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If for any reason your order is not available to ship, you will not be charged. Your order is also backed by our In-Stock Guarantee! What makes Biblio different? Sign In Register Help Cart 0. Search Results Results 1 -8 of 8. Customers who searched for ISBN: Such a sophisticated series of actions requires intensive attention and concentration from the writer. He or she has to reduce both external disturbances e. Findings of an event-related potential ERP study offered further evidence for the activation of human brain during CCH, in which the postwriting cortical arousal and activation are shown to be significantly greater than prewriting baseline for the calligraphy writing subjects, whereas no such changes were observed for the controls [ 11 ].

However, the extent to which brain activity can be changed through calligraphy training has yet to be adequately addressed. For the present study, the use of EEG to assess the effects of calligraphy training on brain function was a logical choice for the research question. Of particular interest are changes in theta wave of frontal midline after the calligraphy treatment. The use of EEG measures was prompted by their promotion as a more direct measure of attentional states, their success in differentiating varying states of attentional focus, and their stability and reliability over time [ 20 ].

Ample evidence suggests that the EEG is a valid measure of the functional state of the brain [ 21 ]. The first is characterized by a widespread scalp distribution and being observed during drowsiness and states of low-level alterness. The second type is often referred to as frontal midline theta Fm theta , which was first observed and named by Ishihara and Yoshii in Japan in the s.

Fm theta was considered to include theta rhythms that are maximal in the frontal midline region F3, Fz, F4 [ 23 ]. Fm theta activity has been observed in many tasks including mental calculation [ 24 , 25 ], working memory and learning [ 26 — 28 ], and meditation [ 29 — 31 ].

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The majority of studies investigating Fm theta during working memory tasks have shown an increase in theta activity with increasing working memory load and task difficulty [ 27 , 32 — 35 ]. In addition, it was reported that Fm theta was reduced in normal aging subjects [ 36 ].

Furthermore, the appearance of Fm theta reflects a feeling of relief from anxiety. Individuals exhibiting greater Fm theta activity tend to have lower state and trait anxiety scores [ 37 ]. The Fm theta correlates with changes in anxiety levels induced by antianxiety drugs, which suggests that the appearance of Fm theta is influenced by the drugs and that the relief from anxiety might be involved in the appearance of Fm theta [ 38 — 40 ].

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Some researchers explained that increased Fm theta in meditation is associated with reported decreases in anxiety levels and other positive emotional experiences [ 29 ]. In sum, Fm theta is recognized as distinct theta activity in the frontal midline area and reflects mental concentration as well as state of relief from anxiety [ 31 ]. Therefore, we hypothesized that subjects who were administered calligraphy training would demonstrate significant increase in theta rhythm of frontal midline compared to participants in a control condition.

In our previous research, global style of character presentation led to better psychological indexing than the detailed style of character presentation, while linear style of character presentation proved to be less favorable than the nonlinear style of stroke presentation, as shown by a reduction in heart rate.

These observations provided positive support for a theoretical formulation of the perceptual-cognitive- physiological model of Chinese brush character writing and also confirmed the significance of considering character characteristics from the topological principles of visual perception. These observations may be also indicated by the patterns of EEG evoked during writing characters with different visual-spatial properties.

Therefore, on the basis of the above background, the aims of the present study were 1 to examine whether Fm theta wave changes through a day calligraphy training and how, 2 to further investigate the role of visual-spatial properties of the characters in EEG wave patterns during brush handwriting, and 3 to explore the role of theta wave as a neural marker of integration of the states of the calligraphy-evoked physical and cognitive responses of the writer during writing.

We predict that calligraphic training would lead to an increase in the Fm theta waves and that writing characters with global and nonlinear style can evoke greater among Fm-EEG waves than those with detailed and linear style. A total of 16 undergraduate students participated in this experiment on a voluntary basis. They were assigned to the calligraphy group or the control group, 8 participants in each group. One of the participants had experience in Chinese calligraphy for more than 3 years, while the remaining participants had little experience.

Informed consent was obtained from all of them in written form after the experimental procedures had been fully explained. The calligraphy writing materials were those characters with visual patterns designed on the basis of a visual-spatial geometric system. They were of varying levels of properties such as closure, symmetry, linearity, parallelism, connectivity, and orientation.

Forty characters were chosen for ten days training, with each characters appearing twice once in detailed style and once in global style. Of particular interest are EEG waves evoked by characters with detailed versus global style and linear versus nonlinear style. The global style character is constructed with an outer contour for its interconnected as well as independent strokes, so that the character exhibits a visual closure of the space. The detailed style character lacks such features but has only solid strokes throughout.

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The linear style character is made up with only straight strokes, whereas the nonlinear style character has only curves or wavy strokes. This battery-operated portable unit worked with a laptop PC. EEG recordings were taken under four conditions: A gold-plated electrode designed like a snap-on button was positioned in frontal midline Fz according to the international 10—20 system and earlobes were used as a reference site. Sample rate for the EEG channel was per second. The BioGraph Infiniti program also includes a global notch filter function, which reduced the effect of electromagnetic interference on the signals.

Calligraphy therapy protocol was used for the calligraphy group. The treatments were conducted in a research laboratory. To ensure that the data for the writing stage were indeed those of writing act, we used the previous 10 seconds data of writing each character, considering that the writers, for the most part, would not finish writing a character within ten seconds. We first compared theta wave between day 1 and day 10 for the 2 groups. Then we further compared theta wave of three stages: Pairwise -test was performed to compare EEG waves evoked during writing by the characters with detailed style to the corresponding ones with global style and also the linear characters with nonlinear ones.

In this analysis, we include alpha wave besides theta wave because evidence has suggested that both frontal midline theta and alpha reflect a state of concentration and positive emotion experience [ 29 ]. The analyses were two tailed, with the significance level set at 0. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS When theta data were treated respectively for each group, results showed that during writing there was a significant increase of theta in the calligraphy group , , whereas theta mean of control group sitting quietly showed no significant change ,.

Finally, we performed pairwise -test in the comparison of frontal midline theta and alpha waves evoked by characters with varying visual-spatial properties Figure 1 and Table 2. Results showed that characters with global style evoked greater theta and alpha waves than detailed characters Figures 4 a and 4 b.

Comparison between linear and nonlinear characters showed significant difference of alpha wave in one pair of linear-global and nonlinear-global characters Figures 4 c and 4 d. In this study, we examined the effects of calligraphy training on theta wave generated in frontal midline. The mean value of theta in the calligraphy treatment group, as predicted, showed a considerable increase after a ten-day calligraphy training.

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This change reflected the relaxed and concentrated state evoked by calligraphy. The act of brush handwriting results in physiological slowdown and relaxation, as indicated by the changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and skin temperature after calligraphic writing. These two seemingly contradictive physiological phenomena work together in a calligraphic act. The present study disclosed the role of frontal midline theta as a neural-cortical hub that integrates these calligraphy-evoked physical and cognitive responses observed.

A concentrated and relaxed state has also been found during such activities as mediation, memory tasks, and calculation, but none of these activities involve any motor tasks like calligraphy handwriting. The theta evoked during writing explains the unique state of mind-body coherence that was reached in our early research.

Theta wave is important for integrating different brain regions into networks [ 41 , 42 ], and thus increased frontal theta may also indicate improved network function. Meanwhile, frontal midline theta may constitute a neurophysiological marker of changes in cognitive networks [ 36 ]. In addition, considering the well-established link between frontal midline theta and positive emotional experience [ 29 ], increased frontal midline theta observed in this study offers deep insight into the neurological mechanism underlying the positive effects of calligraphy training on affective variables of anxiety and depression, as shown in previous studies.

This observation has provided clear support to the role of frontal midline theta as a neurological marker that integrates the evoked states of the body and the mind through, respectively, biofeedback and cognitive feedback during writing. This neurofeedback mechanism takes place rather unperceptively on the part of the writer but is through the hubbing effect of the calligraphy-evoked physical and cognitive responses observed.

At this stage, the cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy is confirmed as a multifeedback behavioral system which consists and integrates the sensory feedback, the bioemotional feedback, the cognitive feedback, and the neurofeedback in a dynamic process of graphic production. The variety of EEG waves takes place naturally and simultaneously in the course of writing; it shows a total involvement of the mind and the body in its production.

The character-EEG correlations, especially the consistent differences of EEG amount evoked by global and detailed characters, confirm the role of the visual-spatial properties of the character in causing varying EEG wave patterns. These findings have implications toward designing different character forms for promoting general cognitive health as well as for the treatment of cognitive disabilities or disorders.

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