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Abstracts from Muscle Study Group Annual Scientific Meeting: The Changing Landscape of NeuroMuscular Disease: The Future is Here, St. Catherines – Oxford.
Table of contents
- Ultrasound of nerve and muscle.
- Nerve, muscle, and neuromuscular junction electrophysiology at high temperature.
- 2.2.1 The Main Parts of the Nerve Cell
- Supplemental Content
- Nerve, muscle, and neuromuscular junction electrophysiology at high temperature. - PubMed - NCBI
The kinetics of voltage-gated ion channels. Principles of Physiology , 6th edn. Translational models for cardiac arrhythmogenesis. From Neuron to Brain: Cellular Approach to the Function of the Nervous System, 3rd edn. The Initiation of the Heartbeat , 3rd edn. The Music of Life: From Cell to Bedside.
On the summation of propagated disturbances in nerve and muscle. The voltage dependence of membrane capacity. Charge movement in the membrane of striated muscle. On the repetitive discharge in myotonic muscle fibres. Reconstruction of the action potential of frog sartorius muscle.
Focused electric field across the voltage sensor of potassium channels. Neuron 48 , 25— Current related to the movement of the gating particle of the sodium channels. Nature , — Simultaneous recording of membrane potential, calcium transient and tension in single muscle fibres. The effect of changes in internal ionic concentrations on the electrical properties of perfused giant axons. Translation of exogenous messenger RNA coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors produces functional receptors in Xenopus oocytes.
Ultrasound of nerve and muscle.
Potassium accumulation in muscle and associated changes. The recording of potentials from motoneurones with an intracellular electrode. Large-scale movement within the voltage-sensor paddle of a potassium channel-support for a helical-screw motion. Neuron 59 , — Post junctional adrenergic mechanisms. Chemistry of muscle contraction. Adenosine triphosphate and phosphoryl creatine as energy supplies for single contractions of working muscle.
The utilization of phosphate bond energy for sodium extrusion from giant axons. Molecular properties of voltage-sensitive sodium channels.
Nerve, muscle, and neuromuscular junction electrophysiology at high temperature.
Cellular and molecular biology of voltage-gated ion channels. A one-domain voltage-gated sodium channel in bacteria. Science , — Evidence for two types of sodium conductance in axons perfused with sodium fluoride solution. Electric impedance of the squid giant axon during activity.
Fast events in single-channel currents activated by acetylcholine and its analogues at the frog muscle end-plate. Nature and significance of concentration relations of potassium and sodium ions in skeletal muscle. Excitatory synaptic action in motoneurones. The specific ionic conductances and the ionic movements across the motoneuronal membrane that produce the inhibitory postsynaptic potential. Release of acetylcholine at voluntary motor nerve endings. The Permeability of Natural Membranes.
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- 2.1 INTRODUCTION.
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Quantal components of the end-plate potential. On the localization of acetylcholine receptors. On increasing the velocity of a nerve impulse. Pacemaker mechanisms in cardiac tissue. A model of cardiac electrical activity incorporating ionic pumps and concentration changes. The structure of the potassium channel: Science , 69— The Physiology of Synapses. The string galvanometer and measurement of the action currents of the heart. Republished in in Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine — Textbook of Physiology, 11th edn. Electrical Signs of Nervous Activity. University of Pennsylvania Press.
An analysis of the end-plate potential recorded with an intracellular electrode. Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings. The ultrastructure of cat myocardium. Membrane potential stabilization in amphibian skeletal muscle fibres in hypertonic solutions. The action of calcium on the electrical properties of squid axons. Structure and development of e—c coupling units in skeletal muscle. A quantitative analysis of cell volume and resting potential determination and regulation in excitable cells. Quantitative techniques for steady-state calculation and dynamic integrated modelling of membrane potential and intracellular ion concentrations.
The effect of intracellular acidification on the relationship between cell volume and membrane potential in amphibian skeletal muscle. The tubular vacuolation process in amphibian skeletal muscle. Cell Motility 19 , — The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. A model relating the structure of the sodium channel to its functions. Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches.
The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle. A challenge to biochemists. Acta 4 , 4— The dimensions of animals and their muscular dynamics. The four phases of heat production of muscle. The hydration of sodium ions crossing the nerve membrane. The relation between conduction velocity and the electrical resistance outside a nerve fibre. The ionic basis of electrical activity in nerve and muscle. Ionic movements and electrical activity in giant nerve fibres.
The optimum density of sodium channels in an unmyelinated nerve. The Story of Truly Loco Locomotion. The Neuromuscular Junction Spreading the Word: Muscle Excitation Let's Move: The Events of Muscular Contraction. Where Nerve Meets Muscle: The Axon So at the end of every neuron, there is an axon, which is just the terminal end of the neuron The axon then divides into bunches of individual branches that each lead up to the sarcolemma see below.
The very end of the axon forms an enlarged area called the bouton. Inside the bouton there are lots of vesicles, or sacs, that have acetylcholine ACh in them. ACh is a neurotransmitter, or a molecule that your nervous system uses to transmit messages.
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- Ultrasound of nerve and muscle. - PubMed - NCBI.
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- 2.2.2 The Cell Membrane!
- Result Filters!
The part of the synapse that is on the side of the axon is called the presynaptic terminal ; that part on the side of the adjacent cell is called the postsynaptic terminal. Between these terminals, there exists a gap, the synaptic cleft, with a thickness of 10 - 50 nm.
The fact that the impulse transfers across the synapse only in one direction, from the presynaptic terminal to the postsynaptic terminal, is due to the release of a chemical transmitter by the presynaptic cell. This transmitter, when released, activates the postsynaptic terminal, as shown in Figure 2. The synapse between a motor nerve and the muscle it innervates is called the neuromuscular junction.
Information transfer in the synapse is discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. Simplified illustration of the anatomy of the synapse. A The synaptic vesicles contain a chemical transmitter. B When the activation reaches the presynaptic terminal the transmitter is released and it diffuses across the synaptic cleft to activate the postsynaptic membrane.
Smooth muscles are involuntary i. Their cells have a variable length but are in the order of 0. Smooth muscles exist, for example, in the digestive tract, in the wall of the trachea, uterus, and bladder.
2.2.1 The Main Parts of the Nerve Cell
The contraction of smooth muscle is controlled from the brain through the autonomic nervous system. Striated muscles , are also called skeletal muscles because of their anatomical location, are formed from a large number of muscle fibers, that range in length from 1 to 40 mm and in diameter from 0. Each fiber forms a muscle cell and is distinguished by the presence of alternating dark and light bands. This is the origin of the description "striated," as an alternate terminology of skeletal muscle see Figure 2. The striated muscle fiber corresponds to an unmyelinated nerve fiber but is distinguished electrophysiologically from nerve by the presence of a periodic transverse tubular system TTS , a complex structure that, in effect, continues the surface membrane into the interior of the muscle.
Propagation of the impulse over the surface membrane continues radially into the fiber via the TTS, and forms the trigger of myofibrillar contraction. The presence of the TTS affects conduction of the muscle fiber so that it differs although only slightly from propagation on an unmyelinated nerve fiber. Striated muscles are connected to the bones via tendons. Such muscles are voluntary and form an essential part of the organ of support and motion.
Cardiac muscle is also striated, but differs in other ways from skeletal muscle: Not only is it involuntary, but also when excited, it generates a much longer electric impulse than does skeletal muscle, lasting about ms. Correspondingly, the mechanical contraction also lasts longer. Furthermore, cardiac muscle has a special property: The electric activity of one muscle cell spreads to all other surrounding muscle cells, owing to an elaborate system of intercellular junctions.
Anatomy of striated muscle. The fundamental physiological unit is the fiber.
This definition is independent of the cause of the potential, and whether the membrane voltage is constant, periodic, or nonperiodic in behavior. Fluctuations in the membrane potential may be classified according to their character in many different ways. According to Bullock, these transmembrane potentials may be resolved into a resting potential and potential changes due to activity. The latter may be classified into three different types: Transducer potentials across the membrane, due to external events.
These include generator potentials caused by receptors or synaptic potential changes arising at synapses. Both subtypes can be inhibitory or excitatory. As a consequence of transducer potentials, further response will arise. If the magnitude does not exceed the threshold, the response will be nonpropagating electrotonic. If the response is great enough, a nerve impulse action potential impulse will be produced which obeys the all-or-nothing law see below and proceeds unattenuated along the axon or fiber.
Transmembrane potentials according to Theodore H. The stimulation may be excitatory i. After stimulation the membrane voltage returns to its original resting value. If the membrane stimulus is insufficient to cause the transmembrane potential to reach the threshold, then the membrane will not activate. The response of the membrane to this kind of stimulus is essentially passive.
If the excitatory stimulus is strong enough, the transmembrane potential reaches the threshold, and the membrane produces a characteristic electric impulse, the nerve impulse. This potential response follows a characteristic form regardless of the strength of the transthreshold stimulus.
It is said that the action impulse of an activated membrane follows an all-or-nothing law. An inhibitory stimulus increases the amount of concurrent excitatory stimulus necessary for achieving the threshold see Figure 2. The electric recording of the nerve impulse is called the action potential. If the nerve impulse is recorded magnetically, it may be called an action current. The terminology is further explicated in Section 2. A Experimental arrangement for measuring the response of the membrane potential B to inhibitory 1 and excitatory 2, 3, 4 stimuli C.
The current stimulus 2 , while excitatory is, however, subthreshold, and only a passive response is seen. For the excitatory level 3 , threshold is marginally reached; the membrane is sometimes activated 3b , whereas at other times only a local response 3a is seen. For a stimulus 4 , which is clearly transthreshold, a nerve impulse is invariably initiated.
Here the generation of the activation is discussed only in general terms. When the membrane is stimulated so that the transmembrane potential rises about 20 mV and reaches the threshold - that is, when the membrane voltage changes from mV to about mV these are illustrative and common numerical values - the sodium and potassium ionic permeabilities of the membrane change. The sodium ion permeability increases very rapidly at first, allowing sodium ions to flow from outside to inside, making the inside more positive.
Nerve, muscle, and neuromuscular junction electrophysiology at high temperature. - PubMed - NCBI
After that, the more slowly increasing potassium ion permeability allows potassium ions to flow from inside to outside, thus returning the intracellular potential to its resting value. The maximum excursion of the membrane voltage during activation is about mV; the duration of the nerve impulse is around 1 ms, as illustrated in Figure 2. While at rest, following activation, the Na-K pump restores the ion concentrations inside and outside the membrane to their original values.
Nerve impulse recorded from a cat motoneuron following a transthreshold stimulus. Whether an excitatory cell is activated depends largely on the strength and duration of the stimulus.