Guide Agrométéorologie des cultures multiples en régions chaudes (Du labo au terrain) (French Edition)

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Influence du climat sur la production des cultures tropicales (Influence of the climate on CJ () Agrometeorologie des cultures multiples en régions chaudes. [Agrometeorology of multiple cropping in warm regions] Collection “Du Labo au Terrain”. Translated from the French (with an Epilogue for the English version).
Table of contents

The bio-ecology of these groups and the means at our disposal to control pests are detailed along with many photographs. This book is not a collection of miracle recipes to achieve eternal youth but rather taps the knowledge of fifteen experts interviewed by a health journalist under the coordination of a doctor of physiology.

It sifts through the most recent studies and deconstructs many of the myths about diet, physical activity, the brain, pain, depression This book deals with the transition from current agricultural and food systems towards sustainable ones. The issue is viewed from a number of different angles within the realm of social sciences management, economics, sociology, anthropology and philosophy. The book provides food for thought and discussion around the following questions: What is the path that this transition could or should take?

This book, in epub format, is the result of 40 years of research on modeling the development and growth of plants. The authors reveal, step by step, the process leading up to the creation of the GreenLab model and the conditions under which it can now be applied. This book is a synthesis of twenty years of work under the Loire Grandeur Nature Plan. It describes the current body of knowledge on the functioning of the fluvial-estuary Loire River system, the effects of human activities and efforts made to maintain a lasting balance.

This book presents the main technological characteristics of tropical and 17 temperate tree species most frequently encountered in Europe together with their main uses. Timber industry operators, producers and consumers alike, are the main users. This atlas serves as an educational reference tool for teaching and training in the area of forestry and tropical timber.

The recycling of organic waste can be considered an agro-ecological practice which enhances soil fertility, reduces environmental impacts and promotes a circular economy. This book gives readers insight into the bio-geochemical processes involved in recycling organic waste and the products derived therefrom. It offers solutions for various social, economic and cultural contexts, North and South.

Fishing from the shore has always been part of maritime culture but the history of its practices and the evolution of its various techniques have not been widely disseminated. This book aims to remedy that deficit. The author explains how man, down through the ages, has engaged in what used to be a subsistence activity and today is a leisure sport. This journey through time shows the creative genius of man and the countless methods he has devised to exploit available resources. This book focuses on innovation in the agri-food system and the new paradigm drawn by bioeconomic approaches and principles.

EURAGRI works as a platform of exchange and discussion on topics of common interest pertaining to the organisation, orientation and outlook of agri-food research in Europe in connection with global changes. By now you are used to seeing drones flying overhead, both in the city and the countryside: An ambulance drone rushing a defibrillator to a patient, a pollinator drone Drone specialists, coordinated by a scientist, have joined forces with a reporter to give us a glimpse of the future of civilian drone aviation.

Learn how these new generation flying machines may gradually make their way into your daily life, and not necessarily in the way you might expect. Ranging from the establishment of indicators for urban planning to the measurement of coal stocks and including legal and economic instruments for soil protection, this book from the Gessol programme summarises the latest biotechnical and general knowledge on the subject. It underscores the importance of sustainable land management among global challenges and identifies possible levers of action.

We are being hit hard by the emergence or reemergence of a great many infectious diseases. What is the cause of this phenomenon? Could our modern lifestyle have something to do with it? In the light of the major epidemics that humanity has faced to date, what should we be preparing for in the future? What weapons do we have to protect ourselves?

What is research doing? This book provides clear answers to many very specific questions, validated by renowned infectious disease specialists and written in an accessible style. But , patients are suffering from it today in France. Moreover, Parkinson's disease affects , people and multiple sclerosis , Add a few thousand more who have fallen prey to Charcot or Huntington disease.

A stimulating and accessible book aimed as much at caregivers as patients You will discover the mechanisms behind these diseases, treatment options, hope from research and also some unexpected insights. The social life of ants has nothing to envy in that of humans: The unique, adaptive solutions that evolution has devised for ants are revealed here in everyday language and are brought to life by over pictures combining scientific facts with aesthetic charm.

This economic sociology book is intended for agricultural professionals engaged in the development of their production area. It provides the analytical and diagnostic tools needed to conduct a field study by taking a step back from the sector and developing a new approach to the land. It also provides food for thought on coordination factors and cooperation ties and offers a very practical analysis grid.

This work, unrivalled in the French-language, provides readers with an overview of the entire marine plankton ecosystem. It explains how the pelagic environment works, the methods used to study plankton, its biology, the biodiversity and ecology of plankton and addresses how human activity is interfering with marine plankton. Physical, chemical and biological processes are explained with concrete examples supported by figures.

This work presents an overview of resources and the use of fertilisers derived from waste in France, and provides key insights into how they can replace mineral fertilisers. It focuses on the agronomic, environmental and socio-economic impact of waste expansion and highlights how difficult it is to quantitatively assess the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials. This book, targeting the general public, reveals the beauty of snakes in France and their amazing habits.

It illustrates the biological features and morphological diversity of 4 vipers and 9 non-venomous snakes living in metropolitan France. It includes exceptional snapshots: The photographs in this book, taken in the wild while respecting their natural habitats, make a plea in support of these magnificent creatures that form part of our biodiversity and natural heritage. This book presents the biology and habits of wild ducks and also the network of players who interact with them.

This book is not intended as a mere natural history of ducks and humankind, but is rather an invitation to make sustainable use of the wild duck population and the natural environment in general in the context of a changing world. More and more frequently, in politics and in science and technology, we no longer take decisions or there are no decisions to take.

Nuclear energy, climate change, GMOs Several types of non-decisions are presented in this small book. In some cases they are a way often trivial of actually taking a decision. In others they are the result of mechanisms in which new globalised technologies play an essential role and ensure their deployment at all levels of society. Based on a specific experience relating to an artisanal fishery study in Senegal, the author shows that the role of statistics must sometimes go beyond that for which it was initially intended. When findings clash with reality at the conclusion of a research programme, it could be that there is no clear relationship with the initial question s posed.

That is when statisticians must get involved.

The history of INRA – science and politics

This book, written by a scientist who specialises in cocoa and is a chocolate lover himself, takes us on a journey around the world to discover the culture of cocoa and its processing. Step by step along the way we meet small growers, merchants, traders and chocolate makers. Nutritionists and law makers reveal secrets and guidelines. We view the process through the eyes of a chemist as we explore the molecules of the aroma and follow them during the fermentation and roasting of the beans.

Eventually we get to taste the chocolate and distinguish the different locations where beans are grown. Filled with the author's personal experiences, this beautiful book introduces us to the great history of chocolate, the saga of a delicacy known as the "food of the gods". Faced with advancing technology and their entitlement to exploit this living resource, farmers and fishermen are questioning their very livelihood and how to change it. This book examines elements contributing to the reasons to take action: The notion of countryside and rural areas is ambivalent: This book delves into the different facets of rural and suburban areas.

Their dynamics are part and parcel of contemporary economic and social issues, both in terms of demographics and lifestyles, economic activities and public policy: The upheavals affecting the countryside are the same as those facing the rest of France, but have their own particular effect. Recent territorial reforms in France will speed up the restructuring of public services related to drinking water in major urban centres and large inter-municipal associations.

Such reforms should seek ways to strengthen water security through public initiative i. Without water there would be no life on Earth. However, between excess and shortage, droughts and floods, against a backdrop of climate change, the water issue has become a major challenge for the 20 th century. Can we continue to consume water at this pace? Will we have to reduce our daily water consumption to preserve this precious resource?

How will we manage the risks associated with water and the conflicts they may cause. In a style as clear as spring water, this work gives us the essentials needed to better harness this vital resource. Just a rumour or a feasible prediction? An entomologist and a nutrition specialist have joined forces to take stock of past and emerging practices and discuss whether insects are a problem or possibly the solution to the food problems of tomorrow Written in a humorous and easy to read style, this book gives you all the information you need to form your own opinion and, who knows, maybe you will even include insects in your next meal Would you care for a little more caterpillar?

Conservation of grain once harvested is a key issue in the fight against food shortages and hunger. This book, a handy reference for all those working first-hand to reduce post-harvest losses, discusses the different aspects of grain conservation: This new version of the famous Glossary of Soil Science now defines more than specific terms and gives their English equivalent. The author develops his concept of modern soil science but the work is not neutral as dictionaries tend to be.

Here you will find a selection of truly useful soil science terms in French as well as many terms related to soil pollution. This book takes us through fresh water line fishing techniques from antiquity to , year marking the beginning of the new era of innovative material which gradually replaced the ancestral know-how to better adapt to the individual behavior each fish species. It brilliantly takes us on a country stroll skilfully combining ecology, biodiversity, history and literature. Over the last ten years, the concept of "ecosystem services" has become an essential part of our vocabulary when talking about biodiversity.

This book discusses the origins, causes and consequences of this notion; it delves into the origin and dissemination of the concept, its spread to different areas around the nation and its actual or potential implementation through instruments or policies. Social insects live in complex social organisations. They fascinate us with the flexibility of their individual functions, the diversity of their forms of communication, their behaviour and their collective intelligence.

They do truly remarkable things that constantly pique our curiosity and creativity. Specialists analyse the ecological, social, institutional and political dynamics associated with emerging infectious diseases. They show the challenges but also the opportunities taken up by the players faced with these diseases. The author traces, step by step, the multiple paths that biology takes in this search, its avenues and dead ends, its meanderings and forked roads, its advances and setbacks. What strategies has biology developed throughout its history to explain life? Coal, gas and petroleum - resources that are not inexhaustible - produce greenhouse gases responsible for global warming.

Plants could be a genuine alternative to these fossil products, at least partially, for both the energy sector and for materials and other products derived from petroleum. This book discusses how living resources are protected legally in France. It starts by tracing the history of intellectual rights and conditions for patenting inventions. It then focuses on how the processing industries have become interested in living organisms from seeds to biotechnologies.

Lastly, it looks into how the public authorities have intervened in the legal process, thus creating piece-meal systems on the right of living organisms. Tropical supply chains play a part behind the products we consume in the sustainable development of Southern countries. Tropical supply chains linking agricultures and other economic sectors are undergoing deep-seated technical, economic and social transformations. In a context of globalisation, the supply chains are involved in sustainable development approaches and incorporate environmental and social concerns.

This work is based on scientific progress and concrete situations of agri-food chains in Southern countries. This book deals with conditions and management methods for growing cotton in Africa, from seed to product use. It suggests agricultural practices and recommendations for the future, thereby helping to improve production of the cotton crop and the quality of its products. It is intended for all field professionals. Insects may well be a model of success in the genealogical tree of living beings, but their success lies in an exceptional treasure house of resourcefulness.

The first animals to conquer the air through flight, insects have invented reproduction by cloning, antibiotics, antifreeze, coded flashes of cold light to communicate, the breeding of aphids and gardening of fungi for food, genetic manipulations to slave their hosts, etc. Scrolling through the immense diversity of insect species, often humourously, this book explores their most intriguing features and customs.

As pressure continues to increase on natural environments, work on the multiple values of the biodiversity and ecosystem services can help in understanding better the interactions between nature and society, anticipating the disruptions to come and designing appropriate measures for dealing with them. This book fuels the society debate on our relationship with nature and underlines the major questions that should be at the heart of biodiversity research policies in the years to come.

Based on a presentation of agro-ecology principles and how they are applied to crop protection, this book analyses several full-scale participative experiments in a variety of contexts. It draws concrete recommendations from them for all temperate and tropical cropping systems, genuine keys in this sought-after agro-ecological transition.

Mycorrhizae are formed by microscopic fungi which work wonders in horticulture by working in symbiosis with plant roots. The scientific and practical interest of these symbioses for all plants has been demonstrated clearly in horticulture, agriculture, forestry and the environment. This new edition aims to make people understand the biology of mycorrhizae and how to take advantage of them in a great many aspects of plant cultivation and protection whilst maintaining natural balances.

This book invites us on a voyage of discovery to the North of Antarctica, from Tierra del Fuego to the Peninsula. The authors immerse us in this fabulous southern universe: Course for the Southern Ocean! Animal and plant production systems must propose new production models nowadays to contribute to the sustainable development of the planet. This educational and didactic methods guide can be used for a multi-criteria assessment of the sustainability of agriculture. How to choose the method and tools best suited to each situation? How and why to develop your own assessment method?

How to consider agriculture in its different dimensions and scales? What are the pitfalls to be avoided? The work gives an overview of the network and success stories of regional nature parks as territorial instruments. It puts their innovations into perspective in terms of the crisis in the rural communities, based on promoting the natural and cultural heritage and new territorial imperatives. It offers a critical view of the future of an institutional object that has huge flexibility to adapt to the challenges of combating territorial imbalances and growing metropolisation. This work is the first manual devoted specifically to rabbit biology.

It recounts the history of the domestic rabbit and summarises current knowledge. It also makes concrete recommendations on rabbit breeding practices for both families and professionals and for pet rabbits. Actions to develop rural and agricultural territories that are confronted by deep-seated changes in these spaces no longer inspire consensus. These changes result in new practices, based on new knowledge and new forms of inter-player coordination.

Researchers and practitioners will find in this book the methodological bases and examples of relevant tools to rethink territorial development. Whether one speaks of hazardous waste, cross-border traffic or the need to sort and recycle, waste is part of everyday life. But do we know what waste really is? Are we aware that even the stars produce waste? That life is impossible without waste? From a scientific point of view, waste is matter. Like all matter, it has the full range of potential, threats as well as opportunities; it can be poison or the source of life. This book tells the amazing story of waste through time; of that produced by the stars to the waste of our civilisation.

This work sets out the main ecological, social, economic and political issues of tropical forests. Local, national or international action instruments are recommended for each issue. It includes FAO data on the state of tropical forests and will appeal to anyone curious to find out more about the issues of natural resources. The author proposes a critical reflection on what he calls involved science. This refers to science which acknowledges its responsibility and is aware of consequences, science that entertains the possibility of questioning its aims and does not invoke axiological neutrality in order to assert its objectivity.

Involved science seeks to share knowledge and the power stemming from that knowledge. The author takes on the challenge of providing science with a new democratic principle which, rather than free it from the social turmoil in which it appears to be entangled, allows it to think in the plural within the depth of its radical involvement in reality.

Based on general questions on the innovative conception and evaluation of systems, this number explores different levers of radical changes being toyed with in livestock farming: Two articles round out the panorama by looking at listing innovations in livestock farms in France and the diversified dynamics of innovation and change in Africa. The book presents the different approaches to preserving the quality of grain stored in silos and legally authorised plant protection products.

It explains what becomes of pesticides throughout the different stages of grain processing and proposes strategies for the integrated protection of grain stocks minimising the use of chemicals. Avalanches, glacial-related hazards, floods and mudslides, slope failure and falling rock are experienced by all mountaineers.

Economic development based on tourism increases exposure to hazards; the catastrophe of the Grand-Bornand campground and its 23 victims being a case in point. This reference work, targeting professionals and decision-makers, but also the general public, explains these phenomena and explores protection techniques.

Private agricultural advisors have become key players. Based on survey work, this book analyses the strategies and practices of these private operators in different social and geographic contexts. It compares the reestablishment of the consulting sector in France to that of other European countries. How is climate change going to influence our day-to-day life? More alcoholic wines, greener dishes with less protein, creepy crawlies on the menu, more farmed fish in our trolleys, new tourist destinations, revolutionary transport, a changing landscape and a thermometer that goes off the scale, especially in the cities.

Our day-to-day life should be very different in ! Written in a simple style that everyone can follow, without doom and gloom or denial, this book may well surprise you. This educational work explains the formation and functions of wood in the tree and addresses anatomy as an identification tool.

Numerous illustrations complete the precise description of cell and parietal structures of coniferous and deciduous woody species. The examples chosen correspond above all to the French forest species but the bases of the anatomy of wood are the same for all wood anywhere in the world. This very comprehensive book reviews rennet and its substitutes used in cheese-making: It will be of interest to dairy manufacturers, cheese-makers, specialist schools and administrative departments dealing with product traceability and labelling.

The results of the international governance of the biodiversity must not be sought in any "mitigation" of genetic erosion or in establishing a little environmental justice, but in the forms of knowledge and powers that are built on the biodiversity and environmental services.

The gamble with this book is to examine this power of the biodiversity in terms of political economics. A book to find out everything about chocolate, from growing the cocoa tree through all the cocoa processing stages. Discover the secrets of its smell, the art of chocolate-making, its tasting pleasures and its virtues. A fascinating work written by a scientist specialising in cocoa and a huge lover of chocolate.

This book is original in that it establishes the link between landscapes and good bee health, as alterations to the landscapes can impact their lifestyles. It addresses the availability of pollen and nectar resources for the bees depending on landscapes, types of geographical area, vegetation and farming and bee-keeping practices.

A useful book for anyone wishing to understand the reasons for declining bee populations. Compensatory measures have in recent years become a major management tool in preserving the biodiversity. They are increasingly used in the new environmental regulations. This concept of environmental compensation raises many issues of interest to ecologists, geographers, economists and lawyers alike.

An invitation to journey through the world of marine birds which have colonised all the oceans of the globe, from tropical waters to the polar seas. The restrictions of the marine environment have forced them to adapt in remarkable fashion from a morphological, physiological and behavioural perspective. They hold numerous records within the winged fraternity never-ending journeys, abyssal dives or spectacular migrations and bear witness to the disruptions affecting the marine ecosystems.

Environmental changes have an impact on the distribution and abundance of birds and on the demographic, physiological and behavioural mechanisms. This richly-illustrated, scientifically-based work presents clearly the for and against of new living environments facing birds and some of the mechanisms they can use to adapt to them. What do we know about inputs and potential of legumes in terms of the sustainability of agricultural and food systems? How can they be used to reduce the damage and maximise the benefits for the environment, agriculture and man?

This reference work fuels the reflection on protein sources, nitrogen management in France and the relationship between legumes and sustainability. This issue summarises the knowledge acquired from all recent research into muscle and meat, including fish. It helps in understanding better the mechanisms determining the components of quality. The author relates unusual stories with tremendous humour, including the one about the little bug that blocked the construction of a motorway for two years or the one about "femmes fatales" or vamps in fireflies!

The eighth plague of Egypt may well remind us that, since Antiquity, men have had to combat certain insects that devoured their crops or infected them with dreadful diseases, but entomologists and nature lovers will understand here that consuming insects is a genuine hope for humanity. Soils are at the heart of major global issues.

Nourish the planet implies keeping them fertile without exhausting them. The soils can also contribute to reducing CO2emissions by forming "carbon sinks". In addition, they are currently threatened by several major risks, mainly erosion, salinisation, loss of organic matter and pollution. Far from the current tendency to see everything in black and white, the authors of this book wished to extend elements of knowledge on soil physics, biology and ecology.

Pesticides are today the subject of considerable environmental issues. This work presents the outcome of fifteen years of research financed by the French Ministry of Ecology on the reduction in environmental risks from using pesticides. It emphasises especially the transfer of results to support public decisions. What are its socio-economic challenges nourish the planet, protect the environment, adapt to climate change, organise the seed industry? What tools and methods are used? How are the main traits selected and improved?

The work answers these questions and ends by assessing what plant breeding has brought to farmers, consumers, the industry and society. The cockle is a major sentinel species in the operation of coastal ecosystems. This book addresses the state of knowledge on the deposits, reproduction cycle, health issues, regulatory provisions, stock control and the resulting operating possibilities. It is targeting scientists, ecologists and managers.

Fishermen, naturalists and marine biology students will also find it a source of useful information. Climate and environmental change are today generating human migratory flows, creating real challenges for international governance. Based on recent events, this book offers a representative panorama of different types of movements occurring already in the developing countries as well as in the so-called developed countries.

It discusses the potential of public policies and legal instruments used and wonders about the realities of these environmental migrations. Orange carrots previously white, yellow or red were bred in the Netherlands for the first time in the 17 th century. Beans, carrots and radishes were dwarfed in the 19 th century for growing in frames. Did you know that the Japanese considered the radish seed as a sweet? This book tells the story of about thirty vegetable garden species since their domestication.

Couplan Edition The author sketches 57 invasive plants from Western Europe on separate sheets. He describes their past and present uses, mainly their culinary virtues, and proposes recipes for 36 of them. From those you meet every day without paying them attention to those whose fruit you have already tasted without knowing them to be invasive Morus alba with edible berries, Rosa rugosa with hips chock full of vitamin C or Barbary figs and the "Acacia flowers" from which comes the eponymous honey via edible species close to species commonly used in our food sorghum, grape, Jerusalem artichoke , you will discover invasive plants with recipes that are as delicious as they are surprising.

This book suggests ten actions or agricultural practices to reduce them without substantial change to production systems nor a significant reduction in production. An estimated mitigation potential for each one in tonnes CO 2 equivalent avoided and the associated costs or savings in euros are given for This book explains how plants establish symbioses with other living organisms such as bacteria and fungi, with more detailed developments on mycorrhizae and nitrogen-fixing nodules. Illustrated by numerous diagrams and with summaries at the end of every chapter, it is ideal for rapid acquisition or review of basic knowledge of symbiosis ecophysiology.

What is the evolutionary advantage for plants to possess memory? When, how and where is the information storage produced? What purpose can recalling the stored information actually serve? What is plant memory compared with that of humans or animals? So many exciting and disturbing questions to which Michel Thellier replies with the requirement of clarity and scientific rigour.

A unique book available to a wide audience. It is now nearly half a century since the environment emerged as a scientific, political and societal issue. This works aims to understand its progress and failures and outline a few perspectives Jacques Theys has held a "spanner of borders" place between science and politics since the s.

It is an unrivalled look, through the multiplicity of analyses gathered, on the changes in environmental policies, their relationship to science, information or democracy, the place of forecasting as "intelligence of time" or the future of sustainable development that is proposed here. How can food security be addressed whilst adapting to and mitigating climate change? What are the main threats weighing on southern agricultures? How do southern farmers respond to these threats?

What does agronomic research propose? Which paths have yet to be explored? This work answers these questions with a summary of some twenty research programmes conducted in miscellaneous countries and which relate to the entire planet. Metagenomics has followed the genomics era and invaded the domain of biology. Studying the genetic content of a sample from a complex environment intestine, ocean, soils, air, etc. The aim of this work is to enlighten non-specialist scientific professionals on the possibilities offered by this tool to explore the various domains of agriculture, environment, food-processing and health by analysing living organisms.

What happens when a plant that has been cultivated for centuries far from the preoccupations of international trade crosses the oceans, appears on market stalls and fills our diversity-seeking plates? In a few decades, the extremely high nutritional value of quinoa has placed this plant among the major global food crops.

This happened with the potato years ago and rice a little less than a century. The author gives us a chance to wonder about what is taking place on our plates, on the agricultural models induced by our food consumption and on the biodiversity that can thus be maintained for the years to come. We have an innate taste for sugar, which is now found in all our kitchens and in numerous foods.

Was it always like this? Why does sugar taste so good? Does sugar addiction exist? Which sugars are most consumed worldwide? How is a sugar crystal or candy floss formed? What are the sweeteners of the future? The book is chance to explore in ninety questions the long and short history of sugar and sweeteners, the mechanisms of the sugary taste, the roles of sugar in food and its effects on health. Good or bad, smells give us information constantly on our environment, move us or bring back memories. This little book proposes following what becomes of the olfactory message, from the nose to the brain, to discover how our sense of smell, the olfactory memory, works and how the odorants trigger or modulate our behaviour.

The French Academy of Agriculture expresses its views here on genetically-modified plants through a dozen or so key scientific, agronomic, economic, legal and sociological questions that are being discussed in society, where the answers are neither simple nor obvious. This work traces the complex relations established by the plants with their biotic all living organisms and abiotic climate, for example environment. It addresses the main aspects of these relations and suggests a few notions of ecology to explain the importance of plants in all the ecosystems.

Without waves and ripples, lakes, seas and oceans would scarcely be more attractive than simple swimming pools. Sometimes their swells become monstrous, ferocious, killer: How are these ogres of freak waves born, how do they live and die? Do they come out of nowhere? Can ships confront them? Here are a few thoughts on rare events, anecdotes and scientific explanations within everyone's reach, livened up with photos and watercolours.

The link between green tides, nitrogen flows and agriculture has been established, but which agroecological transitions suit the region and how do we embark on them with the stakeholders in question? To respond, the players rely on the results of the research programme ACASSYA "Support agroecological changes in livestock systems in coastal catchment areas". This richly-illustrated work offers a representative panorama of parasitic agents encountered in fish. Based on the new phylogenetic classification concepts, it emphasises the biological properties, epidemiology and clinical effects of groups of organisms in question, in the light of cognitive advances made possible by the new biology tools.

It is intended for a wide audience, from the world of aquaculture to animal health and teaching as well as to researchers. This book aims to explain the nature and the force of links between the family and the farm. It is constructed around twenty case studies in miscellaneous countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe. The authors clarify "what makes a family", analyses the adaptations of the family nature and puts them in perspective with the territorial context and the public policies in each country. The impact of different methods of cultivating the soil tillage, direct drilling on the environment and soil states, on the biodiversity or on the climate are the subject of occasionally heated debates but which lack sufficient scientific and technical information.

What can we learn from the most recent investigations on the subject? Which innovations are currently taking shape? This work summarises the most recent knowledge in this area. This book summarises remarkable floods listed in France in to make the application of the European Floods Directive. It offers information on about floods and covers more than two hundred years, from to , with over half the events since It thus supplements the previous national summary by Champion This work outlines the general principles and recommendations on the raising of domestic animals applied to the Southern countries, especially tropical regions.

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These recommendations are important in a context of intensification of farms dairy, poultry, etc. They address the "new" and traditional farmers so that they can take account of constraints in the conduct of animals and maintain their well-being. This book is a highly-condensed work full of illustrations depicting the majority of fundamental notions about plant physiology.

It retraces the broad outlines of the evolution of plants before addressing various aspects of the descriptive plant biology, from the plant cell to the architecture of flowering plants and from photosynthesis to plant reproduction. This book reflects on the foundations of the rural economy by incorporating the societal components of rural life changes in rural employment, inhabitants, services, needs, environment, etc. It also deals with territorial dynamics of the environment, the role of institutions and governance in rural areas.

A panorama of reflections on changes in rural areas in France and abroad. In a context where the resources continue to simplify and where the rotations are increasingly short, crop diversification seems essential to reduce the use of agricultural inputs, especially pesticides. This work analyses the main obstacles to crop diversification at the level of the agricultural industries and farms.

It suggests ways of shaking up highly-specialised productive schemes and creating new ones. Arable crops have for many years constituted a laboratory for preparing an industrial model in agriculture. From a sociology perspective, this work studies the contemporary transformations of arable crops and shows how they still constitute, in a context of globalisation of agricultural markets, a hotbed of heterogeneous innovations, as productive as they are marketable or political, and also the preferred target of criticism of high-intensity agriculture.

Arable crops, as a practice and as political topic, thus constitute a driving force for the current transformations in agriculture. Since Antiquity, if there has been one mythical animal capable of terrifying sailors and coastal populations, it is definitely the giant squid! Writers and artists with fertile imaginations have given it extreme shapes and sizes. This creature symbolic of the deep has left legend to become a subject of study. Recent captures of animals have partly lifted the veil on the biology and ecology of this invertebrate, the largest and least known on the planet.

This involves specialists and politicians! This book is going to show us the contrary. Because we are all drawn to wonder about energy: Will this century be the golden age of gas? Waste, a new green petroleum? Why is there less tax on diesel than on petrol? Whether we are simple citizens, a regional community or a company, the answers in this book will help us to see more clearly.

The mechanisms of evolution are reviewed by a great museum specialist to explain simply the organisation of the living, the individual and also society as it currently stands. The latest scientific discoveries and concrete examples illustrate the comments. What is the future of shale gas and oil? What can we expect from nuclear or wind energy? Why must photovoltaic solar energy change course?

How can we improve the efficiency of our homes? Are wood and geothermal really lasting solutions? Which industry model to exist sustainably? Are large-scale hydraulics and coal monoliths that cannot be overlooked? Is the transition to "green" energy a pipe dream? This book goes beyond heated discussions to lift the veil on the day-to-day routine of the European electric grid and its new resource capabilities. Tropical forage crops used to feed the livestock are of crucial important in the sustainable development of hot regions.

The first part of this work is intended to guide the choice of forage plants and their crops diversity of forage plants and their uses based on environments and livestock systems. The second focuses on the growing and management of forage crops production techniques from planting to harvesting the crops. The challenges of woody forage, production of forage seed and the economics of forage production are also addressed. Reproduction has been researched thoroughly and enriched with new tools for exploring living creatures that have played havoc with our knowledge of mechanisms and renewed the concepts.

Over one hundred renowned French and international specialists have contributed to this reference work that summarises current knowledge on reproduction and its applications in animals and humans. This work attempts to trace the links between neoliberalism and the restructuring of universities and research institutes.

Having observed the numerous crises faced by higher education and research, the author shows how the neoliberal version of economics has been used to alter the means of undertaking and assessing public research, teaching and commitment. He describes the resulting transformations and argues his own position against them in this complex debate. Lastly, having paid particular attention to the ways that have not been taken, he concludes: What type of future society do we wish?

This work makes updated scientific knowledge of nitrogen flows on livestock farms and their fate available to policymakers and public and private players. It also identifies technological, organisational, structural or territorial options to reduce the pressures of nitrogen emissions from farms on the environment. The sea not only nourishes us, it can also look after, cure and participate in our well-being. An invisible component exists in this marine biodiversity - the microbial component.

Here perhaps will be found new medicines pain relief, cancer relief, antibiotics , new therapeutic approaches, new active ingredients in cosmetology and new molecules potentially resolving current problems in society. This book addresses a few of the opportunities offered by these micro-organisms and the hopes hinging on these so-called "blue biotechnologies". Air may well be what we breathe and gives us life, but it is also a category of thought, views, science and art.

As such, it is the subject of representation, knowledge and experience. Air has inspired mythologies, religions, has found philosophies, has engendered sciences chemistry, medicine and inspired artists; it has lent itself to being conquered, has been domesticated, tampered with and even poisoned.

The amenity areas in towns offer citizens many benefits and some animals new refuges. But how does this urbanisation assume that plants and animals - and man - can adapt to deal with certain invasions? This work presents reptiles in their diversity and also their customs.

It evokes a few stars flirting with the margins of myth like the giant anacondas or Gustave the terrifying crocodile from East Africa. Why are French farmers so afraid of the future? Why is our agriculture that was so brilliant and remains a jewel in our exports seeing its performances receding in relation to several of its competitors. What are the paths towards regaining ground?

Observer and enthusiastic player in agriculture, the author offers us a resolutely optimistic view of the future of French farming. Which social relations woven in country areas are now subject to the challenges of diversity? Under what conditions are the users going to confront their opinions, especially with the farmers? Based on surveys in the Dordogne, an exemplary department for new ruralities, this book analyses the logic of cohabitation at work in multiple everyday situations: Although the French standard uses girth, this cubage table for wood blocks or logs is based on diameter, to take account of the consistent and justified use of diameter in French-speaking tropical countries.

The current environmental crisis is accompanied by a crisis of the biodiversity and an epidemiological crisis marked by the emergence of new infectious diseases coming from wild and domestic animals. Could there be links between biodiversity and transmission of pathogens? Do biodiversity losses increase infectious health risks? Conversely, are wild animals and the biodiversity in the broadest sense influenced by the use of antibiotics?

Are the services rendered by the ecosystems - pollination by bees, for example, - threatened by pesticides? Have wild animals become, reluctantly, a sentinel for the healthiness of our environment? Intended as a reference work for students, biologists, naturalists and above all lovers of the sea, this guide is a complete catalogue of cetaceans worldwide.

The reader will find a mine of information on the lifestyle and biology of each of the 88 species listed, mainly the description, food, reproduction, longevity, observations in the field and predators. All the species have a drawing of the animal and sometimes photos. This book offers a multi-disciplinary, systemic state of the art on the influence of urban plants on seven sustainable development challenges: Each challenge is assessed based on experimental and digital techniques applied and the outcome of various planting arrangements found in towns.

Is the place of modelling nowadays in the sciences and even more in techniques wrongfully assumed? Do mathematics, the basis for the models developed by engineers, guarantee a useful and beneficial representation of reality? What savings can supposedly be made by modelling? These are just a few of the questions on modelling addressed by this work on its cognitive nature and its social issues. The emblematic plants of Mediterranean landscapes, the vine and the olive tree are a core element in agriculture and their products play a crucial role in diet and social life.

The analysis of landscapes featuring vineyards and olive groves sheds light on the issues of Mediterranean regions: Illustrated with maps and photos, the atlas educates the reader keen to understand these renowned landscapes and provides helpful insight into the future of the vine and olive sectors and their lands. Where does the spring water come from? Can a well be dug anywhere?

What are the threats to groundwaters? To whom do they belong? What are the advantages of exploiting groundwaters rather than surface water? Are the state and availability of resources known? This book answers the potential questions about groundwaters water tables and deep water tables.

Congress Abstracts pdf Documents. Résumés du congrès documents pdf - PDF Free Download

It provides an inventory of geological and technical knowledge and highlights the economic, ecological, regulatory, political and social issues of this fragile resource. So-called "herbicide-tolerant" varieties of sunflower and oilseed rape have been introduced in France since Intended to make weedkilling easy, these varieties resist a given herbicide, meaning theoretically that the herbicide can be applied without risk to the crop.

Cultivating such varieties has sparked social protest, resulting in herbicide-tolerant sunflower crops being denounced and pulled up as "hidden GMO". In this context, the Ministries of Agriculture and the Environment have requested Inra and CNRS to report on available knowledge on all impacts of cultivating these varieties. What is the relationship between basalt, amber and chalk? Is it true that graphite has the same composition as diamond?

Could it one day be possible to extract petroleum and gas from shale without polluting? Through one hundred richly-illustrated questions, sprinkled with anecdotes, this small book sheds simple, clear and entertaining light on the formation and diversity of rocks and minerals. What is the role of domestic and wild bees in the natural and farming environments? What does bee-keeping mean today? What are the verifiable and verified facts of alarmist reports on the death of bees and how many are simply rumours or anecdotes?

The authors answer these questions whilst taking stock of the reasons for bee mortality and possible solutions. This very readable book is targeting anyone sensitive to the crucial role of these incomparable pollinators and the repercussions on farming.

This richly-illustrated atlas sets out and comments on the morphology, successive sedimentary deposits and recent history of old river systems of the South Brittany continental shelf through two landscape scenarios over the last few thousand years. Where are we today in the place of women in family agricultures compared with men, in both Northern and Southern countries.

Based on very diverse field studies, this book exposes the need to analyse family agricultures from the perspective of masculine-feminine relations and social constructions that organise these power ratios. It addresses in succession the social management of male-female relationships in agriculture, gender inequalities in the definition and impact of agricultural and environmental policies and lastly the different approaches of gender in the food systems.

What mysteries and still unexplained resources do mushrooms hide? An original work that explains the complex functioning of mushrooms and unveils their surprising virtues, damage caused and their omnipresence in our everyday life. Mushrooms are in fact used in food processing and medicine and for agriculture and the environment. The book emphasises the evolution of communication systems and the construction-deconstruction phenomena. It is also a summary of cultural and technical characteristics that have gradually made man the author of his own evolution towards another species, a post-human, by altering the ages-old natural rules of speciation.

It is shown how evolution has produced a human brain capable of an increasing number of technological innovations whereby man can control reproduction, is capable of modifying the genomes, of increasing his understanding of how the brain functions, of acting on ageing and also of "anthropising" nature by altering it. The human and environmental observatories can enlighten the current issues of global change and globalisation of human activities, especially those affecting the biodiversity, the vulnerability of environments and regions, the impacts on the resources and the health of populations.

Taken from miscellaneous scientific disciplines, this work brings a free viewpoint on the topic "Think about observation and research in human and environmental interactions". What are these small creatures doing as they run, crawl, dig and fly in my garden? Are they harmful or beneficial? Where do they come from and why are they weaving through our vegetables and flowers as soon as our backs are turned?

Should we destroy or attract them? One hundred questions and answers that are both relevant and entertaining for anyone - simple gardeners, horticulturists or naturalists - who enjoys observing, finding out and understanding everything about these small inhabitants of the garden and vegetable plot. More than a hundred species including snails, slugs, centipedes, worms, spiders, butterflies and hornets are described with humour and poetry.

In a deeply-changing world, the huge challenge of the 21stcentury is to guarantee sufficient quantities of good quality water and food for populations. Scientists, farmers and industrialists must win the innovation wager to meet this challenge. How will our food be produced, processed and marketed over the next decades. During this journey into the future, we shall explore environmentally-friendly, "sustainably productive" types of farming, the potential place for genetically modified organisms, the urgency in reducing foodstuff losses, recourse to micro-organisms and algae, even insects and the ever-improving sanitary quality of our food.

Ecological engineering surging in popularity and is sparking increasing interest in terrestrial and aquatic environment management. Irstea scientists joined by ten researchers and practicians from other institutes have been wondering about the definition of ecological engineering envisaged as a design and action domain where mobilisation of the living is essential in order to restore, conserve or manage natural environments or those impacted by human activities.

Of two methods for assessing reciprocal hardiness in apple roots and scions, regrowing cold-exposed material was more cost effective than examining tissue; both correlated well with injury. In entomological research, persistence of the predaceous mite Typhlodromus pyri and its effectiveness against the European red mite was evident 6 years after its release. Mating disruption with pheromones gave control of codling moth in both research and grower orchards.

A promising apple maggot trap useful for IPM monitoring was developed through a collaborative study. A survey showed the stability of Venturia inaequalis populations resistant to sterol-inhibiting fungicides even when 40 Kentville repeatedly exposed to intensive spray programs using other fungicides.

Berry crops Productivity of certain lowbush blueberry clones was increased by micropropagation. Control of Monilinia blight on lowbush blueberries with triforine for up to 96 h after infection will greatly improve disease control by producers. A previously undescribed species of Exobasidium was found associated with leaf galls on lowbush blueberry. A survey of blueberry insect pests isolated eight species of naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi and a Bacillus thuringiensis for assessment as potential biocontrol agents.

Ornamentals Growth of the vigorous woody plant Cotoneaster dammeri has been characterized in relation to the Ca-to-Mg ratio in a container medium. This study allowed us to define optimum ratios for seasonal growth. Nutrient release patterns of mixtures of controlled release fertilizers has been defined in relation to incubation time and temperature. Release dynamics, related to plant growth and nutrient uptake in different woody landscape species, provided a model of plant performance and how it is affected by type and rate of premixed fertilizer.

Year-round production of this crop in Canada is now a feasible proposition. Food processing The modification of a commercial process, used for the manufacture of herb- and garlic-flavored oils, has provided high-quality, shelf-stable, glass pack products that do not support the growth of Clostridium botulinum. A new system for handling broccoli was developed to allow rapid cooling and maintenance of optimum quality until storage. In another study, shelf life of lowbush blueberries was successfully extended for 6 weeks in a commercial trial using modified atmosphere packaging in multiple units.

Storage A method was developed for soluble carbohydrate analysis using an enzyme-linked assay, microplate reader, and computer. This method has been applied to sugar analysis in potato and strawberry tissue and fruit juice. The degree of profitability of color sorting of strawberries for whole frozen or puree packs depends on yield and mechanical or hand harvesting.

In comparing organically and conventionally grown Mcintosh and Cortland apples, taste panelists perceived no significant differences in juiciness, sweetness, tartness, nor off-flavors at harvest or after storage. However, organically grown apples were higher in soluble solids at harvest and after storage. Organically grown Mcintosh were higher in sensory firmness at harvest.

Productive sites had greater organic matter content, oxygen diffusion rate, and porosity. Resources The Research Station encompasses ha of land on the eastern limits of Kentville and 74 ha of experimental plot land at its Sheffield Farm, about 8 km north of the station. The laboratory-office complex integrates the Research and Food Production and Inspection branches of Agriculture Canada as well as the western regional staff of the Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture and Marketing.

The research staff totals The Nappan Experimental Farm, consisting of ha of dykeland and upland soils, operates with a permanent staff of Le cultivar Bridal Veil, Gypsophila paniculata L. Comparison of several organic amendments with a chemical fertilizer for vegetable production.

Glooscap and Blomidon strawberries. Annapolis and Cornwallis strawberries. An exploratory study of reciprocal apple rootstock and scion hardiness with two methods of assessment. Variation in growth, spur density and yield of 'MacSpur Mcintosh. Effects of temperature and prey density on survival, development and feeding rates of immature Typhlodromus pyri Acari: Effect of pesticide applications on abundance of European red mite Acari: Tetranychidae and Typhlodromus pyri Acari: Phytoseiidae in Nova Scotian apple orchards.

GA3 and benzylaminopurine delay leaf yellowing in cut Alstroemeria stems. Factors affecting infection of lowbush blueberry by ascospores of Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi. Potential for the biological control of St. Late summer strawberry production in Nova Scotia with waiting-bed plants.

Photosynthetic response of geranium to elevated CO2 as affected by leaf age and time of CO2 exposure. Effects of selenium and vitamin E administration on breeding of replacement beef heifers. Viscosin, a potent peptidolipid biosurfactant and phytopathogenic mediator produced by a pectolytic strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

Forced air spinach precooler. Sources of heat tolerance amongst potato cultivars, breeding lines, and Solarium species. Pages in Ellis, M. Compendium of raspberry and blackberry diseases and insects. Red stele in North America. The strawberry into the 21st century. Timber Press, Portland, Oreg.

The use of histochemical analysis and stem colonization for distinguishing reaction of alfalfa to verticillium wilt. Changes with time of continuous timothy production in a long-term dykeland experiment. Arsanilic acid as a growth promoter for chicken broilers when administered via the feed or drinking water.

Influence of rumen undegradable protein levels on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Lowbush blueberry quality changes in response to mechanical damage and storage changes. Fecundity and development of the mullein bug, Campylomma verbasci Meyer Heteroptera: Sex pheromone of the mullein bug, Campylomma verbasci Meyer Heteroptera: The utilization of acid-preserved poultry offal by growing- finishing pigs. Michaud Experimental Farm conducts research on adaptation and management of horticultural crops.

Heritability studies of tuber shape showed control by one major gene with round shape dominant over long. The tuber shape gene was linked with a gene controlling skin anthocyanin pigmentation. Potato plantlets cultured in vitro showed significant differences in tuberization between cultivars following exposure to or 8-h daylengths. Late and early maturing cultivars required different daylength treatments to optimize the number and weight of microtubers produced.

Spread of this virus was fortuitously quite low in , the year that PVY n was first encountered in New Brunswick. Coincident with recent climatic warming, the incidence of the potato leaf roll virus has increased. The effects of wind speed and light intensity on the body temperature of Colorado potato beetle have been modeled. Although wind speed was difficult to measure under natural conditions, the model predicted accurately the body temperature of adult Colorado potato beetles in both sunny and shaded locations. Physiological saline solutions were formulated to reproduce the ionic content observed in the haemolymph plasma of adults and larvae of the Colorado potato beetle.

In perfusion experiments, the saline solutions maintained the tissues alive for more than 6 h. Animals and crops Dairy cows fed diets increasing levels of fermentable neutral detergent fiber NDF , but equal levels of total NDF, responded with a shift in energy output from body weight gain to milk. Total energy output was not changed. This study does not support the concept that NDF fermentability can be used to predict maximum voluntary feed intake. Taking a third harvest from alfalfa during the so-called "critical fall rest period" reduced neither yield nor persistence during a 4-year study.

A total of growing degree-days about 50 days between second and third cuts was needed to maximize forage yield and maintain persistence. The remaining fiber was less digestible to sheep. Voluntary intake was not affected. Computer software allowing dairy producers to evaluate the protein status of rations for dairy cows The New Brunswick Protein Program was developed and released to producers. Therefore, the animals were consuming rations only slightly above the level recommended in the National Research Council nutrient requirement tables.

Soil and water Measured 12 months after application, average concentrations of dinoseb in drainage waters from five systematically tile-drained fields ranged from less than the detection limit to 0. Persistence of dinoseb in the tile outflow was not affected by the history of dinoseb use other than applications occurring in the past 12 months. Mineralization of soil organic matter contributes to NO3 leached from soil.

Strawberries When used as an overwintering mulch for June-bearing strawberries, the row-covers Agronet and Reemay, white polyethylene, and white polyethylene plus grain straw all increased early and total yields compared with treatments using grain straw alone and no mulch. Fredericton 45 Broccoli In a study to better control leaf-feeding larvae that attack broccoli, we found the intervention threshold to be 0. This knowledge allowed us to minimize the number of applications of insecticide without decreasing the percentage of marketable heads. Lupine Best yields were obtained from seedings between 5 and 10 May.

Both yield and maturity decreased with seedings established after that time. This arrangement allows staff to collaborate closely and to communicate effectively. The station operates a potato-breeding substation at Benton Ridge, N. This isolated location minimizes the possibility of transmitting disease between the breeding program and commercially grown potatoes in the province. Michaud Experimental Farm at Bouctouche, N.

The land base at the three locations covers ha; the total staff of Difference in the transmission of PVYo to potato and tobacco by the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas: The effects of hay and silage on growth and rumen function in young holstein calves.

Intolerance to pea protein in the preruminant calf. Pages in Metz, J. New trends in veal calf production. Hormonal responses to bovine somatotropin and dietary protein in early lactation dairy cows. Inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in the cultivated potato: De Jong, H; Tai, G. Evaluation of potato hybrids obtained from tetraploid-diploid crosses. Variations in growth, spur density and yield of 'Macspur' Mcintosh. Using leaf analysis results to manage mature Mcintosh apple trees. Effects of enzymes and nutrients in a bacterial inoculant on quality of timothy or alfalfa silage and dairy cow performance.

Influence of canola fat on yield, fat percent, fatty acid profile and nitrogen fractions in Holstein milk. Correlation of phytotoxin production with pathogenicity of Streptomyces scabies isolates from scab infected potato tubers. Loiselle, E; Tai, G. Pedigree, agronomic and molecular divergence of parents in relation to progeny performance in potato. Small scale production of crude starch from potatoes.

Effects of triticale cv. Beaguelita and barley based concentrates on feed intake and milk yield by dairy cows. Considerations for tile drainage-water quality studies in temperate regions.

Leaching of dinoseb and metribuzin from potato fields in New Brunswick. A stationary large round bale shredder. Herring silage as a protein supplement for young cattle. Effect of forage type and supplemental dietary vitamin E on milk oxidative stability. Comparisons of responses in whole blood and plasma selenium levels during selenium depletion and repletion of growing cattle.

Responses of growing cattle supplementation with organically or inorganic sources of selenium or yeast cultures. Forage conservation in round bales or silage bags: The effect of feeding organically bound selenium and a-tocopherol to dairy cows on susceptibility of milk to oxidation. A laboratory study of the residual nature of some amendments on the reconsolidation of disturbed Salisbury silt loam.

Feeding behavior of the adult Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say on Solarium berthaultii. Fredericton 47 Pelletier, Y. Biological and genetic study on the utilization of Solatium berthaultii Hawkes by the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.

Performance of tissue-cultured primocane-fruiting red raspberries following chilling. Influence of degradability of supplemental protein and time post-partum in early lactation dairy cows. Rumen fermentation and milk production. Kinetics of rumen ingesta turnover and whole tract digestibility. Effect of bovine somatotropin and protein on rumen fermentation and forestomach and whole tract digestion in dairy cows.

Influence of source of rumen- degraded nitrogen on ruminai and whole tract digestion, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations as well as milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Return-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the detection of viroids. Pages in Viroids and satellites: High incidence of transmission and occurrence of a viroid in commercial seeds of Coleus in Canada.

Detection, distribution and long-term persistence of potato spindle tuber viroid in true potato seed from Heilongjiang, China. The effect of maleic hydrazide possium salt on potato yield, sugar content and chip color of Kennebec and Norchip cultivars. Librarian seconded in D. De plus, les bouvillons utilisent moins bien l'azote de l'ensilage que l'azote du foin.

M ndate The Lennoxville Research Station improves the productivity and profitability of dairy cattle and swine production for eastern Canada. Adding folic acid to the diet of gilts from the age of 8 weeks until the first half of gestation tended to accelerate growth but had no effect on the age at puberty or reproductive ability of the gilts.

Somatocrinin GRF given to lactating sows lowered their feed consumption in the 4th week of lactation and their fat reserves at weaning. Milk production of sows treated with GRF was maintained, indicating more effective use of crude protein in the diet. A test was developed to detect the genetic mutation that causes malignant hyperthermia associated with PSE pale, soft, and exudative meat.

The test confirmed that the mutation appeared more often in PSE loins than in normal loins. Body resistance of slaughter hogs to electrical current diminished in relation to the animal's weight and the amount of moisture in the soil. The effect of stray voltage may thus vary depending on several management and environmental factors. Dairy cattle Adding 8 or 32 mg of folic acid daily to reconstituted milk replacer improved growth of veal calves but had no effect on their feed consumption.

Treatment of mature and poor-quality timothy forage with ammonia increased supplies of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium for growing steers. Both hay and green forage contain more crude protein than silage. Proteolysis occurs during fermentation in the silo rather than during wilting in the field. However, steers make less use of nitrogen from silage than nitrogen from hay.

During the last 2 months of pregnancy, a daily photoperiod of 8 h versus 16 h allowed heifers to increase their milk production by 9. Consumption of a small or large quantity of milk stimulates the desire to suckle in preruminant calves. Satisfying the urge to suckle following a meal increases serum concentrations of insulin, which makes for better assimilation of nutrients in the diet. In part the variation in the superovulation response in cattle is caused by the state of the ovaries prior to superovulation treatment. The presence of a dominant follicle on the ovaries when superovulation treatment is started limits follicular growth and reduces embryo production.

Potatoes The technique for rapid multiplication of seed potatoes by propagating from stems and sprouts has reduced the time needed to develop and license a new potato cultivar from 14 to 8 years. In commercial production, a kg bag is produced from 75 cuttings. Other Turning windrows lessens the average drying time for forages by half a day compared with windrows left undisturbed. However, it is more profitable to leave the windrows spread out behind the mower and to rake them shortly before they are picked up, with no other handling. We have found it preferable to produce red clover seed on light soils rather than on heavy soils such as clay.

Resources The station staffs 90 person-years, including 19 professionals. It manages a ha farm and a dairy herd of about head. Swine are purchased as needed for experimental work. Fublications de recherche Research Publications Algers, B. Effects of creep feeding and breed composition on growth of heifer calves and milk production of their dams.

Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor infusion on somatotropin, prolactin, thyroxine, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I and blood metabolites in control and somatostatin- immunized growing pigs. Effects of a parenteral supplement of folic acid and its interaction with level of feed intake on hepatic tissues and growth performance of young dairy heifers.

Dynamics of growth hormone responsiveness to growth hormone -releasing factor in aging rats: Farmer, C; Martineau, G. Les cages de mise bas en production porcine: Farmer, C; Dubreuil, P. Hormonal changes following an acute stress in control and somatostatin-immunized pigs. Decreased superovulatory responses in heifers superovulated in the presence of a dominant follicle. Follicular dynamics and superovulation in cattle. Duodenal flow of nitrogen following protozoal inoculation of fauna-free sheep fed a diet supplemented with casein or soybean meal.

Effect of long-term administration of human growth hormone-releasing factor and or thyrotropin-releasing factor on hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows. Effect of long-term administration of human growth hormone-releasing factor and or thyrotropin-releasing factor on milk production, insulin-like growth factor-I and plasma constituents in dairy cows.

Effect of human growth hormone-releasing factor and or thyrotropin-releasing factor on growth, carcass composition, diet digestibility, nutrient balance, and plasma constituents in dairy calves. Effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid on folates status and growth performance of weanling pigs.

Physiological effects of growth hormone-releasing factor and its effects on the performance and carcass quality of finishing pigs.

C. M. Baldy

Effect of grain level and protein source on ruminai fermentation, degradability and digestion in milking cows fed silage. Effects of grain level and protein source on yield, feed intake, and blood traits of lactating cows fed alfalfa silage. The effect of protein source on the growth and carcass characteristics of veal calves. Pomar, C; Harris, D.

Computer simulation model of swine production systems: Modeling the growth of young pigs. Modeling body composition and weight of female pigs, fetal development, milk production, and growth of suckling pigs. A dynamic herd simulation model including reproduction. Characterization of the increase in paleness of milk-fed veal during refrigerated storage. Negative control by sandostatin on pancreatic and duodenal growth a possible implication of insulin-like growth factor I.

Effects of continuous stray voltage on health, growth and welfare of fattening pigs. Effect of feeding regimen on behavior of growing- finishing pigs supplemented or not supplemented with folic acid. Economics of swath manipulation during field curing of alfalfa. Salehi, F; Pesant, A. Validation of the universal soil loss equation for three cropping systems under natural rainfall in Southeastern Quebec. Potential of forage juice extraction from macerated alfalfa mats. Stereotypic behavior and heart rate in pigs. An automated chamber to simulated field hay drying. Reducing forage harvester peak power with a flywheel.

Self-loading wagon power requirement for coarse chopping of forage. Nycterohemeral variations of concentration of serum folates in dairy cows. M ndate The Sainte-Foy Research Station develops new cultivars of forage crops, primarily alfalfa and timothy, for eastern Canada. The Normandin Experimental Farm develops techniques for producing and using forages in central northern areas. Achievements Water and soil resources A study of potassium fertilization of alfalfa showed that increased yields and winter survival of the alfalfa cultivar Apica depended on the amount of potassium reserves in the soil, not on the amount of potassium in a form readily assimilable by the plants.

A study of different tillage methods in a barley monoculture on Kamouraska clay showed that direct seeding benefited the soil's structural stability from the 1st year of use. As well, the microbial biomass and biological activity of the soil were greater with direct seeding than with conventional tillage. However, soil stability resulting from a no-till method favored the growth of perennial broad-leaved weeds in the direct-seeded plots. Nevertheless, direct seeding combined with moderate weed control provided an economical return superior to that of all other production systems studied.

In a technology transfer project, two market gardeners successfully produced enough endomycorrhyzal inoculum for use on their farms. Host plants treated with endomycorrhyza were grown outside in containers about 3 m 2 filled with fumigated soil. The endomycorrhizal inoculum collected in the two containers inoculated enough flats of seedlings to produce 80 leek plants, about the number grown on 1 ha.

Forage crops An immunological detection test was developed that can identify timothy grass genotypes demonstrating a high capacity for nitrate reduction. This genetic characteristic is genotypically variable in this forage grass. It was shown that arctic strains of Rhizobium are more competitive in cold soils than temperate strains. Inoculation of legumes with Rhizobium adapted to cold would have the advantage of early and more effective nodulation, which would make for better establishment of the plant.

Arctic strains form more nodules at low temperatures than temperate strains. The primary structure of the DNA of the element of insertion ISRm3 of Rhizobium meliloti used to inoculate alfalfa has been determined. It has been shown with in vitro translation that expression of certain genes induced by low temperatures varies with the level of frost tolerance of alfalfa. Some genes induced by cold have been expressed in a specific way in a cold-tolerant alfalfa cultivar. Study of soluble sugars during cold hardening of alfalfa has established that a tetrasaccharide, stachyose, not detectable in unhardened plants, increases rapidly during acclimatization to cold.

This compound accumulates only in the tolerant cultivar Apica and does not increase significantly in the cold-sensitive cultivar CUF The existence of biological nucleation has been discovered in two species of Fusarium, an important group of pathogenic fungi that attack both legumes and cereals. Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum can bring about crystallization of water in a state of superfusion, the state in which it is found in plants under the freezing point. This discovery will eventually help us to better understand the pathogenesis associated with these fungi and will facilitate identification of these two species, which are difficult to classify taxonomically.

Sainte-Foy 55 A study on phytophthora root rot in alfalfa fields showed that this disease, caused by the pathogenic fungus Phytophthora megasperma, is not as widespread as had been believed. Problems of alfalfa survival in low-lying areas may also be caused by anoxia and the presence of the pathogen Aphanomices euteiches.

An immunological study has established that there is a direct relation between proteins found in the intestine of ruminants and those present in forage crops. The purpose of this project was to characterize rumen bypass proteins in alfalfa and timothy so as to optimize the supply of these proteins for ruminant nutrition.

Transfer to wheat of genes resistant to diseases of foreign species has been a difficult task up to now, both in creation of the Fis and the subsequent backcrosses. New culture media that now facilitate this task have enabled us to develop nine species of Aegilops and various other plant species as sources of resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus.

These media even allow for culture of proembryos of cereals. Narrowing the distance between barley rows from 18 to 10 cm has increased yields, head density, kernel weight, and amount of tillering. However, yields were not affected by seeding rates varying from to kernels per metre.

Dairy production Nychthemeral variations of serum folates were observed in 1 1 dairy cows under two different conditions — in dry periods and during lactation. The average level of serum folates was lower during dry periods than during lactation. When the cows were dry, the nychthemeral variations of serum folates could not be distinguished from experimental error. Resources The station is at Sainte-Foy near Laval University where one of the most important agriculture facilities in the country is located.

The station has a complement of 70 person- years, including 26 scientists and professionals. It operates with a complement of 24 person-years, including 4 professionals. A new intergeneric hybrid between Triticum aestivum L. Ahmad, F; Comeau, A. Production, morphology and cytogenetics of Triticum aestivum L. Thell X Elymus scabrus R.

Love intergeneric hybrids obtained by in ovulo embryo culture. Effects of manure application on carbon, nitrogen, and carbohydrate contents of a silt loam and its particle size fractions. Glucose transport by an arctic and a temperate strain of rhizobia. Caracterization of genomes of timothy Phleum pratense L. Karyotypes and C-banding patterns in cultivated timothy and two wild relatives. Saturated rates of photosynthesis in water-stresses leaves of common bean and tepary bean. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological parameters in calves.

Digestibility of nutrients and body mass-gain. No-fixation and transfer in a field grown mycorrhizal corn and soybean intercrop. Hamel, C; Barrantes-Cartin, U. Endomycorrhizal fungi in nitrogen transfer from soybean to corn. Genetic variation of the physiological efficiency index of nitrogen in triticale. Role of bacterial polysaccharides in the derepression of ex-plants nitrogenase activity with rhizobia. Yield responses of oats Avena sativa and alfalfa Medicago sativa to common hemp-nettle Galeopsis tetrahit interference. Influence of near-ultraviolet light enhancement and photosynthetic photon flux density during photoperiod extension on the morphology and lignin content of black spruce seedlings.

The partitioning of 14 C between growth and differentiation within stem-deformed and healthy black spruce seedlings. Chemical and biological changes in compost of wood shavings, sawdust and peat moss. Effect of parental genotypes, cross direction and temparature on the crossability of bread wheat with triticale and on the viability of Fi embryos. Row spacing and seedling rate effects on Cadette spring barley. Determination of ATP in soils by high performance liquid chromatography. Effect of low root temperature on symbiotic nitrogen fixation and competitive nodulation of Onobrychis viciifolia sainfoin by strains of arctic and temperate rhizobia.

Breeding for root yield in alfalfa. Organic matter extraction from soils with water at high pressure and temperatures. Evaluation of the strontium chloride-citric acid extraction as a soil testing procedure for phosphorus. The combined effects of Rhizobial nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on growth and cold acclimation of alfalfa Medicago sativa cv.

Induction of senescence-like deterioration of microsomal membranes from cauliflower by free radicals generated during gamma irradiation. Identification and nucleotide sequence of Rhizobium meliloti insertion sequence ISRm3: Il effectue aussi de la recherche sur: M ndate The Saint-Hyacinthe Food Research and Development Centre helps Canada's food and beverage industry to become more efficient and competitive, mainly by developing biotechnology and storage technologies. Achievements Industrial services One of the most attractive features of the centre is that manufacturers themselves can do research in the pilot plant.

This arrangement provides them with a high level of confidentiality and rapid technology transfer to get into production. A total of confidential industrial projects, involving different companies, were carried out in About manufacturers and researchers from 60 countries attended the meeting. Participants were interested in all facets of use of refrigeration, including food storage, and visited booths at the trade show.

Its goal is to achieve integrated development of small- and medium-sized agri-food businesses in Francophone countries. Scientific staff at the centre are lending their support in the planning of missions for cooperation between manufacturers from Canada and Francophone countries. Accelerated maturation of cheese Enzymes of Lactobacillus casei were produced at the centre. A Canadian company did a trial of their use in accelerating maturation of cheeses. This collaboration took place subsequent to work carried out at the centre on catalytic properties of enzymes.

Genetic studies were made on lactobacilli to improve certain fermentation properties. Production of microorganisms A process for the manufacture of immobilized and lyophilized cultures was developed under the Canada-Quebec Subsidiary Agreement on Agri-Food Development. The technology of immobilized cells allows concentrated cultures to be produced without using centrifuges or filtration.

These lyophilized cultures are more stable in storage at high temperatures and have high resistance to bacteriophages. Two companies are considering developing this procedure for commercial use. Production of new ingredients A new company is developing a process for reproducing anthocyans by culturing grape cells.

The project follows studies carried out at the centre on factors affecting production of anthocyans in cell cultures. Different potential sources of hydantoinases for synthesis of precursors of amino acids were evaluated. Study of anaerobic bacterial cultures found strains of Peptococcus that synthesized the desired enzyme. Hydantoinases were isolated in legumes, which indicates a potential for developing these plant substrates. The polysaccharide was made up mainly of glucose and galactose.

Modified atmosphere storage of blueberries In Quebec, blueberries are produced mainly in the Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean region. To promote regional production while ensuring a national supply, storage life must be improved. For the 3rd year, a procedure for storing blueberries in a modified atmosphere is being developed that increases shelf life by several days.

Industrial implementation will begin in the summer of , if all storage parameters are verified and identified. Electrodia lysis of food proteins In collaboration with Hydro Quebec, the potential for use of electrodialysis in fractionation and purification of food proteins is being studied. Traditionally this process has been used to demineralize sea water or to purify various kinds of industrial waste. A new process for electrodialysis now produces pure protein fractions without adding chemical products.

Interaction between food and packaging A model of gaseous exchanges in individual packages of fruits and vegetables has been developed. This model has proved effective for packages of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Using this software, manufacturers will be able to choose the most appropriate form of packaging based on the physiological characteristics of fresh horticultural products.

Bifidobacteria There is increasing evidence that bifidobacteria are beneficial to health. Added to certain foods, they increase nutritional value. This year's results will provide the industry with better procedures for culture and concentration of these microorganisms. Packaging In collaboration with the Corneville Company, the centre develops a process for modified atmosphere MA storage of Camembert cheese. Fungal cultures are studied to see whether their development is affected by MA conditions.

Potential use of milk by-products in bakery products A milk by-product gives bread a flavor similar to that of sour dough specialty breads. Two companies have expressed interest in producing this by-product and discussions are now going on. Processing of pre-rigor pork To determine whether hot boning of meat is profitable in today's pork processing industry, premixes of meat were prepared by adding salt and nitrite immediately after slaughter.

Results showed that these premixes are superior to traditional premixes in terms of functional properties. They have excellent chemical and microbiological stability. Partial denaturation of whey proteins Thermal denaturation considerably reduced the emulsifying capacity of whey proteins. However, combining a denatured and a native protein fraction produced ingredients with emulsifying properties that are governed by the proportions of the mixture. The native fraction of the mixture allows formation of the emulsion, whereas the denatured fraction gives the emulsion its viscosity and stability.

By controlling the proportions of the mixture the ingredients can be adapted to many applications. Lactococci Milk concentrate obtained by ultrafiltration has been dried and used to enrich milk for cheese-making. In practice, this method improves yields for cheese makers, most often to the detriment of the organoleptic quality of the cheese. The increased buffering ability of the enriched milk necessitates the use of more active lactic starters capable of producing quality cheese.

Studies have been undertaken in collaboration with Laiterie Mont-St-Hilaire to select proteinase-positive and -negative lactococci able to grow in milk enriched with demineralized powdered concentrate. Resources The centre uses a wide range of complex, modern instruments to carry out research, as well as a pilot plant with equipment especially designed for developing new products.

The centre, which has 33 professional staff, shares its premises with about 20 employees of the Quebec Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and a representative of the National Research Council of Canada. The centre has 80 person-years available. Fublications de recherche Research Publications Aalhus, J. Stunning and shackling influences on quality of porcine Longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles.

Coalescence index of protein-stabilized emulsions. Emulsifying properties of whey protein and casein composite blends. Phase separation in dairy products monitored by optical densitometry. Inhibition of undesirable gas production in tofu. Effect of medium on growth and subsequent survival, after freeze-drying, of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. The freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria. Postharvest response of two strawberry cultivars to foliar application of CaCl 2.

Cormier, F; Raymond, Y. Analysis of odor-active volatiles from Pseudomonas fragi grown in milk. Les transferts de masse dans le couple aliment-emballage plastique: P-galactosidase and proteolytic activities of bifidofacteria in milk: Accumulation of peonidin 3-glucoside enhanced by osmotic stress in grape Vitis vinifera L. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. Saint-Hyacinthe 61 Do, C. Effects of high ammonium concentrations on growth and anthocyanin formation in grape Vitis vinifera L. Effects of low nitrate and high sugar concentrations on anthocyanin content and composition of grape Vitis vinifera L.

Gas transmission properties of polyvinyl chloride PVC films studied under subambient and ambient conditions for modified atmosphere packaging applications. Simultaneous HPLC determination of organic acids, sugars and alcohols. Use of chitosan coating to reduce water loss and maintain quality of cucumber and bell pepper fruits. Mathematical modeling of gas exchange in modified atmosphere packaging.

Morphology of bakers' yeast and dissolved oxygen saturation during fed-batch growth. Cell water permeability and cryotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lipid content and cryotolerance of bakers' yeast in frozen doughs. Separation of proteinase from P-galactosidase of psychrotrophic bacillus subtillis KL Specificity, inhibitory studies, and oligosaccharide formation by P-galactosidase from psychrotrophic Bacillus subtillis KL Lamarche, F; Picard, G.

Complex formation between chlorophyll a and cytochrome c: Characterization of physicochemical forces involved in adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to surfaces. Bioluminescence assay for estimating the hydrophobic properties of bacteria as revealed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Repartition of water in plant tissues subjected to osmotic processes. Mass transfer in cellular tissues. Continuous production of N-carbamyl-D-alanine by peptococcus anaerobius adsorbed on activated charcoal.

D-Hydantoinase from anaerobic microorganisms. Adhesion of meat spoilage bacteria to fat and tendon slices and to glass. Role of flagella in adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens to tendon slices. Production and characterization of the polysaccharide from Propionibacterium acidi-propionici on whey-based media. Ramaswamy, H; Campbell, S. Temperature distribution in a standard 1 -basket water-cascade retort. Enhancement of fruity aroma production of Pseudomonas fragx grown on skim milk, whey and whey permeate supplemented with C3-C7 fatty acids. Effect of modification of storage atmosphere on phospholipids and ultrastructure of cauliflower mitochondria.

Salt stress on growth and acid production of Lactobacillus helveticus strain milano. Sugars fermented by Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC in relation with growth and a-galatosidase activity. Phenotypic characterization of Bifidobacterium spp. Sugar and organic acid concentrations during ripening of Cheddar cheese-like products. Spline smoothing in the analysis of fruits and vegetables respiration data. Joncas Administrative Officer T. Information Officer Scientific Support R.

Messier Computer science I. Librarian seconded in Fruit Crops N. Head of Section; Acarology O. Entomology Vegetable Crops G. Head of Section; Entomology G. Physiology of senescence M. Toxicology Chemistry and Engineering R. Ing Head of Section; Mechanization A. Les pommiers sur M. Le Bacillus thuringiensis var. M ndate The Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Research Station develops environmentally sustainable techniques and systems of horticultural production.

The L'Assomption Experimental Farm develops ornamental crops and alternative crops for tobacco. This book has contributions from more than 30 specialists in biological pest control. Vegetables for processing Researchers have developed methods to detect insects, diseases, and weeds in crops of peas, green beans, and sweet corn grown for processing. Their produce can be harvested completely from the ground.

Apple trees on M. Oblique-banded leaf roller Oblique-banded leaf rollers collected in orchards in Quebec have become resistant to three common synthetic insecticides: Plum curculio This insect winters in wooded areas and migrates to the edges of apple orchards in spring. It can be controlled well by treating only the orchard perimeter with a chemical insecticide.

  • .
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  • Green tides;
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Tarnished plant bug Crystalline inclusions characteristic of B. Molecular characterization of this strain is now being carried out. Nematodes The commercial organic nematicide ClandoSan proved ineffective in reducing nematode populations in nodules in the soil of hothouse tomatoes. The procedure is costly and toxic to plants, and there is rapid reinfestation by nematodes from untreated deep water. Red stele in strawberries After evaluation in the field of 14 strawberry genotypes, Annapolis and Sparkle were most resistant to Phytophthora fragariae. Other high-yield cultivars were all susceptible.

Small fruits More developed and higher yielding plants were obtained from plantings done in May under black polyethylene. Molecular engineering A rapid method for analyzing plant DNA uses small samples taken from leaves with a paper punch. The analysis permits us to see a specific DNA sequence. We can thus link certain genetic markers of different polymorphisms among lines of the same species. This method was used in certifying canola hybrids.

Image analysis Researchers have automated measurement of the diameter and vertical speed of bubbles in high-pressure water scrubbers. Ornamentals Two new cultivars of winterhardy roses in the Explorer series were submitted for registration. Frontenac is a bush of average size with abundant dark- pink flowers. Simon Fraser is low-growing and long blooming with medium-pink flowers.

After 2 years of control in corn, the population was reduced to below the level where it is harmful to the next crop. Resources The station's complement of 70 person-years includes 19 professionals. It has three substations: Frelighsburg ha grows fruit; L'Acadie 86 ha grows vegetables and small fruits in mineral soil; Sainte-Clotilde 32 ha grows vegetables in organic soil.

The station is also responsible for L'Assomption Experimental Farm ha , which employs 6 professionals out of a total of 20 person- years. Its substation at Lavaltrie has 25 ha. Chemical analysis of the emblic Phyllanthus emblica L. Nutritive value of the chebulic myrobalan Terminalia chebula Retz. Effects of preplant soil fumigation on nematode population densities on growth and yield of raspberry. Azinphos-methyl residues in apples and spatial distribution of fluorescein in vase-shaped apple trees.

Blain, F; Berstein, M. Phytotoxicity and pathogenicity of Fusarium roseum to red clover. Density dependence of Anaphes sordidatus Hymenoptera: Mymaridae parasitism on eggs of Listronotus oregonensis Coleoptera: Pages in Wajnberg, E. Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu 65 Clegg, B. Propachlor and 7V-isopropylaniline residues in onions Allium cepa and organic soils. Pollinators of cultivated strawberry in Quebec.

Le Producteur Plus l 3: Interactions between Puthium tracheiphilum, Meloidogyne hapla and Pratylenchus penetrans on lettuce. Promising winter hardy apple rootstocks from a breeding program at Morden, Manitoba. Evaluation of resistance of maize germplasm to the univoltine European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner and relationship with maize maturity in Quebec. Response of maize inbred lines to two European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis strains in Canada.

Controlling temperature by microcomputer. Evaluation of strawberry cultivars with different degrees of resistance to red stele. Influence of winter protection on earliness of strawberry production. Mailloux, G; Bostanian, N. The phenological development of strawberry plants and its relation to tarnished plant bug seasonal abundance. Effects of nitrogen fertilization and HPS supplementary lighting on vegetable transplant production. Nitrogen fertilization and HPS supplementary lighting influence vegetable transplant production.

Digital analysis of spray samples. Characterization of resistance to early blight in three potato cultivars: Activity of adult plum curculio Coleoptera: Curculionidae on apple trees in Spring. Comparison of a pneumatic conveyor and a bucket elevator on an energy and economic basis. Hammermill drilled screen evaluation on an energy and economic basis.

Evidence for regional differences in the response of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana Lepidoptera: Tortricidae to sex pheromone blends. Vigneault, C; Raghavan, G. High pressure water scrubber for O2 pull-down in controlled atmosphere storage. Vigneault, C; Granger, R. Mini-chambers for lab-scale research on controlled atmosphere storage. Agric, ASAE, 7 5: Vigneault, C; St-Amour, G.

Use of a temperature integrator to control ice-making using cold outside air. Tree trunk measuring device. Vincent, C; Coderre, D. Blackheart injury in "Starkspur Supreme Delicious" on nine rootstocks in the NC cooperative planting. Simulation model for the population dynamics of the carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis Coleoptera: Analysis of time-varying survival rates of Listronotus oregonensis Coleoptera: Monitoring the sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rond.

Muscidae and related species in Burkina Faso. In addition, it develops new management practices for fine-textured soils. Achievements Cereals A new soft white winter wheat cultivar, AC Ron, has been bred and is being registered. Staff have developed instruments that automatically measure and sample surface runoff and subsurface drainage in field experimental plots. They have installed an automatic system at the Harrow Research facility at Woodslee, Ont.

This system is to develop soil and crop management systems of corn production to abate nitrogen and pesticide transport from agricultural practices. A limited amount of breeder seed was distributed to select seed growers. AC Harblack is a medium-maturing erect plant type with improved yield potential. It has improved resistance to anthracnose disease.

The cooked bean has a firm texture. Two lines of white bean germplasm, HR14 and HR20, were released. These lines are semideterminate and have an upright plant type with high podding nodes and narrow canopy. These characteristics make them suitable for use in developing cultivars for solid seeding and direct combining. HR14 matures early; HR20 matures late. Both lines are high yielding but lack good cooking quality owing to their soft texture. Oilseeds A new soybean gene for resistance to Phytophthora root rot has been obtained from the unadapted Nezumisaya cultivar from Japan.

Nezumisaya , provides an alternative source of resistance to prevalent races in Ontario. In addition, resistance to seed mold caused by Phomopsis has been obtained from Nezumisaya. This resistance will make it possible to develop Phomopsis-resistant soybean cultivars for Canada.