PDF 26. A 16 year old Girl became a Spy (Young Heroes of the American Revolution)

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Nathan Hale (June 6, – September 22, ) was an American soldier and spy for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Hale has long been considered an American hero and, in , he was officially . Bill Richmond, a year-old former slave and Loyalist who later became a boxer in.
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With powerful engines, extensive firepower and heavy armor, the newly christened battleship USS South Dakota steamed out of Philadelphia in August of spoiling for a fight. The ship would become one of the most decorated warships in U. Navy history and acquire a new moniker to reflect the secrets it carried. That the vessel was not resting at the bottom of the Pacific was just one of the secrets Battleship X carried through day after day of hellish war at sea.

Calvin Graham, the fresh-faced seaman who had set off for battle from the Philadelphia Navy Yard in the summer of , was only 12 years old.

The Boy Who Became a World War II Veteran at 13 Years Old

Graham was just 11 and in the sixth grade in Crockett, Texas, when he hatched his plan to lie about his age and join the Navy. One of seven children living at home with an abusive stepfather, he and an older brother moved into a cheap rooming house, and Calvin supported himself by selling newspapers and delivering telegrams on weekends and after school. Even though he moved out, his mother would occasionally visit—sometimes to simply sign his report cards at the end of a semester.

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The country was at war, however, and being around newspapers afforded the boy the opportunity to keep up on events overseas. When he learned that some of his cousins had died in battles, he knew what he wanted to do with his life. He wanted to fight.

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But he had no intention of waiting five more years. He began to shave at age 11, hoping it would somehow make him look older when he met with military recruiters. It was the dentist who would peer into the mouths of potential recruits. Ray Jackson, who joined the Marines at 16 during World War II, founded the group Veterans of Underage Military Service in , and it listed more than 1, active members, including 26 women. Calvin Graham told his mother he was going to visit relatives.

The Stories of Women Who Made Us Think Bigger

Instead, he dropped out of the seventh grade and shipped off to San Diego for basic training. There, he said, the drill instructors were aware of the underage recruits and often made them run extra miles and lug heavier packs. By early October , the two ships, along with their escorting cruisers and destroyers, raced to the South Pacific to engage in the fierce fighting in the battle for Guadalcanal. The carrier USS Hornet was repeatedly torpedoed and sank off Santa Cruz, but the South Dakota managed to protect Enterprise , destroying 26 enemy planes with a barrage from its antiaircraft guns.

After the Revolutionary War began in , he joined a Connecticut militia and was elected first lieutenant within five months. It has been suggested that he was unsure as to whether he wanted to fight, or whether he was hindered because his teaching contract in New London did not expire until several months later, in July On July 4, , Hale received a letter from his classmate and friend Benjamin Tallmadge, who had gone to Boston to see the siege for himself.

He wrote to Hale, "Was I in your condition, I think the more extensive service would be my choice. In September, General Washington was desperate to determine the location of the imminent British invasion of Manhattan Island. To that end, Washington needed a spy behind enemy lines, and Hale was the only volunteer. Hale volunteered on September 8, , to go behind enemy lines and report on British troop movements.

He was ferried across on September It was an act of spying that was immediately punishable by death and posed a great risk to Hale. During his mission, New York City then the area at the southern tip of Manhattan around Wall Street fell to British forces on September 15 and Washington was forced to retreat to the island's north in Harlem Heights what is now Morningside Heights. The fire was later widely thought to have been started by American saboteurs to keep the city from falling into British hands, [7] though Washington and the Congress had already denied this idea.

It has also been speculated that the fire was the work of British soldiers acting without orders. In the fire's aftermath, more than American partisans were rounded up by the British. British General William Howe had established his headquarters in the Beekman House in a then rural part of Manhattan, on a rise between what are now 50th and 51st Streets between First and Second Avenues, [9] near where Beekman Place commemorates the connection.

Hale reportedly was questioned by Howe, and physical evidence was found on him. Rogers provided information about the case. According to tradition, Hale spent the night in a greenhouse at the mansion. He requested a Bible ; his request was denied. Sometime later, he requested a clergyman. Again, the request was denied. According to the standards of the time, spies were hanged as illegal combatants.

On the morning of September 22, , Hale was marched along Post Road to the Park of Artillery, which was next to a public house called the Dove Tavern at modern-day 66th Street and Third Avenue , and hanged. Bill Richmond , a year-old former slave and Loyalist who later became a boxer in Europe, was reportedly one of the hangmen, responsible for securing the rope to a strong tree and preparing the noose.

By all accounts, Hale comported himself well before the hanging. The story of Hale's quote began with John Montresor , a British officer who witnessed the hanging. Hull later publicized Hale's use of the declaration.


  1. The Boy Who Became a World War II Veteran at 13 Years Old | History | Smithsonian.
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Because Hull was not an eyewitness to Hale's speech, some historians have questioned the reliability of the account. If Hale did not originate the statement, it is possible he instead repeated a passage from Joseph Addison 's play Cato , [17] an ideological inspiration to many Whigs:. How beautiful is death, when earn'd by virtue! Who would not be that youth? What pity is it That we can die but once to serve our country. No official records were kept of Hale's speech. However, Frederick MacKensie, a British officer, wrote this diary entry for the day: He behaved with great composure and resolution, saying he thought it the duty of every good Officer, to obey any orders given him by his Commander-in-Chief; and desired the Spectators to be at all times prepared to meet death in whatever shape it might appear.

It is almost certain that Nathan Hale's last speech contained more than one sentence. Several early accounts mention different things he said. When she was still a young girl, Malala stood up against the Taliban in Pakistan, insisting that girls be allowed to receive an education. In , she survived a shot to the head by a Taliban gunman and went on to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for her human rights advocacy work.

Cowan was the first Australian woman to serve as a member of parliament.

Woolf was the British author of modernist classics like Mrs. Dalloway and To the Lighthouse. Misty Copeland is a highly acclaimed, stunning ballerina. She was the first African American performer to become a principal dancer for the American Ballet Theatre. Hepburn was a British actress, dancer, model, and humanitarian. Franklin was a British chemist, known for her early use of X-ray diffraction.


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One of her photographs led to major discoveries involving DNA structure, though other scientists took credit for it. Her protagonist, Anne Shirley, was an immediate sensation and earned Montgomery an international following. Blackwell was the first woman to graduate from medical school in the US.

James Armistead Lafayette – Hero and Spy - History Is Fun

Throughout her lifetime, she was a leader in public health activism. In , less than one year before her death, she published the anticipated sequel, Go Set a Watchman. She founded the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic congregation of women that helped the poor, and was canonized as Saint Teresa of Calcutta in Barton was an independent nurse during the Civil War.

Tubman escaped slavery and became a leading abolitionist. She led hundreds of slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad. She also served as a spy during the Civil War.

Benedict Arnold commits treason

Dorothy Levitt was the first female British racing driver and a trailblazer for women everywhere. She even taught Queen Alexandra and the Royal Princesses how to drive. Chanel was the fashion designer behind timeless designs that are still worn today. She became famous for her trademark suits, little black dresses and perfume after being raised in an orphanage. Annie Oakley was a renowned sharpshooter and TV star. Tereshkova became the first woman to travel into space aboard Vostok 6 in She orbited the earth 48 times in under three days. Japanese extraordinaire Junko Tabei was the first woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

In fact, she was the first woman to ascend all Seven Summits, climbing the highest mountain on each continent. She died in a tragic car crash in Sign in Get started. I never gave or took any excuse. Katherine Johnson Ever considered how much math goes into space flight?