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- Thermidorian Reaction
At the same time, its economic policies paved the way for rampant inflation. Ultimately, power devolved to the hands of the Directory , an executive of five men who assumed power in France in November in year III of the French Revolutionary calendar. The Thermidorian regime excluded the remaining Montagnards from power, even those who had joined in conspiring against Robespierre and Saint-Just.
The White Terror of resulted in numerous imprisonments and several hundred executions, almost exclusively of people on the political left. These numbers, while significant, were considerably smaller than those associated with the previous Reign of Terror, which killed over 40, Many executions took place without a trial.
On July 29 the victor of the 9th Thermidor condemned seventy members of the Paris Commune to death; thereafter the Commune was subject to the Convention. Many Jacobin clubs were closed. On 24 December the Maximum controls on prices and wages was abolished.
The government exacerbated this inflationary move by issuing more assignats. In April and May protests and riots in support of the radicals broke out culminating in an invasion of the Convention by an insurrectionist mob on 20 May. On 22 May the Convention struck back, having troops under Pichegru surround the Faubourg St-Antoine and force the capitulation of the armed rebels.
In May and June , a " White Terror " raged in which Jacobins were victims and the judges were bourgeois "Moderates". In Paris, Royalist sentiments were openly tolerated. Meanwhile, French armies overran the Netherlands and established the Batavian Republic , occupied the left bank of the Rhine and forced Spain , Prussia and several German States to sue for peace, enhancing the prestige of the Convention.
A new constitution called the Constitution of the Year III was drawn up on 22 August , which eased back some of the democratic elements of the constitution of , establishing an electoral college for the election of officials, a bicameral legislature and other provisions designed to protect the current holders of power.
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It was put down by Napoleon with a whiff of grapeshot. On 25 October the Convention declared itself dissolved and was replaced by the French Directory on 2 November For historians of revolutionary movements, the term Thermidor has come to mean the phase in some revolutions when power slips from the hands of the original revolutionary leadership and a radical regime is replaced by a more conservative regime, sometimes to the point where the political pendulum may swing back towards something resembling a pre-revolutionary state.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Fall of Maximilien Robespierre.
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Morrison and Son, , p. A history of modern Europe: Louis XVII, sa vie, son agonie, sa mort: Significant civil and political events by year. What Is the Third Estate?
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Treaty of Amiens 25 Mar William V, Prince of Orange. Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov. Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos. Other significant figures and factions.
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Retrieved from " https: Articles needing additional references from July All articles needing additional references Interlanguage link template link number Articles containing French-language text. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 28 July , at In late July, the rebel government succeeded another device, brought by Lieutenant Artur Mota Lima, who deserted the field of Afonsos, in Rio de Janeiro. They served also as a propaganda weapon, dropping leaflets on enemy cities and local concentration of rebel troops.
Still, they performed two feats of great impact: In this attack one of the aircraft exploded in the air, killing the pilot and co-pilot. The other two devices, however, managed to accomplish the mission.
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Two months earlier, on July 23, Santos Dumont , the "Father of Aviation", depressed by the use of his invention as a weapon of war, committed suicide in Guaruja. At the beginning of hostilities, legalistic Aviation was better served by aerial means. Military Aviation were mobilized: To link tasks, reconnaissance and observation, was also available twelve De Havilland DH 60, two Avro If the first step was to mobilize existing resources, the second, both loyalists as Constitutionalists, was acquiring complementary means necessarily imported, since the local industry was unable to produce them.
Contracts negotiated by the federal government, only one, on the purchase of thirty-six Waco C90, materialized quickly enough to allow for operational use in the conflict. Of the thirty-six, only ten were mounted in time to have effective participation still with particularity. The intention was to use C90 Waco primarily as fighter aircraft, and secondarily as bombing and observation.
The contract specified the installation 7mm machine guns, with the purpose of using ammunition ever made in the country for weapons of the same caliber used in the infantry. However, because air munitions and land have distinct characteristics, the machine guns of Waco C90, often jam after the first bursts. The aircraft then went to meet primarily bombing and observation missions, and the few whose guns accepted the autochthonous ammunition were intensely ordered and commuted to the three fronts, performing primaryly fighter missions. For the rebels, difficulties in material procurement were significantly higher.
The negotiations in New York City , for example, with Consolidated Aircraft for the purchase of ten aircraft Fleet 10D , when nearly completed, were aborted by direct intervention of the Brazilian government with the Department of State.
Were robust aircraft equipped with engine Curtiss D H. Without a doubt, were the most improved aircraft that participated in the air battle.
The Revolution plays a key role in the setting of Peter Fleming 's book Brazilian Adventure , an offbeat portrayal by a foreigner caught in the midst of the fighting. Historia y Vida From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Persian Constitutional Revolution. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.