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The Muslim American Society (MAS) is a nonprofit organization founded in and headquartered in Falls Church, Virginia. MAS describes itself as an Islamic revival and reform movement. MAS was created by the Muslim Brotherhood in the United States after a debate among Muslim . MAS Immigrant Justice Center.
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- Push To Name Muslim Brotherhood A Terrorist Group Worries U.S. Offshoots : NPR
Secular Libyan politicians have continued to voice concerns of the Brotherhood's ties to extremist groups. Changes to the demographic and political makeup of Mauritania in the s heavily contributed to the growth of Islamism within Mauritanian society. Periods of severe drought resulted in urbanization, as large numbers of Mauritanians moved from the countryside to the cities, particularly Nouakchott , to escape the drought. This sharp increase in urbanization resulted in new civil associations being formed, and Mauritania's first Islamist organisation, known as Jemaa Islamiyya Islamic Association was formed by Mauritanians sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood.
There was increased activism relating to the Muslim Brotherhood in the s, partially driven by members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. In the National Rally for Reform and Development , better known as Tewassoul, was legalized as a political party. The party is associated with the Mauritanian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. The Justice and Development Party was the largest vote-getter in Morocco's election , and as of May , held the office of Prime Minister.
In , a delegation from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt visited Sudan and held various meetings inside the country advocating and explaining their ideology. By April , the first branch of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood organization emerged. The Muslim student groups also began organizing in the universities during the s, and the Brotherhood's main support base has remained to be college educated.
An offshoot of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic Charter Front grew during the , with Islamic scholar Hasan al-Turabi becoming its Secretary general in To that end the party infiltrated the top echelons of the government where the education of party cadre, frequently acquired in the West, made them "indispensable". Meeting resistance from non-Islamists, from already established Muslim organisations, and from non-Muslims in the south, the Sudanese NIF government under Turabi and the NIF organized a coup to overthrow a democratically elected government in , organized the Popular Defense Force which committed "widespread, deliberate and systematic atrocities against hundreds of thousands of southern civilians" in the s.
Like their counterparts elsewhere in the Islamic world in general, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has influenced the Tunisian Islamists. An Islamist [ who? The Islamic Community of Germany de: Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.
IGD members take care to not publicly declare their affiliation to the MB. The Muslim Brotherhood is banned in Russia as a terrorist organisation. The first MB-affiliated organisations in the UK were founded in the s, which comprised exiles and overseas students. In their initial phase they were politically inactive in the UK as they assumed they would return to their home countries and instead focused on recruiting new members and to support the MB in the Arab World. In the late s and early s, the MB and its associated organisations changed to a new strategy of political activity in western countries with the purpose to promote the MB overseas but also preserve the autonomy of Muslim communities in the UK.
In the s, the MB established publicly visible organisations and ostensibly "national" organisations to further its agenda, but membership in the MB was and remains a secret. MAB became politically active in foreign policy issues such as Palestine and Iraq, while MCB established a dialogue with the then governments. In , the first representative of the Muslim Brotherhood in the UK, Kamal el-Helbawy, an Egyptian, was able to say that "there are not many members here, but many Muslims in the UK intellectually support the aims of the Muslim Brotherhood".
In September , the Muslim Brotherhood opened a "global information centre" in London. In April , David Cameron , who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the time, launched an investigation into the Muslim Brotherhood's activities in the UK and its alleged extremist activities. Several parties and organizations in Indonesia are linked or at least inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood, although none have a formal relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood.
PAS representatives are often invited to Muslim Brotherhood speaking engagements overseas. According to The Washington Post , U. Muslim Brotherhood supporters "make up the U. Islamic community's most organized force" by running hundreds of mosques and business ventures, promoting civic activities, and setting up American Islamic organizations to defend and promote Islam.
Establishing an effective and a stable Islamic movement led by the Muslim Brotherhood which adopts Muslims' causes domestically and globally, and which works to expand the observant Muslim base, aims at unifying and directing Muslims' efforts, presents Islam as a civilization alternative, and supports the global Islamic state wherever it is. The document was admitted as an exhibit to the court during the Holy Land Foundation trial, in which that group was charged with laundering money.
After the trial, the document became public. But, according to a opinion by the presiding judge, the memo was not considered 'supporting evidence' for that alleged money laundering scheme, nor any other conspiracy. The process of settlement is a 'Civilization-Jihadist Process' with all the word means. The Ikhwan [Muslim Brotherhood] must understand that their work in America is a kind of grand jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and 'sabotaging' its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God's religion [Islam] is made victorious over all other religions.
During the Holy Land Foundation trial in , several documents pertaining to the Brotherhood were unsuccessful in convincing the courts that the Brotherhood was involved in subversive activities. In one, dated called "Ikhwan in America" Brotherhood in America , the author alleges that the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood in the US include going to camps to do weapons training referred to as special work by the Muslim Brotherhood ,  as well as engaging in counter-espionage against U.
The documents continue to be widely publicized in American conservative circles. Congress attempts to pass legislation criminalizing the group, put forward by the th Congress, were defeated. In it the bill states that the Department of State should designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization. If passed, the bill would have required the State Department to report to Congress within 60 days whether or not the group fits the criteria, and if it did not, to state which specific criteria it had not met.
However, it did not pass. This bill came after a handful of foreign countries made similar moves in recent years including Egypt, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and others, and after, according to Cruz, recent evidence emerged suggesting that the group supports terrorism. The senator further alleged that the group's stated goal is to wage violent jihad against its enemies, which includes the United States, and the fact that the Obama administration has listed numerous group members on its terror list.
Cruz further stated that the bill would "reject the fantasy that [the] parent institution [of the Muslim Brotherhood] is a political entity that is somehow separate from these violent activities". The bill identifies three Muslim Brotherhood entities in the U. This group is regarded by the Egyptian government as a Brotherhood lobby in the United States.
Conservatives in the Congress believe that the group is a breeding ground for radical Islam. Previous attempts were made in the previous year by Representative Michele Bachmann R-MN , but it failed largely due to her allegation that Huma Abedin , Hillary Clinton 's aide, had links to the organization, a statement which was dismissed by establishment Democrats and Republicans. In February , the House Judiciary Committee approved the legislation in a 17 to 10 vote, which if enacted could increase grounds for enforcing criminal penalties and give permission to the Secretary of Treasury to block financial transactions and freeze assets of anyone who has showed material support for the group.
Bush administration, the U. The Brotherhood was criticised by Ayman al-Zawahiri in for its refusal to advocate the violent overthrow of the Mubarak government. He referred to the Muslim Brotherhood as "dictators" who want "Islamist rule in all the Gulf States". Abd Al-Hamid Al-Ansari denounced the Islamist and leftist excuse used by people with hidden motives, who say that Muslim Brotherhood people being tortured is a reason for radical religious extremism. The label of "colonialist movement" was used against the Muslim Brotherhood, which was accused of anti- Nubian discrimination and racism by Osama Farouq, a Nubian leader in Egypt.
The Muslim Brotherhood has been denounced by Bassem Youssef. Numerous officials and reporters question the sincerity of the Muslim Brotherhood's pronouncements. These critics include, but are not limited to:. Since the s, however, the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics".
The Brotherhood itself denounces the "catchy and effective terms and phrases" like " fundamentalist " and "political Islam" which it claims are used by "Western media" to pigeonhole the group, and points to its "15 Principles" for an Egyptian National Charter, including "freedom of personal conviction Similarly, some analysts maintain that whatever the source of modern Jihadi terrorism and the actions and words of some rogue members, the Brotherhood now has little in common with radical Islamists and modern jihadists who often condemn the Brotherhood as too moderate.
They also deny the existence of any centralized and secretive global Muslim Brotherhood leadership. According to anthropologist Scott Atran , the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood even in Egypt has been overstated by Western commentators. Polls also indicate that a majority of Egyptians and other Arab nations endorse laws based on "Sharia".
On 29 June , as the Brotherhood's political power became more apparent and solidified following the Egyptian Revolution of , the United States announced that it would reopen formal diplomatic channels with the group, with whom it had suspended communication as a result of suspected terrorist activity. The next day, the Brotherhood's leadership announced that they welcomed the diplomatic overture.
In September , Brotherhood leaders were expelled from Qatar. The New York Times reported: Countries and organizations below have officially listed the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization. In February , the Supreme Court of Russia banned the Muslim Brotherhood, labelling it as a terrorist organization, and accusing the group of supporting Islamist rebels who want to create an Islamic state in the North Caucasus.
In January , during his confirmation hearing, the former U. Secretary of State , Rex Tillerson , referred to the Muslim Brotherhood, along with Al-Qaeda , as an agent of radical Islam—a characterization that Human Rights Watch member Sarah Leah Whitson criticized on social media, disseminating a statement from the HRW Washington director saying that the conflation of the group with violent extremists was inaccurate.
President Donald Trump was considering an order designating the Muslim Brotherhood as a foreign terrorist organization. The Muslim Brotherhood was criticized by Secretary Tillerson. Human Rights Watch and its director Kenneth Roth oppose proposals to designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization. In a report by the Carnegie Middle East Center , Nathan Brown and Michele Dunne argued that "designating the Muslim Brotherhood a foreign terrorist organization may actually backfire," writing: The greatest damage might be in the realm of public diplomacy, as using a broad brush to paint all Muslim Brotherhood organizations as terrorists would be understood by many Muslims around the world as a declaration of war against non-violent political Islamists—and indeed against Islam itself.
The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt avoids directly implicating itself materially in terrorism while it supports terrorism with words and encourages it, according to WINEP fellow Eric Trager, who advocated pushing them into a corner instead of designating them due to issues with materially connecting them to terrorism other than with their words. Civil rights lawyer and adjunct professor of law Arjun Singh Sethi wrote that the push to designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization was based on anti-Islamic conspiracy theories , noting that "Two previous U.
Ishaan Tharoor of The Washington Post condemned the movement to designate the Brotherhood as a terrorist group. A Central Intelligence Agency CIA intelligence report from January warned that designation of the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization "may fuel extremism" and harm relations with U. The report noted that the Brotherhood had "rejected violence as a matter of official policy and opposed al-Qa'ida and ISIS" and that while "a minority of MB [Muslim Brotherhood] members have engaged in violence, most often in response to harsh regime repression, perceived foreign occupation, or civil conflicts", designation of the organization as a terrorist group would prompt concern from U.
Moreover, a US designation would probably weaken MB leaders' arguments against violence and provide ISIS and al-Qa'ida additional grist for propaganda to win followers and support, particularly for attacks against US interests.
Muslim American Society
An article in The Atlantic against designating the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization was written by Shadi Hamid. Qatar 's relationship with Muslim Brotherhood has been a persistent point of contention between Qatar and other Arab states, including Saudi Arabia , the United Arab Emirates UAE , Bahrain , and Egypt , which view the Brotherhood as a serious threat to social stability in those countries. Following the overthrow of Mohamed Morsi in July , Qatar allowed some Brotherhood members who fled Egypt to live in the country.
The Qatar-based Al Jazeera "housed them in a five-star Doha hotel and granted them regular airtime for promoting their cause"; the station also broadcast protests against the post-Brotherhood authorities in Egypt by the Brotherhood, "and in some cases allegedly paid Muslim Brothers for the footage.
After two months the diplomatic tensions, the issue with resolved, with Brotherhood leaders departing from Doha later in However, "from Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the UAE's standpoint, Qatar never lived up to the agreement and continued to serve as the nexus of the Brotherhood's regional networks. Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt made 13 demands of the government of Qatar , six of which reflect the group's opposition to Qatar's relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood and demand that the country cut ties to the Brotherhood.
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- Sensuality Singles: Midnight (Sensuality, The Collection of Bedtime Stories for Adults);
Debunking the Conspiracy Theory " ". Retrieved 12 March From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Society of the Muslim Brothers. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Iqbal s. Principles of State and Government Asad Ma'alim fi al-Tariq "Milestones" Qutb Governance of the Jurist "Velayat-e faqih" Khomeini Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Iranian Call and Reform Organization. Islamic Movement in Israel.
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Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 28 November Country Reports on Terrorism. Retrieved 14 November Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 9 March The Roots of Muslim Anger at America. From friends to foes". Retrieved 7 June Hopes to Work With Diverse Group".
The University of Michigan Press , p. Bradley, Palgrave MacMillan, , p. Retrieved 8 October What poll results reveal about Brotherhood's popularity". Retrieved September 7, Group Denounces Violence - Ikhwanweb". Islam in the World first ed. Pinto, "Sufism and the religious debate in Syria. Volume 95 of Social, economic, and political studies of the Middle East and Asia.
Armando Salvatore and Dale F. Brill Publishers , Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World , pg. Part of the Islamic Civilization and Muslim Networks series. University of North Carolina Press , Retrieved 29 December Archived from the original PDF on 7 August Retrieved 3 April Retrieved October 11, The Failure of Political Islam. Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 7 January Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan, , p.
Grim Prospects for a Liberal Egypt". Retrieved 21 April Foreign Policy Research Institute.
- Push To Name Muslim Brotherhood A Terrorist Group Worries U.S. Offshoots.
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Archived from the original on Shaikh Hassan al Banna and al Ikhwan al Muslimun 2nd ed. The West and Islam: Global Institutions of Religion: Ancient Movers, Modern Shakers. Finally, a significant number of advertisers in MAS publication The American Muslim, which often contain references to suicide bombings as martyr operations, were later uncovered by the U.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the ministry of W. Deen Mohammed, see American Society of Muslims. Retrieved December 16, Retrieved 6 December Center for Security Policy. Archived from the original on October 13, Retrieved October 22, One institution established during those years, the Muslim American Society, openly acknowledges its ties to the Muslim Brotherhood in a statement on its website. The brotherhood's role in Muslim American life became more controversial, however, with the rise of militant Islamist movements overseas.
An investigation into one Muslim charity with alleged Muslim Brotherhood links, the Holy Land Foundation , resulted in five employees of the shuttered foundation being convicted of having funneled money to Hamas, the Palestinian group whose military wing is considered a terrorist organization. The investigation uncovered some apparent evidence for those alleging the brotherhood had subversive designs in the United States: There is no evidence, however, that the memorandum was approved by the brotherhood leadership. The memorandum did not come to light until , during the Holy Land Foundation trial.
The president of the Muslim American Society at the time, Esam Omeish, disavowed the memorandum in an email to his board members.
Push To Name Muslim Brotherhood A Terrorist Group Worries U.S. Offshoots : NPR
MAS clearly and genuinely does not offer its Islamic program as an alternative to Western Civilization, nor is it bent on training its members 'to eliminate and destroy Western Civilization. The author of the memorandum no longer lives in the United States, but the document regularly is cited as an indication of the Muslim Brotherhood agenda.
Muslim American leaders, in fact, say that the Muslim Brotherhood is no longer active in the United States, and that the civic groups established with Muslim Brotherhood support are now independent of it. Largely as a result of the controversy surrounding the Muslim Brotherhood, its history has become a somewhat taboo subject in the Muslim community.
Abdul-Malik, who now serves as an imam at the Dar Al-Hijrah mosque in Northern Virginia, says he has found longtime members of the mosque are reluctant to talk about their early days as immigrants in the United States. The secretive nature of the Muslim Brotherhood presents a challenge for scholars studying the group from the outside. Vidino nonetheless believes the Muslim Brotherhood organizations abroad at a minimum have retained financial ties to supporters in the United States — a conclusion he bases on documents uncovered during government investigations of U.
Whether there is any sinister significance to the Muslim Brotherhood's historic links to Muslim American institutions in the United States is far from clear, however.