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Editorial Reviews. Review. "Anyone interested in exploring JFK assassination conspiracy theories should read the Warren Commission Report, the House.
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Milteer was secretly tape-recorded thirteen days before the assassination telling Miami police informant William Somersett that the murder of Kennedy was "in the working". Milteer died in when a heater exploded in his house. The House Select Committee on Assassinations investigated the allegation "that a statistically improbable number of individuals with some direct or peripheral association with the Kennedy assassination died as a result of that assassination, thereby raising the specter of conspiracy".
Author Gerald Posner said that Marrs's list was taken from the group of about 10, people connected even in the most tenuous way to the assassination, including people identified in the official investigations, as well as the research of conspiracy theorists. Posner also said that it would be surprising if a hundred people out of ten thousand did not die in "unnatural ways".
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He noted that over half of the people on Marrs's list did not die mysteriously, but of natural causes, such as Secret Service agent Roy Kellerman , who died of heart failure at age 69 in , long after the Kennedy assassination, but is on Marrs's list as someone whose cause of death is "unknown". Posner also pointed out that many prominent witnesses and conspiracy researchers continue to live long lives. Allegations saying that the evidence against Oswald was either planted, forged, or tampered with has been a main argument among anybody who believe a conspiracy has taken place.
Some assassination researchers assert that witness statements indicating a conspiracy were ignored by the Warren Commission.
In , Josiah Thompson stated that the Commission ignored the testimonies of seven witnesses who saw gunsmoke right by the stockade fence on the grassy knoll, as well as an eighth witness who smelled gunpowder by the time the assassination occurred. Other researchers reported that witnesses who captured the assassination via photographs or film had their cameras confiscated by police or other authorities. Author Jim Marrs and documentary producer Nigel Turner both presented the account of Gordon Arnold who said that his film of the motorcade was taken by two policemen shortly after the assassination.
She also said that after the assassination, she was contacted at work by two men who she thought "[ According to Oliver, the men told her that they wanted to develop her film and return it to her within ten days, but they never did so. Richard Buyer and others have complained that many documents pertaining to the assassination have been withheld over the years, including documents from investigations made by the Warren Commission, the House Select Committee on Assassinations, and the Church Committee. Some documents still are not scheduled for release until Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of However, some of the material released contains redacted sections.
Tax return information, which identified employers and sources of income, has not yet been released. The existence of several secret documents related to the assassination, as well as the long period of secrecy, suggests to some the possibility of a cover-up. One historian noted, "There exists widespread suspicion about the government's disposition of the Kennedy assassination records stemming from the beliefs that Federal officials 1 have not made available all Government assassination records even to the Warren Commission, Church Committee, House Assassination Committee and 2 have heavily redacted the records released under FOIA in order to cover up sinister conspiracies.
Some researchers have alleged that various items of physical evidence have been tampered with, including the "single bullet" also known as the "magic bullet" by some critics of official explanations , various bullet cartridges and fragments, the presidential limousine 's windshield, the paper bag in which the Warren Commission said Oswald hid the rifle, the so-called "backyard" photos depicting Oswald holding the rifle, the Zapruder film, the photographs and radiographs obtained at Kennedy's autopsy, and the president's dead body itself.
Among the evidence against Oswald are photographs of him holding a Carcano rifle — the weapon identified by the Warren Commission as the assassination weapon — in his backyard. The House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that the Oswald photos are genuine  and Oswald's wife, Marina , said that she took them. In , after the HSCA had disbanded, Groden said that four autopsy photographs showing the back of Kennedy's head were forged to hide a wound fired from a second gunman.
Robert Blakey , in response to the allegations, stated that the "suggestion that the committee would participate in a cover-up is absurd"  and that Groden was "not competent to make a judgment on whether [or not] a photograph has been altered". The House Select Committee on Assassinations described the Zapruder film as "the best available photographic evidence of the number and timing of the shots that struck the occupants of the presidential limousine".
John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories
In his book Best Evidence , author David Lifton presented the thesis that President Kennedy's dead body had been altered between the Dallas hospital and the autopsy site at Bethesda for the purposes of creating erroneous conclusions about the number and direction of the shots. The Warren Commission found that the shots that killed Kennedy and wounded Connally were fired from an Italian 6. Weitzman signed an affidavit the following day describing the weapon as a "7. I saw it when it was first pulled from its hiding place, and I am not alone in describing it as a Mauser. Carl Day both might have been conspirators.
Addressing "speculation and rumors", the Warren Commission identified Weitzman as "the original source of the speculation that the rifle was a Mauser" and stated that "police laboratory technicians subsequently arrived and correctly identified the [murder] weapon as a 6. The Warren Commission determined that three bullets were fired at the presidential motorcade.
One of the three bullets missed the vehicle entirely; another bullet hit President Kennedy and passed through his body before striking Governor Connally; and the third bullet was the fatal head shot to the President. Some claim that the bullet that passed through President Kennedy's body and hit Governor Connally — dubbed by critics of the Commission as the "magic bullet" — was missing too little mass to account for the total weight of bullet fragments later found by the doctors who operated on Connally at Parkland Hospital.
Those making this claim included the governor's chief surgeon, Dr. Thompson added up the weight of the bullet fragments listed in the doctor reports and concluded that their total weight "could" have been less than the mass missing from the bullet. With Connally's death in , forensic pathologist Dr. Cyril Wecht and the Assassination Archives and Research Center petitioned Attorney General Janet Reno to recover the remaining bullet fragments from Connally's body, contending that the fragments would disprove the Warren Commission's single-bullet , single-gunman conclusion. The Justice Department replied that it "[ The Warren Commission concluded that "three shots were fired from the Texas School Book Depository in a time period ranging from approximately 4.
They point to evidence that brings into question the number of shots fired, the origin of the shots, and Oswald's ability to accurately fire three shots in such a short amount of time. These researchers suggest that multiple gunmen were involved. Based on the "consensus among the witnesses at the scene" and "in particular the three spent cartridges", the Warren Commission determined that "the preponderance of the evidence indicated that three shots were fired".
The Warren Commission, and later the House Select Committee on Assassinations, concluded that one of the shots hit President Kennedy in "the back of his neck", exited his throat, and struck Governor Connally in the back, exited the Governor's chest, shattered his right wrist, and implanted itself in his left thigh.
Mary Moorman said in a TV interview that immediately after the assassination, there were either three or four shots close together, that shots were still being fired after the fatal head shot, and that she was in the line of fire. On the day of the assassination, Nellie Connally was seated in the presidential car next to Governor Connally, who was her husband. In her book From Love Field: Our Final Hours , she said she believed that her husband was hit by a bullet separate from the two that hit Kennedy. The Warren Commission concluded that all of the shots fired at President Kennedy came from the sixth-floor window at the southeast corner of the Texas School Book Depository.
The Commission based its conclusion on the "cumulative evidence of eyewitnesses, firearms and ballistic experts and medical authorities", including onsite testing, as well as analysis of films and photographs conducted by the FBI and the US Secret Service. In , the House Select Committee on Assassinations agreed to publish a report from Warren Commission critic Robert Groden , in which he named "nearly [two] dozen suspected firing points in Dealey Plaza".
According to some assassination researchers, the grassy knoll was identified by most witnesses as the area from where shots were fired. In , Esquire magazine credited Feldman with "advanc[ing] the theory that there were two assassins: Lee Bowers operated a railroad tower that overlooked the parking lot on the north side of the grassy knoll.
He reported that he saw two men behind the grassy knoll's stockyard fence before the shooting took place. The men did not appear to be acting together or doing anything suspicious. After the shooting, Bowers said that one of the men remained behind the fence and lost track of the second man whose clothing blended into the foliage. When interviewed by Mark Lane, Bowers noted that he saw something that attracted his attention, either a flash of light or smoke from the knoll, allowing him to believe "something out of the ordinary" had occurred there.
Bowers told Lane that he heard three shots, the last two in quick succession. He stated that there was no way they could have been fired from the same exact rifle. He viewed the presidential motorcade from the Terminal Annex Building's roof. In an interview with Mark Lane, Price said that he believed the shots came from "just behind the picket fence where it joins the [triple] underpass".
Several conspiracy theories posit that at least one shooter was located in the Dal-Tex Building , located across the street from the Texas School Book Depository. Fletcher Prouty , the physical location of James Tague when he was injured by a bullet fragment is not consistent with the trajectory of a missed shot from the Texas School Book Depository, leading Prouty to theorize that Tague was instead wounded by a missed shot from the second floor of the Dal-Tex Building. Some assassination researchers claim that FBI photographs of the presidential limousine show a bullet hole in its windshield above the rear-view mirror, and a crack in the windshield itself.
Whitaker said that the limousine's removed windshield had a through-and-through bullet hole from the front. He said that he was directed by one of Ford's vice presidents to use the windshield as a template to fabricate a new windshield for installation in the limousine. Whitaker also said he was told to destroy the old one. Film and photographic evidence of the assassination have led viewers to different conclusions regarding the origin of the shots. When the fatal shot was fired, the President's head and upper torso moved backwards — indicating, to many observers, a shot from the right front.
Sherry Gutierrez, a certified crime scene and bloodstain pattern analyst, concluded that "the [fatal] head injury to President Kennedy was the result of a single gunshot fired from the right front of the President. According to the House Select Committee on Assassinations, a Dictabelt recording of the Dallas Police Department radio dispatch transmissions from the day of the assassination was analyzed to "resolve questions concerning the number, timing, and origin of the shots fired in Dealey Plaza". McLain escorting the motorcade  and that "the scientific acoustical evidence established a high probability that two gunmen fired at President John F.
The acoustical analysis firm hired by the Committee recommended that they conduct an acoustical reconstruction of the assassination in Dealey Plaza so they could determine if any of the six impulse patterns on the dispatch tape were fired either from the Texas School Book Depository or from the grassy knoll. The reconstruction entailed firing from two locations in Dealey Plaza — the depository and the knoll—at particular target locations and recording the sounds through various microphones.
The purpose for this was to determine if the sequences of impulses recorded during the reconstruction would match any of those within the dispatch tape. If they showed a positive result, then it would be possible to figure out if the impulse patterns on the dispatch tape were caused by shots fired from the depository and the knoll. In , at the behest of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, members of the Dallas Police Pistol Team participated in an acoustical reconstruction in which they would fire rifles and pistols from any of the locations selected by the researchers.
During this reconstruction, the Dallas Police marksmen had no difficulty in hitting the targets. The Committee's firearms experts "[ The acoustical evidence has since been discredited. McLain, from whose motorcycle radio the HSCA acoustic experts said the Dictabelt evidence came,   has repeatedly stated that he was not yet in Dealey Plaza once the assassination occurred.
In , a panel of 12 scientists appointed by the National Academy of Sciences , including Nobel laureates Norman Ramsey and Luis Alvarez , unanimously concluded that the acoustic evidence submitted to the HSCA was "seriously flawed", was recorded after the President was shot, and did not indicate any additional gunshots. Thomas wrote that the NAS investigation was itself flawed. He concluded that with a Ralph Linsker and several members of the original NAS team reanalyzed the timings of the recordings and reaffirmed the earlier conclusion of the NAS report that the alleged shot sounds were recorded approximately one minute after the assassination.
Some researchers have pointed to the large number of doctors and nurses at Parkland hospital who reported that a major portion of the back of the President's head may have been blown out, which strongly suggests that he was hit from the front. Some critics skeptical of the official " single bullet theory " have stated that the bullet's trajectory, which hit Kennedy above the right shoulder blade and passed through his neck according to the autopsy , would have had to change course to pass through Connally's rib cage and fracture his wrist. George Burkley , locates the bullet at "about the level of the third thoracic vertebra " — which some claim was not high enough to exit his throat.
The autopsy descriptive sheet displays a diagram of the President's body with the same low placement at the third thoracic vertebra. There is a conflicting testimony regarding the autopsy performed on Kennedy's body, particularly during the examination on his brain and whether or not the photos submitted as evidence are the same as those taken during the examination.
Supporting Horne was Dr. Gary Aguilar, who stated, "According to Horne's findings, the second brain — which showed an exit wound in the front — allegedly replaced Kennedy's real brain — which revealed much greater damage to the rear, consistent with an exit wound and thus evidence of a shot from the front. Paul O'Connor, a laboratory technologist who assisted in the President's autopsy, claimed that the autopsy at Bethesda Naval Hospital was conducted in obedience to a high command   and that nearly all the brain matter in Kennedy's skull was already missing before the autopsy at Bethesda hospital.
The Warren Commission examined the capabilities of the Carcano rifle and ammunition, as well as Oswald's military training and post-military experience, and determined that Oswald had the ability to fire three shots within a time span of 4. The report also states that the Army Infantry Weapons Evaluation Branch test fired Oswald's rifle 47 times and found that it was "quite accurate", comparing it to the accuracy of an M14 rifle.
Also contained in the Commission report is testimony by Marine Corps Major Eugene Anderson confirming that Oswald's military records show that he qualified as " sharpshooter " in According to official Marine Corps records, Oswald was tested in shooting in December , scoring slightly above the minimum for qualification as a sharpshooter—the intermediate category , but in May , he scored earning the lower designation of marksman . The highest marksmanship category in the Marine Corps is 'Expert' Popkin contend that Oswald was a notoriously poor shot, that his rifle was inaccurate, and that no reconstruction of the event has ever been able to duplicate his ability to fire three shots within the time frame given by the Warren Commission.
The Warren Commission and other federal investigations ruled that Oswald either acted alone or conspired with others in the assassination, citing his actions in the years leading up to the event. Evidence of Oswald's pro-communist and radical tendencies include his defection to Russia, the New Orleans branch of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee he had organized, and also various public and private statements made by him espousing Marxism and other leftist ideologies.
Others have argued that his behavior was in fact a carefully-planned ruse as part of an effort by U. Oswald himself claimed to be innocent, denying all charges and even declaring to reporters that he was "just a patsy ". He also insisted that the photos of him holding a rifle had been faked, an assertion contradicted by statements made by his wife, Marina, and the analysis of photographic experts such as Lyndal L. Shaneyfelt of the FBI.
Oswald's role as FBI informant was investigated by Lee Rankin and others of the Warren Commission, but their findings were inconclusive. Several FBI employees had made statements indicating that Oswald was indeed a paid informant, but the commission was nonetheless unable to verify the veracity of those claims.
Hosty reported that his office's interactions with Oswald were limited to dealing with his complaints about being harassed by the Bureau for being a communist sympathizer. In the weeks before the assassination, Oswald made a personal visit to the FBI's Dallas branch office with a hand-delivered letter which purportedly contained a threat of some sort but, controversially, Hosty destroyed the letter by order of J. Gordon Shanklin, his supervisor. Some researchers suggest that Oswald served as an active agent of the Central Intelligence Agency, often pointing to how he attempted to defect to Russia but was, however, able to return without difficulty even receiving a repatriation loan from the State Department   as evidence of such.
A former roommate of Oswald, James Botelho who would later become a California judge stated in an interview with Mark Lane that he believed Oswald was involved in an intelligence assignment in Russia,   although Botelho did not mention any of those suspicions in his testimony to the Warren Commission years earlier.
Oswald's mother, Marguerite, often insisted that her son was recruited by an agency of the U. Government and sent to Russia. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence remarked that "everywhere you look with [Oswald], there're fingerprints of intelligence". House Select Committee on Assassinations , stated that if he "had to do it over again", he would have investigated the Kennedy assassination by probing Oswald's ties to the Central Intelligence Agency.
Robert Blakey , staff director and chief counsel for the U. House Select Committee on Assassinations, supported that assessment in his conclusions as well. Vincent Bugliosi provides a "partial list of assassins [ Since the mids, various allegations have been made about the identities of the men and their involvement in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. Howard Hunt was a participant in the assassination of Kennedy garnered much publicity from to Dallas Police Officer J.
Tippit has been named in some conspiracy theories as a renegade CIA operative sent to silence Oswald   and as the " badge man " assassin on the grassy knoll. Some critics have alleged that Tippit was associated with organized crime or right-wing politics. According to the Warren Commission, the publication of a full-page, paid advertisement critical of Kennedy in the November 22, , Dallas Morning News , which was signed by "The American Fact-Finding Committee" and noted Bernard Weissman as its chairman, was investigated to determine whether any members of the group claiming responsibility for it were connected to Oswald or to the assassination.
Related to the advertisement, Mark Lane testified during the Warren Commission's hearings that an informant whom he refused to name told him that Weismann had met with Tippit and Ruby eight days before the assassination at Ruby's Carousel Club. Lane later stated that he initially learned of the meeting through reporter Thayer Waldo of the Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Tippit in an apparent attempt to escape. Tippit and seven eyewitnesses who saw the flight of the gunman with revolver in hand positively identified Lee Harvey Oswald as the man they saw fire the shots or flee from the scene, 2 the cartridge cases found near the scene of the shooting were fired from the revolver in the possession of Oswald at the time of his arrest, to the exclusion of all other weapons, 3 the revolver in Oswald's possession at the time of his arrest was purchased by and belonged to Oswald, and 4 Oswald's jacket was found along the path of flight taken by the gunman as he fled from the scene of the killing.
Some researchers have alleged that the murder of Officer Tippit was part of a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. Jim Marrs hypothesized that "the slaying of Officer J. Tippit may have played some part in [a] scheme to have Oswald killed, perhaps to eliminate co-conspirator Tippit or simply to anger Dallas police and cause itchy trigger fingers.
This was proved by affixing to Oswald the opprobrious epithet of 'cop-killer. Some critics doubt that Tippit was killed by Oswald and assert he was shot by other conspirators. According to Jim Marrs, Oswald's guilt in the assassination of Kennedy is placed in question by the presence of "a growing body of evidence to suggest that [he] did not kill Tippit". Conspiracy researcher Kenn Thomas has alleged that the Warren Commission omitted testimony and evidence that two men shot Tippit and that one left the scene in a car. William Alexander—the Dallas assistant district attorney who recommended that Oswald be charged with the Kennedy and Tippit murders—later became skeptical of the Warren Commission's version of the Tippit murder.
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He stated that the Commission's conclusions on Oswald's movements "don't add up", and that "certainly [Oswald] may have had accomplices. According to Brian McKenna 's review of Henry Hurt's book, Reasonable Doubt , Hurt reported that "Tippit may have been killed because he impregnated the wife of another man" and that Dallas police officers lied and altered evidence to set up Oswald to save Tippit's reputation. Markham's testimony, there is ample evidence to identify Oswald as the killer of Tippit.
Domingo Benavides initially said that he did not think he could identify Tippit's assailant and was never asked to view a police lineup,  even though he was the person closest to the killing. However, critics have questioned these lineups as they consisted of people who looked very different from Oswald. Additionally, witnesses who did not appear before the Commission identified an assailant who was not Oswald. Acquilla Clemons said she saw two men near Tippit's car just before the shooting. She said he waved to the second man, urging him to "go on".
He described a man standing by Tippit's body who had on a long coat and said the man ran to a parked car and drove away. Critics have questioned whether the cartridge cases recovered from the scene were the same as those that were subsequently entered into evidence. Two of the cases were recovered by witness Domingo Benavides and turned over to police officer J. Poe told the FBI that he marked the shells with his own initials, "J. Sergeant Gerald Hill examined one of the shells and radioed the police dispatcher, saying: The Warren Commission investigated Oswald's movements between the time of the assassination and the shooting of Tippit, to ascertain whether Oswald might have had an accomplice who helped him flee the Book Depository.
The Commission concluded " Some Warren Commission critics believe that Oswald did not have enough time to get from his house to the scene where Tippit was killed. Conspiracy researcher Robert Groden believes that Tippit's murder may have occurred earlier than the time given in the Warren Report. Bowley who testified to Dallas police that at the time he arrived to help, "several people were at the scene", and that the time was 1: Witness Helen Markham stated in her affidavit to the Dallas Sheriff's department that Tippit was killed at "approximately 1: Warren "Butch" Burroughs, who ran the concession stand at the Texas Theater where Oswald was arrested, said that Oswald came into the theater between 1: Some conspiracy theories surrounding the Kennedy assassination have focused on witnesses to the assassination who have not been identified, or who have not identified themselves, despite the media attention that the Kennedy assassination has received.
The so-called "umbrella man" was one of the closest bystanders to the president when he was first struck by a bullet. The "umbrella man" has become the subject of conspiracy theories after footage of the assassination showed him holding an open umbrella as the Kennedy motorcade passed, despite the fact that it was not raining at the time. One conspiracy theory, proposed by assassination researcher Robert Cutler, suggests that a dart with a paralyzing agent could have been fired from the umbrella, disabling Kennedy and making him a "sitting duck" for an assassination.
In , Louie Steven Witt came forward and identified himself as the "umbrella man". Testifying before the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations , Witt stated he brought the umbrella to heckle Kennedy and protest the appeasement policies of the president's father, Joseph Kennedy. An unidentified individual who is referred to by some conspiracy theorists as the "dark complected man" can be seen in several photographs, taken seconds after the assassination, sitting on the sidewalk next to the "umbrella man" on the north side of Elm Street. Louie Steven Witt, who identified himself as the "umbrella man", said he was unable to identify the other individual, whose dark complexion has led some conspiracy theorists to speculate Cuban government involvement, or Cuban exile involvement, in the assassination of Kennedy.
Some conspiracy theories focus on individuals that it is claimed can be seen in photographs of the assassination. Both "badge man" and "black dog man" have been suggested as possible assassins of President Kennedy. The figures were first discovered by researchers Jack White and Gary Mack and are discussed in a documentary called The Men Who Killed Kennedy , where it is alleged a third figure can also be seen on the grassy knoll, possibly the eyewitness Gordon Arnold. The "badge man" figure—so called as he appears to be wearing a uniform similar to that worn by a policeman, with a badge prominent—helped fuel conspiracy theories linking Dallas Police officers, or someone impersonating a police officer , to the assassination.
Another "figure" that has been the subject of conspiracy is the so-called "black dog man" figure who can be seen at the corner of a retaining wall in the Willis and Betzner photo of the assassination. In an interview, Marilyn Sitzman told Josiah Thompson that she saw a young black couple who were eating lunch and drinking Cokes on a bench behind the retaining wall and, therefore, it is possible that the "black dog man" figure is actually the black woman and her child.
In The Killing of A President , Robert Groden argues that the "black dog man" figure can be seen in a pyracantha bush in frame of the Zapruder film. The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that a head of an individual could be seen but that this individual was situated in front of, rather than behind the bushes. Conspiracy theorists consider four or five groups, alone or in combination, to be the primary suspects in the assassination of Kennedy: Bush ,   Sam Giancana ,  J.
Soon after the assassination of President Kennedy, Oswald's activities in New Orleans , Louisiana , during the spring and summer of , came under scrutiny. Three days after the assassination, on November 25, , New Orleans attorney Dean Andrews told the FBI that he received a telephone call from a man named Clay Bertrand , on the day of the assassination, asking him to defend Oswald. Martin told police that Ferrie "was supposed to have been the getaway pilot in the assassination.
According to several witnesses, in , both Ferrie and Banister were working for lawyer G. Kennedy was assassinated and the day Marcello was acquitted in his deportation case—New Orleans private investigator Guy Banister and his employee, Jack Martin , were drinking together at a local bar. On their return to Banister's office, the two men got into a heated argument.
According to Martin, Banister said something to which Martin replied, "What are you going to do—kill me like you all did Kennedy? Martin, badly injured, went by ambulance to Charity Hospital.
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One of Oswald's leaflets had the address " Camp Street" hand-stamped on it, apparently by Oswald himself. Banister's office was involved in anti-Castro and private investigative activities in the New Orleans area. While the committee was unable to interview Guy Banister who died in , the committee did interview his brother Ross Banister. Ross "told the committee that his brother had mentioned seeing Oswald hand out Fair Play for Cuba literature on one occasion. Ross theorized that Oswald had used the Camp Street address on his literature to embarrass Guy. Guy Banister's secretary, Delphine Roberts, would later tell author Anthony Summers that she saw Oswald at Banister's office, and that he filled out one of Banister's "agent" application forms.
She said, "Oswald came back a number of times. He seemed to be on familiar terms with Banister and with the office. Garrison's investigation led him to conclude that a group of right-wing extremists, including David Ferrie and Guy Banister, were involved with elements of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy.
Garrison would later claim that the motive for the assassination was anger over Kennedy's attempts to obtain a peace settlement in both Cuba and Vietnam. On January 29, , Clay Shaw was brought to trial on these charges, and the jury found him not guilty. Canute Michaelson to work with Dr. Alton Ochsner and Dr. Mary Sherman on a clandestine CIA project to develop a biological weapon that could be used to assassinate Fidel Castro. According to Baker, she and Oswald were hired by Reily in the spring of as a "cover" for the operation.
Addressing speculation that Oswald was a CIA agent or had some relationship with the Agency, the Warren Commission stated in that their investigation "revealed no evidence that Oswald was ever employed [by the] CIA in any capacity. In , former U. Furthermore, he found that both agencies withheld information that might have alerted authorities in Dallas that Oswald posed a potential threat to the President.
Subsequently, Newman expressed a belief that CIA chief of counter-intelligence James Angleton was probably the key figure in the assassination. According to Newman, only Angleton "had the access, the authority, and the diabolically ingenious mind to manage this sophisticated plot. Watson stated the president felt that [the] CIA had had something to do with plot. One conspiracy theory suggests that a secret or shadow government including wealthy industrialists and right-wing politicians ordered the assassination of Kennedy.
In the farewell speech given by U. Eisenhower before he left office on January 17, , warned the nation about the power of the military establishment and the arms industry. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists, and will persist. Former Texas Senator Ralph Yarborough in stated: I think we would have escaped that. According to author James Douglass, Kennedy was assassinated because he was turning away from the Cold War and seeking a negotiated peace with the Soviet Union.
Oliver Stone 's film, JFK , explored the possibility that Kennedy was killed by a conspiracy involving the military-industrial complex. The House Select Committee on Assassinations reported that it investigated "alleged Secret Service complicity in the assassination" and concluded that the Secret Service was not involved. No actions were taken by the agent in the right front seat of the presidential limousine Roy Kellerman to cover the President with his body, although it would have been consistent with Secret Service procedure for him to have done so.
The primary function of the agent was to remain at all times in close proximity to the President in the event of such emergencies. Some argue that the lack of Secret Service protection occurred because Kennedy himself had asked that the Secret Service make itself discreet during the Dallas visit. Palamara reports that Secret Service driver Sam Kinney told him that requests—such as removing the bubble top from the limousine in Dallas, not having agents positioned beside the limousine's rear bumper, and reducing the number of Dallas police motorcycle outriders near the limousine's rear bumper—were not made by Kennedy.
Colin McLaren , a former Australian police detective sergeant, was inspired by Bonar Menninger's Mortal Error ,  to approach the assassination of Kennedy as a cold case investigation,  and treating Howard Donahue's expert testimony as that of just one witness of many. After more than four years of research,  he published a book titled JFK: The Smoking Gun ,  which was accompanied by a documentary.
He quotes many more witnesses than Donahue or Menninger as having believed that shots were fired at ground level, and observes a pattern of concealment of evidence. The House Select Committee on Assassinations wrote: Many of these exiles hoped to overthrow Castro and return to Cuba. Their hopes were dashed with the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in , and many blamed President Kennedy for the failure. The House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that some militant Cuban exiles might have participated in Kennedy's murder.
In , the committee reported:.
President Kennedy's popularity among the Cuban exiles had plunged deeply by Their bitterness is illustrated in a tape recording of a meeting of anti-Castro Cubans and right-wing Americans in the Dallas suburb of Farmer's Branch on October 1, Allegedly, Novo was affiliated with Lee Harvey Oswald and Frank Sturgis and carried weapons with them to a hotel in Dallas just prior to the assassination.
These claims, though put forth to the House Assassinations Committee by Lorenz, have never been substantiated. Don DeLillo dramatized the Cuban theory in his novel Libra. Government documents have revealed that some members of the Mafia worked with the Central Intelligence Agency on assassination attempts against Cuban leader Fidel Castro. When Maheu contacted Roselli, Maheu hid the fact that he was sent by the CIA, instead portraying himself as an advocate for international corporations.
Roselli introduced Maheu to two men he referred to as "Sam Gold" and "Joe". So the agency sought out a partner equally worried about Castro—the Mafia, which had lucrative investments in Cuban casinos. Some conspiracy researchers have alleged a plot involving elements of the Mafia, the CIA, and the anti-Castro Cubans, including Anthony Summers, who stated: In fact, there's no contradiction there. Those three groups were all in bed together at the time and had been for several years in the fight to topple Fidel Castro.
Kennedy was murdered by a conspiracy involving disgruntled CIA agents, anti-Castro Cubans, and members of the Mafia, all of whom were extremely angry at what they viewed as Kennedy's appeasement policies toward Communist Cuba and the Soviet Union. Carlos Marcello allegedly threatened to assassinate the President to short-circuit his younger brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, who was leading the administration's anti-Mafia crusade.
Scheim cited in particular a fold increase in the number of out-of-state telephone calls from Jack Ruby to associates of these crime bosses in the months before the assassination, and to an attempted confession by Jack Ruby while in prison. Kaiser has also suggested mob involvement in his book, The Road to Dallas. Anderson said that although he was never able to independently confirm Roselli's entire story, many of Roselli's details checked out. Anderson said that Oswald may have played a role in the assassination, but that more than one gunman was involved.
Johnny Roselli, as previously noted, had worked with the CIA on assassination attempts against Castro. He said that he was offered the assassination contract on President Kennedy, but that he did not accept it. However, he said that he knew the men who did accept the contract. According to David, there were three shooters. He provided the name of one— Lucien Sarti.
David said that since the other two shooters were still alive, it would break a code of conduct for him to identify them. When asked what the shooters were wearing, David noted their modus operandi was to dress in costumes such as official uniforms. The book Ultimate Sacrifice , by Lamar Waldron and Thom Hartman , attempted to synthesize these theories with new evidence. The authors argued that government officials felt obliged to help the assassins cover up the truth because the assassination conspiracy had direct ties to American government plots to assassinate Castro.
Outraged at Robert Kennedy's attack on organized crime, mob leaders had President Kennedy killed to remove Robert from power. A government investigation of the plot was thwarted, the authors allege, because it would have revealed embarrassing evidence of American government involvement with organized crime in plots to kill Castro. Johnson of being involved in the assassination of Kennedy. According to journalist Max Holland , the first published allegation that Johnson perpetrated the assassination of Kennedy appeared in Penn Jones, Jr.
Nelson,  and Madeleine Brown. The fact that JFK was seriously considering dropping Johnson from the ticket in favor of NC Governor Terry Sanford should Kennedy run in has been cited as a possible motive for Johnson's complicity in the assassination. Johnson would be replaced as Vice President of the United States. That conversation took place on November 19, , just three days before the assassination of President Kennedy and was recorded that evening in her diary and reads as follows:.
Kennedy sat in the rocker in my office, his head resting on its back he placed his left leg across his right knee. He rocked slightly as he talked. In a slow pensive voice he said to me, 'You know if I am re-elected in sixty-four, I am going to spend more and more time toward making government service an honorable career. I would like to tailor the executive and legislative branches of government so that they can keep up with the tremendous strides and progress being made in other fields.
To do this I will need as a running mate in sixty-four a man who believes as I do. Lincoln went on to write "I was fascinated by this conversation and wrote it down verbatim in my diary. Now I asked, 'Who is your choice as a running-mate? But it will not be Lyndon. The book suggests that a smudged partial fingerprint from the sniper's nest likely belonged to Johnson's associate Malcolm "Mac" Wallace , and that Mac Wallace was, therefore, on the sixth floor of the Depository at the time of the shooting. The book further claims that the killing of Kennedy was paid for by oil magnates, including Clint Murchison and H.
McClellan states that the assassination of Kennedy allowed the oil depletion allowance to be kept at It remained unchanged during the Johnson presidency. The History Channel assembled a committee of historians who concluded the accusations in the documentary were without merit, and The History Channel apologized to the Johnson family and agreed not to air the series in the future.
Madeleine Brown , who alleged she was the mistress of Johnson, also implicated him in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. In , Brown said that Johnson, along with H. Hunt, had begun planning Kennedy's demise as early as Brown claimed that by its fruition in , the conspiracy involved dozens of persons, including the leadership of the FBI and the Mafia, as well as prominent politicians and journalists. Edgar Hoover at a social gathering at Murchison's mansion the night before the assassination. Thornton , and H. Kennedys will never embarrass me again—that's no threat—that's a promise.
In the same documentary, several other Johnson associates also voiced their suspicions of Johnson. Charles Crenshaw authored the book JFK: Conspiracy of Silence , along with conspiracy theorists Jens Hansen and J.
John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories - Wikipedia
Crenshaw was a third-year surgical resident on the trauma team at Parkland Hospital that attended to President Kennedy. He also treated Oswald after he was shot by Jack Ruby. Crenshaw said that Johnson inquired about Oswald's status, and that Johnson demanded a "death-bed confession from the accused assassin [Oswald]". Shires, but that Oswald was in no condition to give any statement. Howard Hunt accused Johnson along with several CIA agents whom he named of complicity in the assassination in his posthumously released autobiography American Spy: In , convicted swindler Billie Sol Estes made statements to a Grand Jury in Texas indicating that he had "inside knowledge" that implicated Johnson in the death of Kennedy and others.
Kurtz wrote that there is no evidence suggesting that Johnson ordered the assassination of Kennedy. In its report, the Warren Commission stated that it had investigated "dozens of allegations of a conspiratorial contact between Oswald and agents of the Cuban Government" and had found no evidence of Cuban involvement in the assassination of President Kennedy.
JFK Assassination Logic: How to Think about Claims of Conspiracy
This support included funding exiles in commando speedboat raids against Cuba. The mother of all conspiracy theories is the supposed one about the assassination of John F. Many of its elements have become part of American folklore: Hardcover , pages. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
Lists with This Book. Aug 27, Paul Bryant rated it liked it Shelves: It might be a little provocative who, me? There are big questions out there which will really mess with our minds so we find the baggy sack that best suits our particular brains and cram those questions right in. Atheism is not a baggy sack.
So we have an impasse. The lone gunman believers are happy that the whole horrible event can be neatly tied up — it has no terrible implications, it was a one off. The investigations proved that the authorities are basically reasonably honest and use common sense and rules of evidence much like we all do. We can follow their logic. Everyone else was, from LBJ to the most menial member of the Dallas police force. Curiously, this is the same percentage as Gallup found immediately after the assassination. This tells us that the paranoid view of the way society works is more popular, which of course connects with all the current anti-politician anti-Washington stuff which this year created success for Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump and in Britain for Jeremy Corbyn and Brexit.
I myself do not care for the paranoid tendency and I tend to automatically disbelieve all conspiracy theories until, of course, they turn out to be true, like Watergate, like the abuse of children by the Catholic church, like the way the West was herded into war with Iraq and Afghanistan by a small cabal of American cabinet members, etc. How can any ordinary citizen even begin to think about whether there was a conspiracy or not? That is, we have no knowledge of these arcane matters until someone — from one side or the other — tells us about them.
Then we do know, but only from one direction; in order to get the full picture we would need to check all these matters with the opposite arguer. So for the majority of us, we peer over into the ferocious gladiatorial pit of conspiracy theorists wildly taking lumps out of their opponents and each other, and we creep away, leaving them to it.
Which is fallacious reasoning based on the idea that a large event must have a large cause. The killing of a president surely could not have been accomplished by the creepy nobody Lee Harvey Oswald. If it was, what kind of world are we living in? Some of it is real fun. On pages he lays out a table showing all the people who have confessed to being part of the conspiracy. I had no idea about all of that. But really, this is another case of too many trees and way too much forest. This little bear is going to tiptoe back to suburbia and take a couple if aspirin for that headache he feels bubbling up behind the frontal lobes.
View all 5 comments. Dec 19, Thicks1 rated it really liked it. It is remarkable how much information is out there and how much of that information is misleading or flat out wrong. LISA rated it did not like it Jan 09, Mike Bohler rated it really liked it Mar 11, Angelica rated it did not like it Jun 17, Tracy Parnell rated it it was amazing Jun 07, David Murr rated it liked it Jan 19, Daniel Nazarko rated it it was amazing Mar 22, Analog Girl rated it really liked it Nov 27, Fitzgerald rated it really liked it Nov 29, Cassio Queiros rated it really liked it Feb 17, Deb rated it did not like it Apr 26,