senses: An example of 1 is: Smith is angry at Jones for saying something offensive, when in fact Jones said no such thing and there is no good reason to think that he did. An example of 2 is: Smith is angry at Jones for saying something offensive, but in fact what Jones said was not offensive because it was not intentional or because it was an accurate and constructive criticism of Smith, for which Smith should not be offended or angry.

In the first example the anger is irrational because it is based on a false belief about the situation; in the second it is irrational because it involves an unjust or unfair evaluation. In yet another sense, emotions can be rational insofar as they are functional. It has become something of a platitude in contemporary psychology that emotions have evolved along with human beings and are therefore the product of natural selection.

It does not follow, however, that any particular emotion was individually selected for, or that emotions still serve, the functions that may have made them valuable in the past. Anger may have been a useful stimulus of aggression in prehistoric times, but it can be deleterious or generally dysfunctional in a modern urban environment.

Moreover, emotions or particular emotions may well be byproducts of other evolved traits. Indeed, Hume insisted that reason by itself provides no motivation to moral behaviour; only the emotions can do that. Modern neuroscience has come to much the same conclusion. Finally, emotions can be rational in the sense that they can be used to achieve certain basic human goals and aspirations. Getting angry may be an important step in motivating oneself to face obstacles and overcome them.

Falling in love may be an important step in developing the capacity to form and maintain intimate relationships. A Buddhist monk may be fully justified in being jealous of a fellow monk, but his jealousy is nevertheless irrational insofar as it is incompatible with his conception of himself as a Buddhist. In this sense, emotions provide both the substance of a good life and its ends. In a similar vein, the French existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre —80 argued that emotions are strategies.

People use them to manipulate others and, more important, to maneuver themselves into ways of thinking and acting that suit their goals and their self-image. Emotions can be consciously developed or discouraged by training oneself to react more or less emotionally—or with more of one kind of emotion and less of another—in certain circumstances. Looking at all the mainstream Batman films, you can see the top performers were the epic tragedies - the Dark Knight films. Sci-fi, mysteries, and thrillers with happy endings - the rags to riches shape - do not tend to do well at the box office.

The entertainment industry tends to make ad hoc, top-down decisions about the content offered to the viewer.

Determining which films get the green light is based primarily on the intuition, expertise and experience of a relatively small group of producers and studio executives, with limited input from focus groups. Recently, a bot was "employed" to produce a sci-fi film , with nonsensical and sometimes hilarious results, highlighting how far automated scriptwriting still has to go.

That's because robots still aren't very good at replicating the nuances of human emotion, especially humour, and struggle to write scripts to which people can relate. But we can use data science to enhance the efforts of human scriptwriters and production companies. Time will tell whether these new techniques will actually shift decision-making about film content from producers to the viewers.

This analysis piece was commissioned by the BBC from an expert working for an outside organisation. Businesses are told to put contingency plans in motion while 3, troops will be put on standby. The emotions that make a film a hit Related Topics The Oscars. But which of these are the most successful, critically and commercially?