Guide MEDIOS DE COMUNICACION DE MASAS Y CONDUCTA POLITICA (Spanish Edition)

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Table of contents



Relevant and authoritative, this ebook is an essential advent to the philosophy of social examine. Indicators of Children's Well-Being: This ebook is anxious with the query of inequality - which issues to an enormous structural challenge in intra-national and inter-national appreciate. It covers the stress among the wealthy and negative in much less built international locations in addition to inside richer international locations within the technique of globalisation.

This ebook makes a speciality of army conscription in 22 nations that signify the world's areas. The ebook covers every little thing from center study tools, to moral issues and an exploration of the metaphysics of social lifestyles, with each one access providing: Political news becomes the central axis of both agendas, relying mainly on stories related to Wars and other conflicts.

Thus, the space allocated to these two themes will cause a greater homogeneity of the online media agenda, while issues relating to Economy, business and finance are more frequent in the Spanish online media agenda. Other themes handled more assiduously in Spanish online media are: Labour and Art, culture and entertainment. Meanwhile, the theme that is more present in foreign online media is: The relevance of front-page news [74] confirms that two themes increase their relevance on both agendas: Wars and other conflicts and Disasters.

Consequently, we can observe that the more frequent themes do not necessarily have greater front-page development, except the news related to Wars and other conflicts. The political issues show similar relevance to the average of both samples. Other matters that stand out for their relevance in Spanish online media are Lifestyle and leisure and Sports.

Meanwhile, the category Religion and beliefs stands out for its relevance in foreign online media, although it seldom appears. The analysis of the most relevant news in the corpus shows that the dominance of the themes Politics and Wars and other conflicts is increased in this type of news. The considerable increase in matters related to conflicts in foreign online media is noteworthy.

Another theme that increases its frequency in both corpora of online media, is the one related to Disasters. As a consequence, the space allocated to a great portion of the thematic agenda Economy, business and finance ; Justice ; Traffic ; Health ; Science and Technology ; Environment ; and Religion and beliefs is further diminished among the most relevant front-page news.

Tipos de medios masivos de comunicación

Regarding the differences between agendas, the analysis shows that some themes stand out in Spanish online media Lifestyle and leisure and Sports and others in foreign online media Crime and Art, culture and entertainment. To sum up, as the correlations that we have analyzed show, the homogeneity between the two agendas is reinforced by the greater presence of news about politics war and other conflicts.

For this reason, thematic heterogeneity is found in those topics that help to complete the agenda of the cybermedia. At the same time, these are given less relevance on the front pages. The content analysis focuses on the first two sections of the body of information. To this end, the samples go from the teaser on the front-page to the main node, where the information begins to develop. In foreign online media, the main source is found in these two sections in In Spanish online media, this occurs in ninety six percent of the news.

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Therefore, the main sources are concentrated situated at the beginning of the news following the premises of the inverted pyramid [75]. In both corpora of online media, the featured front-page news uses four main information sources: Political offices of the public administration , Other members of the public administration , Pressure groups , and Other media.


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Political offices dominate both agendas, although their use is higher in Spanish online media. This, together with the increase in sources related to other members of public administration, brings about the consolidation of public institutional sources in the Spanish online media agenda. Meanwhile, pressure groups political parties, trade unions, associations The final main support of online media is the data obtained through other media.

This is more common in foreign online media. Moreover, in Spanish online media there is also an increase in sources without correct attribution. Henceforth, the study focuses on the two themes featured most frequently in the analysed online media: Thus far the configuration of the media agenda of mainstream Spanish online media revolves around the concepts of selection and hierarchization.

However, we must bear in mind that, among the factors that will determine the selection of news, the availability of material and the specific characteristics of the information products need to be dealt with [76].

After focusing on the distribution of the informative space among the social actors, the influence of these aspects on the main themes of the analysis is shown. Political news is constructed around three types of main sources: Political offices of the public administration , Pressure groups and Other media. Political offices increase their dominance with regard to the entire sample, being the main source in one out of two news items. The rest of the actors have very limited space on both agendas.

Even so, a greater use of Experts is observed as a main source in foreign online media. On matters related to wars and conflicts, the origin of the main source is similar to that of all the other news. Thus, news stories are constructed around four types of main sources: Political offices of the public administration , Other members of the public administration , Pressure groups and Other media.

A decrease can be observed in the presence of political offices compared with the public administration as a dominant source. This situation is augmented in Spanish online media, which have pressure groups as the most frequently used main source of information. In foreign online media, the distribution of the informative space is more balanced.

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Here, political offices maintain their leadership over public administration. First, the geographical area of the news is analysed. When analysing the entire sample, it may be observed that national events are the main focus in foreign online media. There are also news cases from around the world. On the contrary, domestic local events dominate Spanish online media together with those from the national sphere.

The study of the main themes shows that Politics is markedly national in character in both agendas. Nevertheless, while Spanish online media localize this issue more, due to the presence of regional online media [77] , foreign online media are nurtured by a large number of worldwide political news items. Meanwhile, news related to Wars and other conflicts has a decidedly global character in foreign online media.

Their presence is considerable in Spanish online media as well, although domestic conflict is the dominant type protests, strikes and other social conflicts , with a prevalence of local events over national ones. Secondly, the authorship of the information is confirmed. It may be observed, studying both samples, that the presence of self-elaborated news is somewhat higher in foreign online media.

Spanish online media is characterised by the use of news written up using wire material, either exclusive, Other , complementary, or Mixed. In the foreign media sample, this space is occupied by news with no signature [78].

With regard to the main themes, two types of behaviour are observed between foreign and Spanish online media when approaching political news. While the first increase their capacity to produce their own political news, in Spanish online media this capacity is reduced. Consequently, while in foreign online media the space of the other categories is limited, the opposite occurs in Spanish online media.

In matters linked to Wars and other conflicts , both agendas show a limited capacity to generate their own information. This causes a greater reliance on wire material and, in foreign online media, on news without a signature. On the other hand, the news linked to Wars and other conflicts contributes to the differences between both agendas.

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Adaptation to the defining traits of online journalism: In both samples of online media, the analysis of multimediality confirms the greater use of multimedia resources in foreign online media. The clear dominance of photography is observed with video in second place. Additionally, foreign online media use graphic resources, which are not as common in Spanish online media.

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The use of audio is uncommon in both agendas. When dealing with political news, the difference in the use of photography between the two samples is diminished, while the use of video is reinforced in both agendas. Foreign online media make a more regular use of graphic resources.

Audio resources are not frequent in this type of news either, although, they are more common than graphic resources in Spanish online media. In news stories referring to Wars and other conflicts , the use of photography is reduced with respect to the average in each sample. However, the use of video increases, especially in foreign online media. Here, the use of graphic resources also increases. The audio does not increase in this type of news either. On the other hand, the interactivity of the news is studied by evaluating user participation by observing the quantity of comments.

In both samples, the possibility to submit comments is somewhat higher in Spanish online media than in foreign ones. These comments appear at the end of the main body of the news [79].

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The number of comments per news item, in those that allow for comments, is similar in both agendas. In the two main themes, the possibility to submit comments is reduced with respect to the average for the entire analysis. The clearest decrease involved issues related to Wars and other conflicts in foreign online media. The number of comments per political news item is somewhat higher in foreign online media, albeit in both agendas they are above their average.

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In contrast, user participation soars in Spanish online media when it comes to issues related to Wars and other conflicts , doubling the average participation. In foreign online media, participation also increases, but not so strikingly. The results show that the main front-page news on both national and foreign online media agendas are constructed around the same main themes, with national politics as the central focal point.

The hierarchization of featured news contributes to this control. Homogeneity is also apparent in the distribution of the informative space among the different social actors and the use of audio-visual resources. The dominance of political news, where political offices increase their control on the online media agenda, contributes to the reinforcement of these social actors as a leading information source.

The development of multimediality shows the establishment of photography as the main resource while video is used to a lesser degree. Thus, both the presentation and the thematic content of the main front-page news items are similar in foreign and Spanish online media. Yet these two online media agendas are by no means identical.

Spanish economic and working conditions cause a greater development of these themes in Spanish online media. Regarding the geographical area of the news, the nature and origin of themes, like that of conflict, which range from international military conflict in foreign online media, to the social conflict protests, strikes and other social conflicts of a domestic character in Spanish online media, generates greater user participation.

Nevertheless, despite the dominance of national and local events in the Spanish agenda, its reliance on wire material increases with respect to foreign online media. This is not exclusively applicable to international news, as this reliance is maintained in political news, the central axis of the Spanish online media agenda, which is characterised by a marked domestic nature. Therefore, the extensive and longitudinal nature of the methodological tool we have implemented allows us to confirm the thematic and stylistic uniformity between the Spanish and the foreign online media agenda.

Having said that, the geographical area that is focused on helps to break the content homogeneity between the different Spanish online media. The reliance on wire material, which is not limited to international issues, acts as a counterpoint in the creation of a more heterogeneous online media agenda.

All these aspects cause the collective impact of Spanish online media on the public agenda to focus on a limited and homogeneous quantity of themes. Patterns of issue importance among readers of the paper and online versions of the New York Times", Communication Research , 29 2 , , pp. Patterns of content U in Argentina's leading print and online newspapers", Political Communication , 24 2 , , pp. XX 1 , , pp. Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm", Journal of Communication , 43 4 , , pp.

The integration of user-generated content within professional journalistic frameworks at British newspaper sites", Journalism Practice , vol. International journal of human-computer interaction , vol. Executive summary , http: A comparative content analysis of online news in Europe and the United States", Journalism Studies, vol. Evolving towards complementarity", Communications. The European journal of communication research , 33, , pp. A zerosum theory of agenda setting", Journalism Quarterly , 69 4 , , pp. A zerosum theory of agenda setting", Journalism Quarterly , 69 4 , , p. Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm", Journal of Communication , 43 4 , , p.

Patterns of content homogenisation in Argentina's leading print and online newspapers", Political Communication , vol. This text may be considered as informative text, and should the online medium deem it appropriate. Elaborated by the authors. Adaptation to online media: Wars and other conflicts. Economy, business and finance. Art, culture and entertainment.