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The concerto transcriptions of Johann Sebastian Bach date from his second period at the court in Weimar (–). Bach transcribed for organ and harpsichord a number of Italian and . Bach's organ and harpsichord transcriptions BWV – and – belong to the year July to July , were made at the.
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He realised that musical ideas need to be subordinated to a plan and that a young composer's first need is a model to guide his efforts. Vivaldi's violin concertos, which had just been published, gave him the guidance he needed.


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He had often heard them praised for their artistic excellence and decided upon the happy idea of arranging them all for the clavier. He was thus led to study their structure, the musical ideas on which they are built, the pattern of their modulations, and many other characteristics. Moreover, in adapting ideas and figurations originally conceived for the violin to the keyboard, Bach was compelled to think in musical terms, so that his ideas no longer depended on his fingers, but were drawn from his imagination.

Although Forkel's account is generally acknowledged to be oversimplified and factually inaccurate, commentators agree that Bach's knowledge and assimilation of the Italian concerto form—which happened partly through his transcriptions—played a key role in the development of his mature style. In practical terms, the concerto transcriptions were suitable for performance in the different venues in Weimar; they would have served an educational purpose for the young prince as well as giving him pleasure. Marshall has carried out a systematic study of headings and markings in surviving manuscripts to ascertain the intended instrument for Bach's keyboard works.

These have customarily been divided into two distinct groups, his works for organ and his works for harpsichord or clavichord. Although in early music the intended instrument was often not specified, but left to the performer, this was often not the case with Bach's music. Although no precise dating of the concerto transcriptions is possible, combining a careful scientific analysis of surviving manuscripts—including their watermarks—with a knowledge of documented events in Bach's life has given a clearer idea of when they might have been written: The transcriptions themselves became known through a variety of sources.

These include all the transcriptions of the Venetian concertos those by Vivaldi and the Marcello brothers. The remaining organ transcriptions come from copies made in Leipzig by Bach's family and circle: The other harpsichord transcriptions BWV — are contained in a collection of manuscripts of Kellner "Kellner's Miscellany" , copied by himself and others.

There are, or have been, attribution issues regarding some of the models Bach used for his keyboard transcriptions:. Bach transcribed two concertos of Antonio Vivaldi 's Op. Later Bach would arrange Vivaldi's Op. Bach realised his other transcriptions of concertos by Vivaldi after versions circulating as manuscript. Later versions of some of these concertos by Vivaldi were published in his Op.

Apart from the concertos after models by Antonio Vivaldi including one formerly attributed to Torelli , Bach also transcribed concertos by the Venetian brothers Alessandro and Benedetto Marcello. Benedetto was a more prolific composer than his elder brother Alessandro. The second concerto in that collection, in E minor, had a violino principale in its first two movements. Bach based his transcription of Marcello's oboe concerto on a lost manuscript that was circulating before the concerto was published in These transcriptions for organ have been dated to — They are scored for two manual keyboards and pedal.

This concerto is a transcription of Antonio Vivaldi's double violin concerto, Op. This concerto is an transcription of Antonio Vivaldi's double violin concerto, Op. After Violin Concerto in B-flat major Op. The reception of the concerto transcriptions is reflected in their transmission: More significantly perhaps, the concerto transcriptions played a decisive role in the Vivaldi revival which happened only in the following century.

The meteoric success of Vivaldi in the early eighteenth century was matched by his descent into almost complete oblivion soon after his death in In Great Britain, France and particularly his native Italy, musical taste turned against him and, when he was remembered, it was just through salacious anecdote.

Only in Northern Germany, where his concertos had influenced a school of composers, was his legacy properly appreciated.

Incomparable things

The publication of Bach's transcriptions has been recognized by Vivaldi scholars as a decisive step in his revival. In fact the new edition of the concerto transcriptions published by the Bach-Gesellschaft in the s and the ensuing controversy in assessing their authorship and that of the original concertos in the s sparked a re-evaluation of Vivaldi and subsequently the rediscovery of his "lost" works.

This work, comprising four movements, is very different than the other two Vivaldi transcriptions. The first movement is basically a short, measure introduction to the work. The two upper voices engage in a rapid dialogue above a D pedal point before the texture thickens towards the end of the movement. The second movement opens with a short, chordal section before launching into a three-voice fugue with pedal accompaniment.

The fugue testifies to Vivaldi 's contrapuntal skills; he achieves an invertible counterpoint in which all lines can be exchanged for another. However, this movement is sectional and lacks the development of any fugue Bach would have written. The third movement assumes a ternary form, with a distinct chordal section surrounding a solo melody with accompaniment. The melody keeps the same dotted-rhythm throughout, but it goes through some interesting harmonies and has a nice effect.

The fourth movement is built on the traditional ritornello principle, but the theme is presented on two manuals instead of just one.

The theme is also fairly long, introducing an idea before moving on to another. Some wonderful chromatic lines occur here, especially in the bass at the beginning, middle, and end.

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Organ Concerto in D minor, BWV 596 (Bach, Johann Sebastian)

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Contents 1 Performances 1. Performers Marie-Claire Alain orgue. Javascript is required for this feature.

Weimar concerto transcriptions (Bach) - Wikipedia

Arranger Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach P ], kept in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. Source attributes erroneously the transcription to W. Editor Alexandre Guilmant