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When you're in a teaching or NQT interview, the questions are generally more specific. There may be a question around your subject or age range, such as 'What are the important developments in science education? For example, if in a secondary teaching interview you were asked 'How would you support weaker pupils in your classroom? Be sure your answers are natural, not contrived and relate to the school or organisation who is interviewing you.

It's worth finding out as much about the school as possible through your pre visit, its website, prospectus, Ofsted reports and school development plan. Talk about solutions to some of the current challenges the school is facing, from your own knowledge and with examples of other practice you have seen.

It helps to get used to talking about issues in education with stakeholders, pupils, teachers, governors and parents. If you do this, you'll have more informed thoughts and opinions and a broader knowledge of the topics. Jobs and work experience Postgraduate study Careers advice Applying for university. Search graduate jobs Job profiles Work experience and internships Employer profiles What job would suit me? Job sectors Apprenticeships Working abroad Gap year Self-employment. Search postgraduate courses Funding postgraduate study Universities and departments Study abroad Conversion courses Law qualifications.

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Getting a job CVs and cover letters Applying for jobs Interview tips Open days and events Applying for university Choosing a course Getting into university Student loans and finance University life Changing or leaving your course Alternatives to university Post a job. Teacher training and education. On this page Why you need to be aware of educational issues Examples of current educational issues How to find the latest issues in education Discussing educational issues in your teaching interview. Keeping up to date with current educational issues is an important factor in making a good first impression at your teaching, NQT or teacher training interview It's not possible to predict all future educational issues, or know every detail of the sector's current situation, but in the process of applying for teacher training some preparation and research will go a long way in demonstrating your enthusiasm and impressing potential employers.

Why you need to be aware of educational issues Recruiters are looking to see how much you're engaging with current issues and are aware of the challenges that these place on a school. Examples of current educational issues Government policies and spending What impact will Brexit have on the education system and the recruitment of teachers?

How is the government responding to increasing pupil numbers? How does this response impact teacher recruitment and overcapacity of secondary schools? What do budget cuts mean for pupils and teachers? Technology and education Should classroom connectivity be a right for every child? How accurate are SATs results for primary schools? Is placing this level of pressure on children a viable way of testing intelligence? School reform What are your views on all schools becoming academies? How successful are Free Schools? Health and child development How can we better support pupils' mental health?

It recognized the role of art education Fine and Applied as one of the powerful instrument for self-reliant economy. It is one of the discipline in our educational programme that avail trainees the opportunity to acquiring appropriate skills, abilities and competences both metal and physical as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of the society.

But the reality of the situation is that the teaching of art the primary and secondary levels of education have not been fully effected because it has not be effectively surprised or implemented Cornelius, ; Ubangida, The National Policy on Education UPE, , objectives of art education Fine and Applied at the post-primary level College of Education, Polytechnics and Universities stresses two important areas in our educational system: From reliable sources, some schools are yet to teach art and art teachers are not available even when it is taught in some schools Ubangida, ; Barnabas, The issue of the supply and training of qualified art teachers to teach the subject at all levels of education is something of much concerned.

The National Policy on Education emphasized the Nigerian Certificate in Education NCE as the ultimate minimum basic qualification for entry into the teaching profession. This dream became a reality with the promulgation in of decree No. The commission is mandated to: Advise the federal government through the Ministry of Education on and co-ordinate all aspects of teacher education falling outside the universities and polytechnics. Make recommendations on the National Policy necessary for full development of teacher education and training of teachers.

Harmonize entry requirements and duration of courses in the Colleges of Education, laydown minimum standard for all programmes of teachers, education and accredit their certificates and other academic awards after obtaining thereof prior approval of the Minister of Education. Approve guidelines and criteria for the accreditation of all Colleges of Education in Nigeria; and 5. Collate, analyze and published information relating teacher education in the country NCCE Diary, The quality of education in any society to a great extent depends on the quality of teachers in the schools.

According to Mbahi most of the problems of training art teachers are contained in the following: At the Colleges of Education, most students who find themselves studying Fine and Applied Arts did not experience any teacher education like the Grade II Certificate holders. Mbahi , notes that, teacher training programme at the NCE level is not so extensive and long enough to adequately prepare students for effective art teaching because they are not properly groomed in pedagogy and the psychology of the child. Options system in the school is another issue affecting Fine and Applied Art Education.

It is usual for secondary schools to include Art as core in the first three years. After the third year, it becomes elective optional. Number of students taking art this time falls drastically because of the degree of interest on the basis of social and economic relevance. Challenging Issues in Fine and Applied Arts By and large, if the objectives of fine and applied art education as stated in NPE is truly pursued, it will contribute to poverty alleviation and the sustainability of social and economic development of the nation via job creation.

However, realistic as this may be, there are inherent problems that fine and applied art education facing in its development. Notable among them are: There is the need for a deliberate and purposeful training of art teachers for the nations school system. There are many schools that do not have qualified staff to teach art. The other problem areas affecting art education fine and applied art , which are inadequate teaching facilities. Research in art education Gofar, ; Ubangida, ; Barnabas, , shows that, most schools are faced with the issue of lack of art materials and purpose-build art studios in secondary and colleges of education for the teaching of art.

This should be a serious cause for concern because of the facilities are not available the teaching of art is at best an exercise in futility. The student-artist cannot acquire artistic skills without the materials. One of the factors that constitute problems in the learning, and teaching of art in Nigeria, is the ambivalent negative attitude of Nigerian society and event the government towards the subject.

This situation has created for teachers of art a serious dilemma of reconciling an already falling standard of education. Mbahi , noted that, there is the misconception in the society that because art is a practical work and not academic, that art teacher is inferior in personality and should claim, the same status with his colleagues in the academic areas. This has affected enrolment in art teaching. It has also leads to the non-availability of trained art teachers with requisite experience. Also, the lack of recognition of the subject of its importance by the populace and even the government is another problem facing the subject.

The issue of social identity is another problem in terms of material value and position in education. Many students and parents see the subjects in terms of material value. Subjects like medicine, science, engineering among others are therefore considered by students and parents Mbahi, There is the problem of inadequate curriculum planning and development. We are in the age of computer and information technology that require a complete reformation or reviewed of school curriculum.

Art programmes at all levels of education needs this review of curriculum. Many of those who participate in curriculum planning are not educationist but subject specialist. Curriculum specialists should be given the chance to review curriculum. Suggestions for Improvement To achieve the stated objectives of art education Fine and Applied Arts at all level of education, government, private organization, parents, individuals and all stake-holders in the national educative process should jointly work to provide whatever human material and financial resources to ensure improved quality art education programme.

These resources according to Ukeje and Mbahi , should include: Adequate Preparation of Qualified Art Teachers: Shortage of manpower has restrict many schools from introducing art in their schools, government should supply and keep effective qualified art teachers at various levels by giving special inducement grants. The current number of art teachings should be doubled more especially at NCE level of intake in art courses.

Indicators of a conducive teaching-learning environment are: Availability of variety of art materials helps both art teachers and students develop life long skills. Mamza Recommendations The following recommendations arising from the forgoing discussions will go a long way towards making art education a viable vehicle for self-reliance in the 21st century. Art education fine and applied arts need to quickly and rapidly respond to the changing needs of the society and the demands of the global realities and also to guarantee survival and competitiveness.

This should be done by curriculum specialist not subject specialist. This should be done in the area of special incentives to the teachers, supply of art materials and equipment. It is time that without high quality art teachers in the right quantity; no appreciable progress can be recorded. Therefore, efforts should be made to increase, the rate of training and retention of art teachers.

Conclusion This paper has tried to look at the fine and applied art education and the National Policy on Education in Nigeria. The paper also considered along side the challenging issues like shortage of qualified art teachers, lack of art materials and facilities, negative attitude of individuals and the government towards the subject among others has affected the teaching of the subject at all levels of education. By and large, it can be concluded that with the emphasis now on education for self-reliance, the nation rely upon to bring about change in the 21st century.

Case study of some primary schools in Kaduna State. Thesis, Department of Fine Arts, A. An investigation into the teaching of art in some selected secondary schools in Tafawa Balewa L. Federal Republic of Nigeria National policy on education, 4th edition. Yaba, Lagos — Nigeria. Measurement of the relationship between continuous assessment score and performance in art. Lagos — Academy Press. Oxford University Press Oxford dictionary of current English. Reading — Coy and Wyman Ltd. An evaluation of art programmes in some selected secondary schools in Taraba.

Understanding art in general education, 3rd edition Art Education Series. Teacher education in Nigeria: Current status, 21st century challenges and strategies for improvement. Citing an evaluation of the programme operation carried by Ichukwu in the state the writer concludes that in terms of quantity of teachers, the programme is succeeding in the state. The paper also discussed barriers to effective programme operation in the state, identified as poor and irregular inspection of study centres by the NTI officers, use of under qualified tutors, poor and irregular supply of course materials and insufficient information of examination dates.

Recommendations that could make room for effective operation of the programme are made. Introduction The teacher is the key in the entire education programme for he can make or mar the best education programme in the world. No adequate training at whatever level of education can take place without competent teachers to handle the training programme.

Thus, education has been said to be what teachers make of it, and competent, devoted and professionally spirited body of teachers is the essential foundation for a good education system Fafunwa, This goes to say that excellent educational policies in themselves are meaningless unless there are equally excellent teachers to see to their implementation. The effectiveness of any educational system depends on the availability and equality of teachers, since no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers.

It is not an over statement to say that primary school teachers are the corner stones of the educational system since the primary school is the foundation on which other levels of education are built. Thus, teachers in the primary schools should be properly and adequately prepared in order to impart sound knowledge to the primary school children who are in their foundation level.

Primary Arts Education: Contemporary Issues

As stipulated in Decree No. Following the decree, the institute had organized programmes in retraining and upgrading unqualified primary school teachers and also organized refresher courses for teachers in Teacher Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development, Volume 8 No. However, the implementation varies as a result of the peculiarities amongst the different Nationals. In other words, each Distance Education has its national characteristics. These peculiarities are due to the level of development. Fafunwa remarked that the level of technological development has a significant role to play in the dissemination of Distance Education, as the use of electronic gadgets is a major factor.

A modular system of course material has been put together by experts and professionals in their relevant fields. In addition to these modular course books, which are simplified for users to be able to study on their own, students have opportunity to meet with appointed course tutors on part time basic for tutorial and counselling periodically at the study centers in various parts of the Federation.

Each course is organized in four cycles corresponding to four calendar years. A total of 52 weeks in the year is spent in the following ways: Of the remaining 39 weeks that is in the year, each student is expected to study for a minimum of 2 hours a day. For a module of 10 units, this will be 15 hours. From the minimum time available to the student in 4 years, it means, he will be able to cover 2, This is approximately modules of course materials. Each teaching subject in the programme has 36 modules.

These put together, all the number of modules a student is expected to cover at the end of the programme are modules that is: Education Course - 36 Modules ii. Primary Education Studies - 50 Modules iii. Teaching Subject - 36 Modules iv. The remaining hours was assumed to accommodate slow readers and in-built assignments of the course materials.

Evaluation of students is done through continuous assessment and examination. The responsibility for the conduct and administration of the examinations rests with the institute while the standardization and quality control of the programme rest with the board formed by the co-operating Universities.

Since the programme operate a Distance Learning System, each students is expected to go at his own pace but a minimum of 4 years is required for reasons of logistics. Each of these centres has a Supervisor, some course tutors and a good number of pre-serves and serving teachers of the programme. In line with the organization of the programme, the activities in each of these centers are expected to be monitored by the co-ordinator of the State office.

The supervisors of each of the study centre under whom the course tutors work, on the other hand, is responsible to the co-ordinator and he monitors the activities of the course tutors and students at the study centre s. The course tutors on their own are expected to guide the students on how to make proper use of the NTI Course Material; do real teaching, wherever the need arises, and acts as academic guides and mentors to their students.

In a study conducted by Ichukwu , an attempt was made to investigate the effectiveness of the programme operation and the adequacy in the training of the students through the programme so as to ascertain whether the programme objectives were being achieved in the state. Results of the study revealed that quantitatively the programme objective were being achieved judging the number of the products within the period. Between the years of the programmes first grandaunts and , there were a total of serving teachers of the programme in the state. In addition, the programme has pre-service teachers at the time.

Table 1, provides the picture of primary school teachers in Benue State by qualification at the time of the study. Thesis, Institute of Education, University of Ibadan, pp. Qualitatively, however the same study proved that the programme was wanting. Using ANOVA and chi-square x2 statistical analysis, findings revealed the four groups of respondents Pre-service and serving teachers, course tutors and headmasters differed significantly in their ratings of the products of the programmes hence in the perceptions they hold of the preparation of the products in the programme. It was only the pre-service and serving teachers who came to a somewhat agreement as to the attainment they think they make from the programme.

Barriers to Effective Programme Operation in the State The barriers to the effective programme operation as found in the study were: This poor attitude could lad to inefficient performance of duty by the supervisors of the study centres as well as he course tutors.


Schedule of activities at the centres might not be trickily followed as might be reported on paper. The Benue State Experience ii The use of very low criteria for the recommendation of the course tutors and supervisors of the study centres. The use of these under qualified teachers was a major barriers to the programme operation so much so that the course tutors themselves lamented over the use of secondary school teachers as the bulk of NTI staff.

On the contrary, however, the programme was considered very costly for the government to run. This explains why a study centre must be viable, which implies that few students in a particular location may not attract a study centre because of the overhead cost of running such a centre. And indeed the government is not getting good values for the expenditure made on running the programme. Socially, the programme was reported to bring recognition to the students as it boots their professional ego. Social interaction was, however, reported to be poor due to its organization. Recommendations No nation can rise above the quality of its teachers.

Since in any building the foundation is more important than the super-structure, the primary school teacher who teaches at the foundation level must as a matter of fact be very competent academically and professionally. In the regard it is recommended that all barriers to effective operation of the programme should be dealt away with. Thus, there should be adequate facilities as well as course materials at the study centres.

There is, therefore, need to evaluate the infrastructural facilities at the centres from time to time with a view to improving on such facilities. In addition, there should be effective means of communication between the programme directors, implementers and students. Activities like supplying of course materials, examinations resist and release of result should have their fixed time. Fund should be made available to the programme directors for effective management.

Course tutors are to be employed on permanent basic as the temporal nature of their employment makes dedication minimal and above all course tutors should have qualification of M. Then, the programme should be operated in close association with regular NCE programmes and students should be sent out to schools other than where they teach for their teaching practice. The Purpose of teacher education. Proceedings of the National Conference th Sept. National Policy on Education. Classroom Skills in English Teaching.

A self —Appraisal Frame Works. Possess good knowledge of texts and other resources Appropriate to classroom use. Classroom Management The Programme Products can: However, like other forms of transport, air transport is exposed to the reality of accidents, which usually results in loss of lives and properties. From take-off to landing, an aircraft is prone to a number of unfavourable conditions that often leads to aircraft accident and that problem is not limited to a particular section of the world but it is a global phenomena.

It is against this background that this paper takes a global view of air accident occurrence and identify their causes, after which corrective measures were examined. The study which is based on the aviation accident records for a period of fifty years observed, among others, that although air accident fatalities have flunctuated over the years, there is an indication of a downward trend before the sudden jump in Furthermore the study shows that a greater percentage of aircraft accidents occurred in the developing countries and that almost half of air accident worldwide do happen during final approach and landing.

Factors of aircraft accidents causation worldwide are found to be varied and diversed in nature. The paper suggests among other things the adoption of a pragmatic and useful conceptual approach, which would have taken into consideration all known factors of air accident occurrence. Introduction The significant role of transport in promoting any nation overall development cannot be overemphasized. Transport affects all facets of human endeavour and it may therefore, be described as a catalyst in the process of economic, social, political and environmental development of a nation.

In fact, Adeniji has likened transport to human blood circulation system whose healthy functioning is a necessary condition for the sustenance of human life. Transport creates time and place utilities by changing the geographical position of goods and people Benson and Whitehead, This role becomes more significant if one realised that, spatial pattern of demand does not correspond with spatial availability of supply. Therefore, transport is needed as an intervening opportunity to overcome the spatial differences and regional inequalities.

Through technological advancement man has been able to develop various form of transport that enable him to travel in any medium of the environment through water, land and air. Air transport is one of the relatively recent mode of transportation being developed at a very fast rate. Because of the fast technological progress in aviation industry and the consequent speed advantage of aircraft over all other modes of transport, air transport has become one of the media for bridging the distance among countries, Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development, Volume 8 No.

According to Benson and Whitehead , air transport has also played a pivotal role in the discovery and in the settlement development of many parts of world. Besides it is currently performing a great role in the global politics and economics and in the promotion of satellite communication. Since aircrafts are not tied to the surface and have the ability to fly above terrestrial obstacles, it is said that the earoplane has the freedom of air and a freedom that is denied other forms of transport. However, like other forms of transport, air transport is exposed to the reality of accidents, which usually result in loss of lives and properties.

From take-off to landing, an aircraft is prone to a number of unfavourable conditions.

These often lead to aircraft accidents, often with no route of escape when they happen and when they do occur the loss of lives tends to be high. Such tragic events, like those that occurred in Nigeria in , in which hundreds of people were sent to their untimely but avoidable deaths have not only evoked considerable public interest, they have also undoubtedly shaken the confidence of some people leading to their phobia for air travel.

The issues relating to civil aviation go beyond national boundaries and the matter affecting airways, air travels and safety is controlled at International levels. In view of this fact, all national authorities in the world over are subject to the rules and regulations of the world overall controlling body — the International Civil Aviation Organisation ICAO - and the problem of air traffic accident occurrence is better viewed from global perspective.

It is against this background that this paper takes a look at the air accident situation across the globe and identify their causes, after which the corrective measures are examined. The study is based on the aviation accident records for a period of fifty years i. World Air Accidents Situation All modes of transport are prone to accidents. Thus, in spite of all measures and standards put in place by the International and National Civil Aviation Authorities, airways worldwide like other forms of transportation is also bedeviled by accidents.

Roberto , has classified accident as the occurrence that are usually sudden and unexpected, often accompanied by loss of human life, that inflicts on all or part of society suffering, harm, temporary breakdown of existing vital systems, materials losses or considerable obstacles to social and economic activities. By this definition, Airplane accident is an occurrence associated with the operation of an airplane that takes place between the time any person boards the airplane with the intention of flight and such time as all persons have disembarked in which the airplane itself sustains substantial damage or any person suffer serious injuries or death as a result of being in or upon the airplane, having direct contact with the airplane or anything attached thereto or having direct exposure to jet blast.

Benner , is of the opinion that an accident is a multi-event phenomenon involving more than one actor whose actions occur in specified chronological sequence to achieve a harmful or outcome of interest and that there are three general concepts of accidents which seem prevalent; these are accident as a single event, accident as single chain of events and accident as a branch chain of events.

The first accident of an aircraft was recorded in , during a demonstration flight conducted by Orville Wright one of the Wright brothers. Though this crash did not result in death, it highlighted the nature of power flight and the obvious pitfalls and risks involved. Ever since this first incidence, there have been many reported cases of aviation accidents, crashes and disasters in which many lives and properties are lost with socio-economic implication of such losses being enormous. The records of global air traffic accidents from to is presented in Table 1 below.

According to the Table, about 2, cases of air transport accidents were reported in all regions of the world during the 50 years under review. This means an average of about 49 aircraft accidents every year. The number of people killed stood at 69, i. Aviation Safety Network The Table further showed that, there were fluctuation in the trend of the number of accidents and fatalities between and The highest number of accidents occurred in and when each year recorded 72 accidents while the lowest was in , with 29 cases of air traffic accidents.

The information presented in Table 1, also shows that, there were 87, victims that were involved in the air traffic accidents between and Out of this figure, the number of deaths were When the number of victims that died on the ground is considered on yearly basis, the year alone recorded The pattern of air accident fatalities and the trend between and shows that, although the fatalities have flunctuated within the period, the trend has indicated that fatalities have actually been on the decrease especially since before the sudden jump in The occurrence in , no doubt is a dangerous trend that must not be allowed to continue in the interest of the aviation industry and the general public who board the plane.

Figure 1, shows the graphical representation of when air accidents do happen. It is noticeable from the figure that about Factors of Accident Causation There are several models and theories that attempt to provide a framework for explaining accident occurrence. One of such models is the epidemiological model of accidents. The model suggested that accident could be mirrored. In addition, it supports the view that accidents are a multi- faceted phenomenon with numerous diverse causal factors. The model sets to give an explanation to the amount of publicity i.

According to the pyramid, there are four types of possible occurrences namely significant accidents, incidents, aircraft defects and unreported occurrences and the amount of information available is directly proportional to the severity of hazard Ranter, This indicates that the more severe an accident is, the more the information that is available about it, while the relative amount of information tapers downwards as the hazards becomes less severe.

Accidents, as noted earlier, are unforeseen act that may result in the destruction of lives and properties. In relation to civil aviation, accidents could be evaluated by classification into pre-crash and post-crash phases. The pre-crash phase consists of period before the occurrence of air accidents or disasters and this phase is concerned with standards, regulations and safety measures put in place to prevent the occurrence of air accidents.

The post crash phase on the other hand, consists of the activities that are grouped into three different stages namely emergency stage, rehabilitation, search and rescue stage and reconstruction stage. From take-off to landing, an aircraft is prone to a number of unfavourable conditions, which often lead to aircraft accident. These conditions are basically grouped into three: Human Factors Human factors refer to the accidents caused as a result of the human angle towards interfacing with machines.

In the execution of duties, it is known that even though these duties may be routine or repetitive in nature, mistakes are often made. In human factors terms, a SHEL model represents the interrelationships between three types of resources and their environment. The acronym SHEL represents: Each of the above mentioned resources in the SHEL model interacts with each other and by so doing complement themselves.

By removing or treating anyone of them as inferior and of less importance than another will have a negative impact on safety Krause, Human factor in aircraft accidents can be classified into pilot, traffic controller and passenger induced error. A traffic controller who is either under the effect of alcohol or not attentive may issue conflicting information to pilots with regards to landing.

Passengers on the other hand are known to have unknowingly carried materials or equipments that caused fire or distorted radio signals Awake, , Daily Sunray, Other human factors include controlled flight into terrain CFIT , people working into propellers and unstablised approaches, etc. Mechanical This factor is based on the fact that anything mechanical can fail. The point at which it may fail can be reasonably predicted but cannot actually be determined in practice in most instances.

A general estimation can be made based on calculations and tests but ultimately this does not guarantee the elimination of the probability of failure no matter how remote this may be. Technical faults include all forms of engine failure, failure of tyre to disengage or tyre bursts etc. The availability of good functioning navigational facilities is also crucial to air safety. The absence of these facilities have at different occasions caused problems which most of time had fatal consequences.

Weather This being a natural phenomenon comes in many forms such as storms, freak high winds, extreme turbulence, icing, and fog among others. These externalities are expected as a direct result of the impact of the environment on transportation. Also at times flights have had to be cancelled, re-scheduled or re-directed due to bad weather. Corrective Measures at Global Air Accidents Reduction Perhaps a good starting point would be the adoption of a pragamatic and useful conceptual approach which would have taken into consideration all the factors of air accident occurrence identified in this paper bearing in mind the fact that no one will wish to fly out as a passenger and come back as a large.

Furthermore, the following specific steps are recommended: Efforts should be made to ensure that the navigational aids and communication equipment in particular are managed according to ICAO Standards. In addition, there may be need by ICAO to yearly or occasionally visit and assess facilities at the various airports across the globe to enforce strict compliance. There must always be adequate fire cover for extinguishing fire, which may exist at any time an aircraft is landing or taking-off.

They should also pay particular attention to the weather problem and find ways of minimizing its impact on both the aircraft and the pilot. If accidents at the critical phases can be reduced then the occurrences of air accidents, and loss of lives and properties would have been drastically reduced, thereby, restoring the full confidence of travelers in air transport.

In this way, the confidence of air travelers in all parts of the world would be restored and the phobia occasioned by possibilities of accidents in certain parts of the world would be greatly minimized. In every accident or incident a lesson will surely be learnt as no two accidents or incidents are the same in terms of the cause, sequence of the events that has led to them, the phase at which the accidents have occurred, and other factors.

Such lesson that is learnt at one accident or incident will become a ready tool in preventing and or handling subsequent accidents and incidents. This is with a view to sanction those that engage in unprofessional dangerous practices and those that do not pay enough attention to procedures and regulations that are in place to protect themselves and the public at large.

In conclusion, in spite of all odds, air affords the safest means of movement of people and freight, as the number of occurrences of accidents is comparatively manageable relative to other modes of transport. When viewed against this background, there is the need for better education of the public and professionals alike in the benefits and relative safety of air travel. In particular, if all the issues raised in this paper are properly addressed, the aviation industry will enjoyed a better level of sanity with its attendant safer skies in the years ahead.

Transport Challenges in Nigeria in the next two decades. You can make flying safer. Transport and Distribution made simple. Weather Elements — A Test in Elementary. Meteorology Prentice — Hall. Portable Computer Threaten Aircraft, March 5th. Daily Sun, Thursday 19th January, , pg. Nigerian Geographical Journal, Vol. Flight International The Error that could happen. International Standard and recommended practices on security.

Access to Air Safety Information. Accidents in Nigeria causes, trends and lessons.

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Paper for Vision, , Abuja, Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics Handbook. The Geography of Air Transport. Road Safety problem in the Third World. The Urban edge 14 June, Meteorology and public safety. Abstract This paper has noted the chronic case of negative attitude towards Vocational, technical and by implication technological education among Nigerians and the consequences of the situation on the technological, industrial and socio-economic development of the country. It has noted the efforts so far made by the Federal Republic of Nigeria to address the issue. These efforts include the establishment of variety of educational institutions with assorted educational programmes, with reference to the social changes and demands on education by society.

The paper has taken a look at the Nigerian vocational, technical and technology teacher education curriculum and the criticisms put forward against the curriculum and its products. It has also looked at the manner in which technology teacher education is fashioned in other places of the world. This paper has seen the merit of de- merging vocational and technical teacher education curriculum from technology education Intro-tech curriculum and has suggested that Nigeria should see the need to effect the de-merger and consequently, borrow a leaf from what is happening elsewhere for more effective and efficient technology education intro-tech programmes in the country, provided what is borrowed is relevant and within the reach of the nation.

The subject has been made a core and compulsory one for all Nigerian youths. The idea is quite laudable and worth embracing very seriously by all Nigerians because the daily life of modern people is closely linked with technology. This situation has therefore, called for a more intensive study of technology technology education so as to enable all human beings cope with the increasing freedom and responsibility brought about by technology, especially in developing countries like Nigeria where until recently, most people regarded vocational, technical and by implication technology education as some what inferior to other types of education.

Until recently, most Nigerians regarded vocational, technical and by extension technological education as somewhat inferior to other types of education. The magnitude of the level of negative attitude towards these aspects of education mentioned in fact, indoctrinated most Nigerians to feel that, it was a waste of financial resources developing them at all. Consequently, educational development in these aspects went very low compared with other aspects. There were fewer technological institutions when compared with institutions for studies in other areas of human endeavour.

According to Adefaye They consider these aspects of education as very inferior to others and refuse to be trained in them. As a result, most Nigerian youths do not possess the skills required of them in various areas of human endeavour and cannot be employed. The country cannot spawn organic productive sector because it lacks competent and dedicated workforce in the technological areas of human endeavour. Secondly, appropriate tools and other manufacturing equipment cannot be fabricated and put to use for meaningful industrialization.

The country has become a dumping ground for absolute technological products from technologically advanced countries of the world. Poverty has reigned and the citizens are unhappy with a situation they are a party to the creation. Nigeria, therefore, launched the introductory technology intro- tech subject in her JSS.

The objectives of the intro-tech are to provide pre-vocational and technical education orientation for further training in technology; provide basic technological literacy for every day living and stimulate creativity in Nigerian youths Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Technology FMEST , The curriculum for intro-tech has unfortunately, come to stay for over twenty-four 24 years without review, with all the criticisms put forward against it.

One reason that may be put forward for the non-review of the intro-tech subject curriculum may be that its teachers are not academically and as a group strong to defend their course. They have no strong association to present their course especially that their Post-Nigeria Certificate in Education NCE studies qualify them as vocational and technical educators instead of technology education or intro-tech teachers to essentially teach intro-tech.

They have the option to teach at the technical colleges, colleges of education, polytechnics and senior secondary school vocational education programmes rather than teach intro- tech at the JSS. The Federal Republic of Nigeria has however, done a beautiful work of establishing assorted educational institutions charged with the responsibility of promoting technological studies at the secondary and tertiary levels of education so as to enable the country cope with the social changes and demands on education by society FRN, The issue of coming up with appropriate and relevant curricula at all levels of Nigerian educational system is a task that must be done.

It is worth noting that no two societies are exactly alike nor have identical needs and problems and consequently, the programmes meant to solve the problems and satisfy the needs of one society may not be satisfactory when applied to another group Onwuka, However, nations could borrow a leaf from the experience of other nations provided such borrowed aspects satisfy the needs of the borrowing countries and are within reach. The teaching of intro-tech subject at the JSS in Nigeria has to some extent become an area that requires training which is non-wholesale of vocational and technical education approach, but more of a general education concept.

The method of organizing, presenting and evaluating intro-tech subject matter needs to be different from those of vocational and technical education. Vocational and technical education deal with training in trades or specialized areas for job-specific training while intro-tech technology education is the study of technology as a whole and has no area of specialization. Secondly, technology as a subject is very wide since technology is an applied concept and touches every aspects of human endeavour and is consequently, a very broad field.

But the institutions for vocational and technical teacher education in Nigeria have so far been making effort to kill two birds with one stone by designing one curriculum to train both vocational and technical teachers and intro-tech teachers technology education teachers. This form of teacher preparation appear not to be the best for both aspects of vocational and technical education and technology education intro-tech.

According to Olaitan, as cited in Ndomi, Similarly, sound technological education programmes can best be designed and implemented by interested, dedicated, knowledgeable, skillful and right attitude directed technology educators who are trained using such appropriate curricula. The objectives of the two aspects of education are quite different and consequently, require different approaches in teaching and evaluation.

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The fact that a naval, air-force and infantry officers are all military officers does not mean that a naval officer will definitely find it easy to perform the job of an air-force or infantry officer effectively, unless with appropriate longer time training to cover the scope and in-depth of competencies expected in the two or more areas. In same vein, the technology education intro-tech teacher should work towards attaining high level qualification in the teaching of technology as a general education subject.

All the various talents are provided to human beings for proper coordination to enable man lives a happy, comfortable and satisfying life here on earth. Consequently, even at the senior secondary school, there is still need to offer technology education as a general education subject for those students who may not be talented to end up as craftsmen, technicians or engineers but to have technology education for technological literacy and every day living to enable them cope with available technology and use it safely and wisely. Need for a Redress The Need to Separate Technology Teacher Education Curriculum from Vocational and Technical Teacher Education Curriculum The issue of separate curriculum to prepare technology education teachers therefore, becomes essential and requires being redressed by stakeholders.

According to Herschbach , the difficulty in coming up with a curriculum for the study of technology is partly due to the complexity of the area. In same vein, it is not easy to come up with a technology teacher education curriculum that will satisfy the demand of the objectives of the intro-tech subject even at the JSS, not to talk of a curriculum that will cover the senior secondary school. But there is no point waiting for the subject to reach the senior secondary school before preparing the teachers to cope with the situation.

There is definitely, the need to extend the study of technology as a general education subject to cover the Senior Secondary School SSS and consequently, to also prepare teachers to teach the subject at JSS and SSS just as it is the case in other subject areas. This situation will cause teachers at the NCE level of preparation to be more dedicated to the teaching of the subject with the knowledge that the qualification is not a dead-end type but extends to a degree level with the possibility of specializing in technology education intro-tech and teaching at the SSS too. According to Moss Therefore, relevant technology teacher behaviours be identified and appreciably molded through a pattern of competencies and be built into the technology teacher education curriculum and used in preparing technology teachers.

One of the reasons why many vocational and technical education teachers in Nigeria are not doing well in their teaching assignment may be traceable to the issue of overloaded curricula which does not give room for adequate scope and in-depth practice of essential learning experiences. It is high time the issue be looked into and remedied for more efficient and effective performance of these teachers.

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The present vocational and technical teacher education curriculum has been criticized for being inadequate. According to Offorma, as cited in Olaitan and Ekong, Olaitan and Ekong Experiences show that most of the science and technology facilities are still in the packs they came with from the source of purchase and teachers who could use them are ignorant of the operations… as a result of inadequate or no training on these equipment and machines. A prima facie analysis of the NCE tech curriculum which is used to prepare essentially NCE intro-tech teachers for the country shows that like the intro-tech subject curriculum it lacks adequate blend of Nigerian indigenous technologies with the imported modern technologies.

Consequently, the country will continue to depend on imported ideas, materials and finished products. The situation will continue to cause Nigeria to have no technological independence, even in terms of spare parts to the imported items like automobiles, industrial machines and equipment, and household appliances. This situation is also making most Nigerians to develop more taste for imported materials and products than local ones. Technology Teacher Education Curriculum in the United States of America The idea of the study of technology as a general education subject appears to have been spear headed by the United States of America.

The standards for technological literacy: In a study conducted by Daugherty , it was found out that there was disagreement in technology teacher education curricular offerings. Need for a Redress prefer an undergraduate programme that revolves around more traditional industrial curriculum organizers. However, almost all respondents agreed that the standards for technological literacy are a worthy target for technology teacher education. Daugherty, therefore, urges technology teacher educators to consider making substantial changes in their curricular offerings.

ITEA , created professional development standards to provide standards of performance and guidelines for teacher professional development to include content on student learners, curriculum design and evaluation, instructional strategies, learning environment management, professional growth and the assessment of professional development programmes. The ITEA standards, on content and professional development of technology teachers issued a challenge for all technology teacher education programmes to revise their curricular offerings and teaching methodologies to align with the standards and prepare technology teachers to adhere to the content standards which implies a clear departure from traditional offerings at institutions of higher learning.

According to NAS, as cited in Daugherty, , technology teacher education accrediting bodies should provide incentives for institutions of higher education to transform the preparation of all teachers to better equip them to teach about technology throughout the curriculum. This action further implies that teachers of technology must approach the teaching of the subject from an engineering perspective rather than an industrial arts perspective.

Teachers are expected to be fully conversant with the standards for technological literacy and familiar with the materials and techniques for teaching those standards. It is hoped that this will enable her achieve the educational objectives for preparing fertile ground for the germination and growth of technological seeds; technological literacy and stimulation of creativity in Nigerians. Consequently, the following recommendations are put forward. The NCCE should consider the issue and initiate a de-merging process of the technology teacher education curriculum from the vocational and technical teacher education curriculum.

The National Universities Commission NUC and universities that offer Post-NCE technical degree programmes should also consider and initiate similar de-merging process so that their respective multipurpose degree programmes curricula will be re-engineered to have specializations in vocational and technical education and technology education. The Federal Ministry of Education should review the objectives of the intro-tech programme in the entire secondary school context and revise the intro-tech curriculum and extend the study of technology as a general education subject to the senior secondary school.

Technology teacher education programmes should make effort to revise their curricular offerings and teaching methodologies to match the objectives of the subject at the secondary school level. The intro-tech teaching and learning approach should de-emphasize workplace skills and emphasize design, technological literacy and exploration of technological occupations. Conclusion Considering the fact that the study of technology has received international recognition, although it is being carried out with different perspectives and varying levels of technological development of individual countries, one could see the need for Nigeria to borrow a leaf from other countries for more effectiveness and efficiency of the programme in the country.

The aspects to be borrowed should be relevant and meet the needs of Nigeria, and should be within the reach of the nation. There is therefore need for Nigeria to redress the issue of using one curriculum to train both vocational and technical education teachers and technology education intro-tech teachers.

The de- merger will do Nigeria some good because if teachers of vocational and technical education are prepared with adequate and appropriate objectives, they will perform better on the job. Same result will be achieved if technology education intro-tech teachers are trained using reviewed appropriate technology education objectives and curriculum.

Neglect of technical, vocational education increases youth unemployment-Don. UN comes out with blueprint on education. Paradigm shift and challenges of the twenty-first century in technical and vocational education. What should schools teach? A guide to practice pp.

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Issues in technology education. The interdependence of scientific and technological literacy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38 7 , The role of research in improving learning technological concepts and skills. The context of technological literacy. International Journal of Technology and Design, 12 3 , Need for a Redress Daugherty, M. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 42 1. Retrieved September 7, , from http: Secondary Education 43 1 , Standards for technological literacy. Kappan professional Journal, 82 7 , Retrieved March 15, , from http: International perspectives on technological literacy.

Summer Educational Publishers Limited. National Curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools volume 2-pre-vocational. National Policy on Education Rev. National Policy on Education 4th ed. Reflections and insights for technological literacy. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education 34 3 Curriculum change in technology education: Journal of Technology Education 3 2.

Retrieved January 1, , from file: Retrieved January 2, , from file: Standards for technological literacy: Content for the study of technology. Advancing excellence in technological literacy: Student Assessment, professional development, and program standards. Nigerian technology development since independence: The state of development and the strategy of transformation. A school subject in the making? The search for fundamental. Training for effective implementation of the pre-vocational aspect of the new policy on education. Assumptions underlying pre-service programs for beginning-level vocational teachers.

Why all Americans need to know more about technology. Minimum standards for NCE teachers: A re-examination of technical and vocational education curriculum in Nigeria: Implication for the implementation of competency-based education. Mechanisms for improving the skill content of the curriculum for technical college agro-mechanics trades in Gombe State. Technophobia in Nigerian Science and technology teachers. A study on the technological literacy of elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. Retrieved March 24, , from http: Digital Library and Archives.

Retrieved January 20, , from file: An elusive vision for undergraduate technology teacher education in the United States. Abstract Nigerian females are being discriminated against in the acquisition of school education. This has resulted in the enrolment and retention of more males than females in schools.

This paper therefore, examines these areas of discrimination and the benefits the home and nation stand to derive from educating the girl-child. It also discussed efforts made so far to create gender balance within the Nigerian educational system and concludes with some recommendations for helping girls to attend and remain in school. Introduction Girls the world over, face series of social and economic barriers to both enrolment and survival in school.

Nigerian women are no exception as they had been discriminated against in the acquisition of school education. According to Amayo and Ehigie , acquisition of knowledge is one of the prerequisites of human development. Women who happened to be an integral part of the human race for which that knowledge is expected to develop, are to a greater extent discriminated against. For instance, the Constitution of Nigeria stipulates among others, that women had the right not to be discriminated against on the basis of sex.