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History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic Paperback – December 29, The marriage of royal cousins, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, in brought stability to both kingdoms. William Hickling Prescott () was the first American to win.
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Ferdinand forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert, converso Moriscos , to Catholicism, or else be expelled.

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This was also practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. Ferdinand destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone, burning them. The latter part of Ferdinand's life was largely taken up with disputes with successive Kings of France over control of Italy, the so-called Italian Wars.


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Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with Emperor Maximilian I to expel the French by and install Alfonso's son, Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. The King of France complains that I have twice deceived him.

Isabella of Castile - Top 5 Facts

He lies, the fool; I have deceived him ten times and more. Isabella made her will on 12 October , in advance of her 26 November death. In it she spelled out the succession to the crown of Castile, leaving it to Joanna and then to Joanna's son Charles. Isabella was dubious of Joanna's ability to rule and was not confident of Joanna's husband Archduke Philip. Ferdinand moved quickly after his wife's death to continue his role in Castile.

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Philip deemed his wife sane and fit to rule. A compromise was forged between Philip and Ferdinand, which gave Ferdinand a continued role in Castile. Ferdinand attempted to retain the regency permanently, but was rebuffed by the Castilian nobility and replaced with Joanna's husband, who became Philip I of Castile. Had Ferdinand's son with Germaine, John, Prince of Girona, born on 3 May , survived, "the crown of Aragon would inevitably been separated from Castile.

Ferdinand had no legal position in Castile with the cortes of Toro recognizing Joanna and her children as heirs and Ferdinand left Castile in July After his son-in-law Philip's untimely death in September , Castile was in crisis. Joanna was allegedly mentally unstable, and Joanna's and Philip's son, Charles, the future Emperor Charles V , was only six years old. Ferdinand annexed Navarre first to the Crown of Aragon, but later, under the pressure of Castilian noblemen, to the Crown of Castile. The Holy League was generally successful in Italy, as well, driving the French from Milan, which was restored to its Sforza dukes by the peace treaty in The French were successful in reconquering Milan two years later, however.

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Ferdinand and Isabella established a highly effective sovereignty under equal terms. They utilised a prenuptial agreement to lay down their terms. During their reign they supported each other effectively in accordance to his joint motto of equality: Isabella and Ferdinand's achievements were remarkable: Spain was united, or at least more united than it ever had been, the crown power was centralised, at least in name, the reconquista was successfully concluded, the groundwork for the most dominant military machine of the next century and a half was laid, a legal framework was created, the church reformed.


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Even without the benefit of the American expansion, Spain would have been a major European power. Columbus' discovery set the country on the course for the first modern world power. Their first-born daughter Isabella was married to Alfonso of Portugal, and their first-born son John was married to Margaret of Austria. However, the deaths of these children, and the death of Isabella, altered the succession plan forcing Ferdinand to yield the government of Castile to Philip of Habsburg the husband of his second daughter Joanna.

Ferdinand's grandson and successor Charles , was to inherit not only the Spanish lands of his maternal grandparents, but the Habsburg and Burgundian lands of his paternal family, which would make his heirs the most powerful rulers on the continent and, with the discoveries and conquests in the Americas and elsewhere, of the first truly global Empire.

He also left several illegitimate children, two of them were born before his marriage to Isabella:.

The History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic — Volume 3

After the conquest of Granada. With the arms of Granada. Common Design — [32]. Version with supporters — [32]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ferdinand the Catholic Portrait by Michael Sittow. Royal Chapel of Granada. Isabella I of Castile m. Germaine of Foix m. This section does not cite any sources.

History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic V2 by William H. Prescott

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This data is provided as an additional tool in helping to ensure edition identification: McKay, Spain show more. The Best Books of Check out the top books of the year on our page Best Books of Looking for beautiful books? Italy, too, it might have been presumed, lacerated and still bleeding at every pore, would have learned the fatal consequence of invoking foreign aid in her domestic quarrels, and of throwing open the gates to a torrent, sure to sweep down friend and foe indiscriminately in its progress.

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