Manual Pymes: reflexiones para la pequeña y mediana empresa en Colombia (Spanish Edition)

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Spanish Firms in a Global Context. Cambridge and New York: MFG and Adrian Tschoegl. Building a Global Bank: The Transformation of Banco Santander. Princeton University Press, Santander, el banco Madrid: The Rise of Spanish Multinationals: European Business in the Global Economy. Cambridge University Press, , pp. Laurence Capron and MFG. The Ratio Institute P.

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Entrepreneurship Research in Europe: Perspectives and Outcomes , Edward Elgar Publishing. Networks, Atlantic World, epistolary correspondence, trust. Spanish Merchants and their Overseas Networks. Foreign investments, mining, banking and family business Selected publications: Business History , Volume 50, Issue 2, pp. Jornadas Instituto Latinoamericano de la Empresa Familiar. Communication and empathy process' in the family business Selected publications: A case study of women entrepreneurs in Gweru". Miranda University of Alicante, Spain. Universidad de Alicante, Facultad de C.

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Links to downloadable publications: Internationalization pathways, Family business, Gender Selected publications: A Distributive Experience in International Markets: I'm interested in change processes in different types and contexts of family businesses. I study these processes from entrepreneurship, strategy and governance perspectives. Finance, heritage law, bankruptcy procedures and family patrimony, indebtedness Selected publications: With Rafael Castro An Approach through the Catalan Case", en J. With Eugenio Torres Un banco con historia. Technological change and innovation, mexican agroindustrial firms, agriculture and regional development Selected publications: La Comarca Lagunera, Colegio de San Luis, Capabilities, Entrepreneurship, Stewardship, Strategy Selected publications: Entrepreneurship in family vs.

A resource-based analysis of the effect of organizational culture. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice , 28 4: Research on accounting in family firms: Past accomplishments and future challenges. Family Business Review , 23 3: A Farewell to the business: Championing entrepreneurial exit in family firms. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development , in press. The Role of Family Social Capital. Family Business Review , 21 3: The board of directors in family firms: One size fits all? Family Business Review , 17 2: Beatty, Shim y Jones The factors that influence the adoption of corporate web sites were analyzed in SMEs in the United States.

The independent variables were perceived benefits, complexity, compatibility and managerial support.

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The most significant were perceived benefits relative advantage and complexity. Limthongchai y Speece In addition to the five characteristics of DOI, they added security or confidentiality. Relative advantage, compatibility, security or confidentiality and observability are positively correlated to the adoption of e-commerce while complexity had a negative correlation.

Hussin y Noor Relative advantage, observability and complexity were significantly related to the adoption of e-commerce while trialability and compatibility were not significant. Relative advantage, compatibility, observability and security were significantly related in a positive way with the adoption of ICT in SMEs while complexity had a negative association.

Moghaddam y Khatoon-Abadi Factors which affect the adoption of ICT by rural users in central Iran were studied. They proved that DOI innovation characteristics had a significant positive effect on the adoption of ICT by those users except for the compatibility variable.

In DOI, diffusion is understood as a social process by which an innovation is communicated in time via certain channels between the members of a social sy stem Rogers, On the other hand, innovation is defined as an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual unit or another type of adoption Tan et al. According to this model, there are five main influences in a user's behavior when accepting innovation: Rogers described each one of these key five influences or important characteristics perceived from innovation as follows:.

Due to the above reasons, for this study regarding the adoption of ICT in SMEs in Colombia, just three of the five characteristics of DOI innovation were used relative advantage, observability and complexity as a reference framework for the adoption of ICT in SMEs, and the model was complemented with some constructs of benefits and barriers of the adoption of ICT.

That is, that according to the theory of diffusion of innovation when adopting a new innovation in this case a new ICT , potential adopters in this case SMEs evaluate the relative advantage it has in terms of perceived efficiencies of that innovation regarding current technologies or procedures Rogers, The decision of rational adoption in an organization requires the assessment of the possible benefits of a new technology for the business. ICT represent a variety of earnings for companies which adopt them.

For instance, according to Miller cloud computation a type of ICT may offer many advantages related to capacity, reliability and flexibility. This technology reduces considerably the entry costs of SMEs to access a large number of computational resources in relatively short terms of time. Therefore, from a perspective of ICT capacities, the relative advantages of these types of business technologies are considered a fact Sokolov , Then, in general terms, the adoption of ICT must be influenced positively by a relative advantage.

Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed:. Observability is defined as the degree in which the results of an innovation are visible to others. Most innovations studied in the diffusion of innovation research were technological topics Rogers , Observability is difficult to establish in a market that is already dominated by an established technology. Currently, the observation of ICT like e-commerce is relatively easy for consumers and adopter industries.

E-commerce increases a company's visibility because a website can be seen as a place to purchase. With technology like Internet, clients and suppliers are able to visit an SME's website look for general information and they will obtain a fast reply via e-mail or another medium anytime and anywhere. This creates convenience and flexibility so that SMEs may establish relations with sellers and purchasers. If SMEs are able to see the benefits of the adoption of ICT, it is quite probable that they will adopt those technologies. According to Slegers, Singh and Hall 1 , one of the biggest barriers to access internet services is a lack of conscientiousness, and this leads us to formulate the following hypothesis:.

Adopting new technologies make SMEs face challenges in terms of a change in the processes in which they interact to conduct their business. New technologies may be friendly and easy to use to increase adoption rates Parisot, ; Sahin, Unlike the other characteristics of DOI, this factor is negatively associated to the probability of adoption the more complex technology is, the lower its probability of adoption.


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According to the review of literature regarding complexity, we are able to formulate the following hypothesis:. There is a negative relation between the adoption of ICT in SMEs and the complexity to implement or use those technologies. Organizations adopt a new technology when they see a need for that technology believing that it will take advantage of a business opportunity or close a gap in organizational performance Mndzebele, Likewise, there are business opportunities and potential benefits when SMEs implement technologies like e-commerce. Among the opportunities they obtain is the strengthening of their relation with clients, reaching new markets, upgrading business processes, reducing costs, improving business knowledge, attracting investors and creating new products and services.

Also, technology represents an opportunity for SMEs to compensate additional weaknesses in fields like access to new markets and collecting and disclosing information at an international level, and this improves communication and creates greater employment flexibility Scupola, In order to do this, SMEs owners or managers must equip themselves with enough knowledge in this field.

According to what is stated above, undoubtedly, globalization and fast technological changes including the use of Internet and e-commerce can bring SMEs new business opportunities Scupola, In this sense, Tan and Eze found in a study that ICT adoption among SMEs provides new business opportunities and access to information and market knowledge.

Therefore, we can establish the following hypothesis:. There is a positive relation between the adoption of ICT in SMEs and their potential to generate new business opportunities. Effective Communication with Clients Benefits. Moreover, if the website contains an e-commerce platform, its interface may virtually enable any type of client order. Some authors indicate that the adoption of ICT can contribute to a quality strategy in organizations. For insta nce, Spanos et al.

Accordingly, Tan et al.

¿Qué son las PYME ? - Definicion

Therefore, we are able to establish the following hypothesis:. Business Cost Reduction Benefits. There is a belief that technologies like e-commerce contribute to the advance of businesses in developing countries. Also, according to Tan et al. Based on the review of several authors' liter ature, Consoli mentions that public policies constitute a determining factor for the adoption of ICT in SMEs.

In fact, governments play an important role promoting the adoption of ICT in countries. Yap, Thong and Raman assure that if the participation in a government computerization program does not result in more effective information systems, government incentives do encourage SMEs, which lack financial and technical resources, to systematize operations. Providing subsidies, low interest loans, seminars and technical experience can compensate SMEs' lack of resources and internal expertise. Many small businesses would not have systematized and would not have been successful if it had not been for those incentives.

The argument above leads us to formulate the followi ng hypothesis:. In a study conducted by ECTEL , the study identified that businesses cannot see the relevance of the use of Internet for transactions if they believe that their products and services are not suitable for online commerce. The lack of information and knowledge regarding available ICT solutions can also contribute to this perceived constraint.

In fact, OECD has mention ed that the main reason that businesses give for not committing to e-commerce is that it is not suitable for the nature of their business. Many studies have identified that ICT security and confidentiality are significant factors that influence the adoption of ICT Tan et al.

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For instance, Aljifri, Pons and Collins identified several aspects that impact the level of reliability on e-commerce, and since this affects the possibility of doing business online between companies, they considered that the security of information was one of the main barriers that affects e-commerce in developing countries. Likewise, via assessments of SMEs' perception regarding inhibitors of the adoption of e-commerce, it has been found that one of the most influential factors was being concerned about security APEC - Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, Also, even though ICT application barriers in SMEs vary depending on the economic sector and on the country, there are common barriers for all companies including security and reliability factors security and reliability of e-commerce systems, the uncertainty of online payment methods and legal frameworks Arendt, There are also other studies on the adoption of ICT in which they used security and privacy as an important dimension to evaluate, complementing the DOI model.

Among these studies, some outstanding works included those by Tan and Teo , Limthongchai and Speece and Hussin and Noor Then, in general terms, the adoption of ICT in SMEs seems to be influenced negatively by security factors; therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis:. It's difficult to have a cost-benefit analysis of the impact of computational systems on organizations. Also, Arendt found that even if the barriers for the implementation of ICT in SMEs vary and depending on an economic sector and the country, they are common for all companies including cost factors as ICT equipment and networks, software costs and reorganization and operating costs.

Based on the above arguments, we formulate the following hypothesis:. There is a negative relation between the adoption of ICT in SMEs and implementation cost unbalance in comparison with the benefits received from them. The following section describes the methodology used in this study to contrast hypotheses. An electronic questionnaire was designed and administered to a sample of industry and services SMEs distributed as seen in Table 3. The questionnaire was designed based on scales developed in previous studies; just like, we explain in the following section.

First, a pilot test was developed including 20 SMEs directors in the city of Medellin, and we received feedback from some academic researchers to verify the content of the scales, minimize ambiguities and adapt the questionnaire's language to the context of Colombian SMEs. Then, the adjusted virtual questionnaire was administered, and the statistical processing of the information collected was conducted using a data analysis software named Stata version Via a principal component factorial analysis, scale validity and reliability were verified; and then, an analysis of multiple regression models was conducted to contrast proposed hypotheses.

We use a 5-point scale regarding a company's use of a series of information and communication te chnologies 5: Currently use them, 4: Plan to use them next year, 3: Plan to use them after one year, 2: Does not plan to use them, 1: Does not know about them. The technologies taken into account are personal computers workstations or computer terminals , company e-mail, LAN or WAN, internet, intranet, company webpages, company social networks and e-commerce.

To measure the adoption of ICT, a scale composed of all the previous technologies was considered, but in the regression models, the individual adoption of each one of these technologies was considered a dependent variable. The measurement scales for our independent variables were obtained from literature and from previously revised studies on the adoption of ICT in which the validity and suitability of ICT had already been proven.

The 10 independent variables used in this study include 5 point Likert scales 5: Neither agrees or disagrees, 2: The chosen items to measure the constructs of relative advantage, observability and complexity were base d on Ghobakhloo, Arias-Aranda and Benitez-Amado and Ntemana and Olatokun's studies. To do so, the items used by these authors were translated to Spanish, and based on the pilot test, the most representative comprehensible items were selected for the target public bearing in mind the constraints of the length of the questionnaire so that it would not affect interviewees' willingness to answer the questionnaire.

The items chosen to measure the constructs of benefits new business opportunities, effective client communication, business cost reduction, and government incentives and barriers inappropriate ICT for the business, a lack of reliability in ICT security, and an ICT cost and benefit unbalance were based on Thong and Yap , Premkumar , Grandon and Pearson , Saffu, Walker and Hinson and Al-Qirim's studies. Just like with the above scales, they were translated to Spanish and the most representative and comprehensible items were selected based on the pilot test.

In Table 4, we present the items used on the scale reliability analysis. You can see that almost all the scales have a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient over 0. Even so, scales for complexity, effective client communication, government incentives and ICT cost and benefit unbalance presented values below 0. We saw other companies using ICT, and we saw the advantages of using them in the company. ICT have enabled the company to increase its range of coverage and reach new markets.

If it had not been for government incentives, we would not have adopted ICT in the company. We worry that ICT solutions in the company may not be used to their maximum capability.

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We are concerned that ICT may not be secure and reliable to manage company information. We are concerned that people who are not part of the company could have access to digital information without permission. We do not like to have company information leaving the company's physical headquarters. Before implementing an ICT project in the company, we evaluate the benefit-cost relation.

This indicates that the sample is adequate to conduct these types of factorial analys i s. In Table 5, the factorial loads obtained for each item with rotated components are presented implementing varimax rotation. Following a priori criteria used for component extraction Hair et al. They correspond to the number of constructs proposed in the theoretical framework. The 10 factors extracted were able to explain Since this study involves a sample size including more than observations, a factorial load higher than 0.

Likewise , it is expected that the factorial load be close to zero regarding other constructs to ensure its discriminant validity. In Table 5, you can see that factorial loads meet those criteria. The results of the variance inflation factor analysis presented in Table 6 shows for all factors, that tolerance is higher than 0. This indicates that there are no problems of multicollinearity between independent variables to conduct a multiple regression analysis afterwards Hair et al. The Table 7 highlights that the constructs that present a higher mean are relative advantage, benefits of new business opportunities, business cost reduction and effective client communication, and barriers associated to a lack of reliability in security and ICT not suitable for the business.

The results of the multiple regression analysis between the independent variables that measure the three characteristics of the DOI model, benefits and barriers and the dependent variable, adoption of ICT are presented in Table 8. In the compound model, there are three variables one benefit and 2 barriers which are significantly associated with the adoption of ICT by SMEs in Colombia.

The benefit perceived by ICT is that they allow the creation of new business opportunities. Nevertheless, a lack of reliability on ICT security and the perception that an investment on ICT does not return the benefits expected for the business cost-benefit unbalance become barriers negatively associated to the adoption of ICT. Upon finding these statistically significant relations in the compound model, we accepted hypotheses H4, H9 and H Therefore, H1, H2 and H3 were rejected. Likewise, effective client communication, business cost reduction, government incentives and ICT unsuitable for the business did not predict significantly the adoption of ICT; therefore, H5, H6, H7 and H8 were rejected.

Now, when we review statistically significant results of the adoption of ICT in the individual models of each one of the technologies shown in Table 8, you find that the adoption of technologies as PCs, company email and Internet, are positively related with the relative advantage of the DOI model, and e-commerce is negatively associated. Likewise, the adoption of a company e-mail is negatively associated to the factor of complexity of the DOI model.

On the other hand, the strong positive relation in the compound model between the adoptions of ICT a new business opportunities is highly influenced by the adoption of internet technologies, company web pages, social networks and ecommerce. Also, there is a big influence of Internet technologies, company webpages and e-commerce on the negative relation between the adoption of ICT in the compound model and the lack of reliability in ICT security and privacy.

Finally, the technologies that most influence the relation found between the adoption of compound model ICT and the perception of ICT cost-benefit unbalance are e-mail, LANs and intranet. Table 9 compares the results of the general multiple regression model between 10 independent variables and the dependent variable, adoption of ICT with four additional models considering classification variables as "size"and "sector", and another 4 models implementing the combinations of both variables. When reviewing the results of the model for service companies in Table 9, we found that the independent variables of the model are statistically significant and associated to the adoption of ICT while for industry companies, just one variable was significant for the adoption of ICT.

The common factor for both sectors corresponds to new business opportunities and lack of reliability on ICT, relative advantage, a return of the expected benefits on an ICT investment and decreased costs. In view of the scarcity of empirical studies which analyze the adoption of technology in Colombian companies, this study provides a valuable contribution to the creation of knowledge when trying to explain the adoption of ICT by SMEs in Colombia comprehensively and quantitatively using a representative sample which allows a certain type of generalization of the results within the population we studied.

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