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He was capable of writing excellent poetry, but he seems to have cultivated this talent too little. The English verses prefixed to his book, which possess beautiful imagery, and great sweetness of versification, have been frequently published. His Latin elegiac verses addressed to his book, shew a very agreeable turn for raillery. Such is his account of the first feelings of melancholy persons, written, probably, from his own experience. Hence the unlearned might furnish themselves with appropriate scraps of Greek and Latin, whilst men of letters would find their enquiries shortened, by knowing where they might look for what both ancients and moderns had advanced on the subject of human passions.

I confess my inability to point out any other English author who has so largely dealt in apt and original quotation. Vade liber, qualis, non ausum dicere, felix, Te nisi felicem fecerit Alma dies. Vade tamen quocunque lubet, quascunque per oras, Et Genium Domini fac imitere tui. I blandas inter Charites, mystamque saluta Musarum quemvis, si tibi lector erit. Rura colas, urbem, subeasve palatia regum, Submisse, placide, te sine dente geras.


Nobilis, aut si quis te forte inspexerit heros, Da te morigerum, perlegat usque lubet. Est quod nobilitas, est quod desideret heros, Gratior haec forsan charta placere potest. Si quis morosus Cato, tetricusque Senator, Hunc etiam librum forte videre velit, Sive magistratus, tum te reverenter habeto; Sed nullus; muscas non capiunt Aquilae. Non vacat his tempus fugitivum impendere nugis, Nec tales cupio; par mihi lector erit. Si matrona gravis casu diverterit istuc, Illustris domina, aut te Comitissa legat: Est quod displiceat, placeat quod forsitan illis, Ingerere his noli te modo, pande tamen.

At si virgo tuas dignabitur inclyta chartas Tangere, sive schedis haereat illa tuis: Da modo te facilem, et quaedam folia esse memento Conveniant oculis quae magis apta suis. Si generosa ancilla tuos aut alma puella Visura est ludos, annue, pande lubens. Dic utinam nunc ipse meus [6] nam diligit istas In praesens esset conspiciendus herus. Ignotus notusve mihi de gente togata Sive aget in ludis, pulpita sive colet, Sive in Lycaeo, et nugas evolverit istas, Si quasdam mendas viderit inspiciens, Da veniam Authori, dices; nam plurima vellet Expungi, quae jam displicuisse sciat. Sive Melancholicus quisquam, seu blandus Amator, Aulicus aut Civis, seu bene comptus eques Huc appellat, age et tuto te crede legenti, Multa istic forsan non male nata leget.

Quod fugiat, caveat, quodque amplexabitur, ista Pagina fortassis promere multa potest. At si quis Medicus coram te sistet, amice Fac circumspecte, et te sine labe geras: Inveniet namque ipse meis quoque plurima scriptis, Non leve subsidium quae sibi forsan erunt. Si quis Causidicus chartas impingat in istas, Nil mihi vobiscum, pessima turba vale; Sit nisi vir bonus, et juris sine fraude peritus, Tum legat, et forsan doctior inde siet.

Si quis cordatus, facilis, lectorque benignus Huc oculos vertat, quae velit ipse legat; Candidus ignoscet, metuas nil, pande libenter, Offensus mendis non erit ille tuis, Laudabit nonnulla. Venit si Rhetor ineptus, Limata et tersa, et qui bene cocta petit, Claude citus librum; nulla hic nisi ferrea verba, Offendent stomachum quae minus apta suum.

At si quis non eximius de plebe poeta, Annue; namque istic plurima ficta leget. Nos sumus e numero, nullus mihi spirat Apollo, Grandiloquus Vates quilibet esse nequit. Ringe, freme, et noli tum pandere, turba malignis Si occurrat sannis invidiosa suis: Fac fugias; si nulla tibi sit copia eundi, Contemnes, tacite scommata quaeque feres. Frendeat, allatret, vacuas gannitibus auras Impleat, haud cures; his placuisse nefas. Verum age si forsan divertat purior hospes, Cuique sales, ludi, displiceantque joci, Objiciatque tibi sordes, lascivaque: Barbarus, indoctusque rudis spectator in istam Si messem intrudat, fuste fugabis eum, Fungum pelle procul jubeo nam quid mihi fungo?

Conveniunt stomacho non minus ista suo. Sed nec pelle tamen; laeto omnes accipe vultu, Quos, quas, vel quales, inde vel unde viros. Gratus erit quicunque venit, gratissimus hospes Quisquis erit, facilis difficilisque mihi. Nam si culparit, quaedam culpasse juvabit, Culpando faciet me meliora sequi. Sed si laudarit, neque laudibus efferar ullis, Sit satis hisce malis opposuisse bonum.

Haec sunt quae nostro placuit mandare libello, Et quae dimittens dicere jussit Herus. Go forth my book into the open day; Happy, if made so by its garish eye. O'er earth's wide surface take thy vagrant way, To imitate thy master's genius try. The Graces three, the Muses nine salute, Should those who love them try to con thy lore. The country, city seek, grand thrones to boot, With gentle courtesy humbly bow before.

Should nobles gallant, soldiers frank and brave Seek thy acquaintance, hail their first advance: From twitch of care thy pleasant vein may save, May laughter cause or wisdom give perchance. Some surly Cato, Senator austere, Haply may wish to peep into thy book: Seem very nothing—tremble and revere: No forceful eagles, butterflies e'er look. They love not thee: Of ludeful matron watchful catch the beck, Or gorgeous countess full of pride and pelf.

They may say "pish! Cry odd, and silly, coarse, and yet amusing. Should dainty damsels seek thy page to con, Spread thy best stores: Say, fair one, master loves thee dear as life; Would he were here to gaze on thy sweet look. Should known or unknown student, freed from strife Of logic and the schools, explore my book: Cry mercy critic, and thy book withhold: Be some few errors pardon'd though observ'd: An humble author to implore makes bold.

Thy kind indulgence, even undeserv'd, Should melancholy wight or pensive lover, Courtier, snug cit, or carpet knight so trim Our blossoms cull, he'll find himself in clover, Gain sense from precept, laughter from our whim. Should learned leech with solemn air unfold Thy leaves, beware, be civil, and be wise: Thy volume many precepts sage may hold, His well fraught head may find no trifling prize.

Should crafty lawyer trespass on our ground, Caitiffs avaunt! Unless white crow an honest one be found; He'll better, wiser go for what we say. Should some ripe scholar, gentle and benign, With candour, care, and judgment thee peruse: Thy faults to kind oblivion he'll consign; Nor to thy merit will his praise refuse. Thou may'st be searched for polish'd words and verse By flippant spouter, emptiest of praters: Tell him to seek them in some mawkish verse: My periods all are rough as nutmeg graters. The doggerel poet, wishing thee to read, Reject not; let him glean thy jests and stories.

His brother I, of lowly sembling breed: Apollo grants to few Parnassian glories. Menac'd by critic with sour furrowed brow, Momus or Troilus or Scotch reviewer: Ruffle your heckle, grin and growl and vow: Ill-natured foes you thus will find the fewer, When foul-mouth'd senseless railers cry thee down, Reply not: Good taste or breeding they can never learn; Or let them clamour, turn a callous ear, As though in dread of some harsh donkey's bray.

If chid by censor, friendly though severe, To such explain and turn thee not away. Thy vein, says he perchance, is all too free; Thy smutty language suits not learned pen: Reply, Good Sir, throughout, the context see; Thought chastens thought; so prithee judge again. Besides, although my master's pen may wander Through devious paths, by which it ought not stray, His life is pure, beyond the breath of slander: So pardon grant; 'tis merely but his way. Some rugged ruffian makes a hideous rout— Brandish thy cudgel, threaten him to baste; The filthy fungus far from thee cast out; Such noxious banquets never suit my taste.

Yet, calm and cautious moderate thy ire, Be ever courteous should the case allow— Sweet malt is ever made by gentle fire: Warm to thy friends, give all a civil bow. Even censure sometimes teaches to improve, Slight frosts have often cured too rank a crop, So, candid blame my spleen shall never move, For skilful gard'ners wayward branches lop. Go then, my book, and bear my words in mind; Guides safe at once, and pleasant them you'll find.

Ten distinct Squares here seen apart, Are joined in one by Cutter's art. Old Democritus under a tree, Sits on a stone with book on knee; About him hang there many features, Of Cats, Dogs and such like creatures, Of which he makes anatomy, The seat of black choler to see. Over his head appears the sky, And Saturn Lord of melancholy.

To the left a landscape of Jealousy, Presents itself unto thine eye. Symbols are these; I say no more, Conceive the rest by that's afore. The next of solitariness, A portraiture doth well express, By sleeping dog, cat: Buck and Doe, Hares, Conies in the desert go: Bats, Owls the shady bowers over, In melancholy darkness hover. If't be not as't should be, Blame the bad Cutter, and not me. I'th' under column there doth stand Inamorato with folded hand; Down hangs his head, terse and polite, Some ditty sure he doth indite. His lute and books about him lie, As symptoms of his vanity.

If this do not enough disclose, To paint him, take thyself by th' nose. Hypocondriacus leans on his arm, Wind in his side doth him much harm, And troubles him full sore, God knows, Much pain he hath and many woes. About him pots and glasses lie, Newly brought from's Apothecary. This Saturn's aspects signify, You see them portray'd in the sky. Beneath them kneeling on his knee, A superstitious man you see: He fasts, prays, on his Idol fixt, Tormented hope and fear betwixt: For Hell perhaps he takes more pain, Than thou dost Heaven itself to gain.

Alas poor soul, I pity thee, What stars incline thee so to be? But see the madman rage downright With furious looks, a ghastly sight. Naked in chains bound doth he lie, And roars amain he knows not why! Observe him; for as in a glass, Thine angry portraiture it was. His picture keeps still in thy presence; 'Twixt him and thee, there's no difference. Borage and Hellebor fill two scenes, Sovereign plants to purge the veins Of melancholy, and cheer the heart, Of those black fumes which make it smart; To clear the brain of misty fogs, Which dull our senses, and Soul clogs.

The best medicine that e'er God made For this malady, if well assay'd. Now last of all to fill a place, Presented is the Author's face; And in that habit which he wears, His image to the world appears. His mind no art can well express, That by his writings you may guess. It was not pride, nor yet vainglory, Though others do it commonly Made him do this: Then do not frown or scoff at it, Deride not, or detract a whit.

For surely as thou dost by him, He will do the same again. Then look upon't, behold and see, As thou lik'st it, so it likes thee. And I for it will stand in view, Thine to command, Reader, adieu. Dialogos] When I go musing all alone Thinking of divers things fore-known. When I build castles in the air, Void of sorrow and void of fear, Pleasing myself with phantasms sweet, Methinks the time runs very fleet. All my joys to this are folly, Naught so sweet as melancholy. When I lie waking all alone, Recounting what I have ill done, My thoughts on me then tyrannise, Fear and sorrow me surprise, Whether I tarry still or go, Methinks the time moves very slow.

All my griefs to this are jolly, Naught so mad as melancholy. When to myself I act and smile, With pleasing thoughts the time beguile, By a brook side or wood so green, Unheard, unsought for, or unseen, A thousand pleasures do me bless, And crown my soul with happiness. All my joys besides are folly, None so sweet as melancholy.

When I lie, sit, or walk alone, I sigh, I grieve, making great moan, In a dark grove, or irksome den, With discontents and Furies then, A thousand miseries at once Mine heavy heart and soul ensconce, All my griefs to this are jolly, None so sour as melancholy. Methinks I hear, methinks I see, Sweet music, wondrous melody, Towns, palaces, and cities fine; Here now, then there; the world is mine, Rare beauties, gallant ladies shine, Whate'er is lovely or divine.

All other joys to this are folly, None so sweet as melancholy. Methinks I hear, methinks I see Ghosts, goblins, fiends; my phantasy Presents a thousand ugly shapes, Headless bears, black men, and apes, Doleful outcries, and fearful sights, My sad and dismal soul affrights. All my griefs to this are jolly, None so damn'd as melancholy. Methinks I court, methinks I kiss, Methinks I now embrace my mistress. O blessed days, O sweet content, In Paradise my time is spent. Such thoughts may still my fancy move, So may I ever be in love.

When I recount love's many frights, My sighs and tears, my waking nights, My jealous fits; O mine hard fate I now repent, but 'tis too late. No torment is so bad as love, So bitter to my soul can prove. All my griefs to this are jolly, Naught so harsh as melancholy. Friends and companions get you gone, 'Tis my desire to be alone; Ne'er well but when my thoughts and I Do domineer in privacy. No Gem, no treasure like to this, 'Tis my delight, my crown, my bliss. The scene is turn'd, my joys are gone, Fear, discontent, and sorrows come. All my griefs to this are jolly, Naught so fierce as melancholy.

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I'll not change life with any king, I ravisht am: Do not, O do not trouble me, So sweet content I feel and see. All my joys to this are folly, None so divine as melancholy. I'll change my state with any wretch, Thou canst from gaol or dunghill fetch; My pain's past cure, another hell, I may not in this torment dwell! Now desperate I hate my life, Lend me a halter or a knife; All my griefs to this are jolly, Naught so damn'd as melancholy.

Gentle reader, I presume thou wilt be very inquisitive to know what antic or personate actor this is, that so insolently intrudes upon this common theatre, to the world's view, arrogating another man's name; whence he is, why he doth it, and what he hath to say; although, as [7]he said, Primum si noluero, non respondebo, quis coacturus est?

I am a free man born, and may choose whether I will tell; who can compel me? If I be urged, I will as readily reply as that Egyptian in [8]Plutarch, when a curious fellow would needs know what he had in his basket, Quum vides velatam, quid inquiris in rem absconditam? It was therefore covered, because he should not know what was in it. Seek not after that which is hid; if the contents please thee, [9]"and be for thy use, suppose the Man in the Moon, or whom thou wilt to be the author;" I would not willingly be known. Yet in some sort to give thee satisfaction, which is more than I need, I will show a reason, both of this usurped name, title, and subject.

And first of the name of Democritus; lest any man, by reason of it, should be deceived, expecting a pasquil, a satire, some ridiculous treatise as I myself should have done , some prodigious tenet, or paradox of the earth's motion, of infinite worlds, in infinito vacuo, ex fortuita atomorum collisione , in an infinite waste, so caused by an accidental collision of motes in the sun, all which Democritus held, Epicurus and their master Lucippus of old maintained, and are lately revived by Copernicus, Brunus, and some others.

Besides, it hath been always an ordinary custom, as [10]Gellius observes, "for later writers and impostors, to broach many absurd and insolent fictions, under the name of so noble a philosopher as Democritus, to get themselves credit, and by that means the more to be respected," as artificers usually do, Novo qui marmori ascribunt Praxatilem suo. Democritus, as he is described by [14]Hippocrates and [15]Laertius, was a little wearish old man, very melancholy by nature, averse from company in his latter days, [16]and much given to solitariness, a famous philosopher in his age, [17] coaevus with Socrates, wholly addicted to his studies at the last, and to a private life: He was much delighted with the studies of husbandry, saith [19]Columella, and often I find him cited by [20]Constantinus and others treating of that subject.

He knew the natures, differences of all beasts, plants, fishes, birds; and, as some say, could [21]understand the tunes and voices of them.

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In a word, he was omnifariam doctus , a general scholar, a great student; and to the intent he might better contemplate, [22]I find it related by some, that he put out his eyes, and was in his old age voluntarily blind, yet saw more than all Greece besides, and [23] writ of every subject, Nihil in toto opificio naturae, de quo non scripsit.

Howsoever it was, there he lived at last in a garden in the suburbs, wholly betaking himself to his studies and a private life, [27]"saving that sometimes he would walk down to the haven," [28]"and laugh heartily at such variety of ridiculous objects, which there he saw. But in the mean time, how doth this concern me, or upon what reference do I usurp his habit?

I confess, indeed, that to compare myself unto him for aught I have yet said, were both impudency and arrogancy. I do not presume to make any parallel, Antistat mihi millibus trecentis , [29] parvus sum, nullus sum, altum nec spiro, nec spero.


Yet thus much I will say of myself, and that I hope without all suspicion of pride, or self-conceit, I have lived a silent, sedentary, solitary, private life, mihi et musis in the University, as long almost as Xenocrates in Athens, ad senectam fere to learn wisdom as he did, penned up most part in my study. For I have been brought up a student in the most flourishing college of Europe, [30] augustissimo collegio , and can brag with [31]Jovius, almost, in ea luce domicilii Vacicani, totius orbis celeberrimi, per 37 annos multa opportunaque didici ; for thirty years I have continued having the use of as good [32]libraries as ever he had a scholar, and would be therefore loath, either by living as a drone, to be an unprofitable or unworthy member of so learned and noble a society, or to write that which should be any way dishonourable to such a royal and ample foundation.

Something I have done, though by my profession a divine, yet turbine raptus ingenii , as [33]he said, out of a running wit, an unconstant, unsettled mind, I had a great desire not able to attain to a superficial skill in any to have some smattering in all, to be aliquis in omnibus, nullus in singulis , [34] which [35]Plato commends, out of him [36]Lipsius approves and furthers, "as fit to be imprinted in all curious wits, not to be a slave of one science, or dwell altogether in one subject, as most do, but to rove abroad, centum puer artium , to have an oar in every man's boat, to [37]taste of every dish, and sip of every cup," which, saith [38]Montaigne, was well performed by Aristotle, and his learned countryman Adrian Turnebus.

This roving humour though not with like success I have ever had, and like a ranging spaniel, that barks at every bird he sees, leaving his game, I have followed all, saving that which I should, and may justly complain, and truly, qui ubique est, nusquam est ,[39] which [40]Gesner did in modesty, that I have read many books, but to little purpose, for want of good method; I have confusedly tumbled over divers authors in our libraries, with small profit, for want of art, order, memory, judgment.

I never travelled but in map or card, in which mine unconfined thoughts have freely expatiated, as having ever been especially delighted with the study of Cosmography. I am not poor, I am not rich; nihil est, nihil deest , I have little, I want nothing: Greater preferment as I could never get, so am I not in debt for it, I have a competence laus Deo from my noble and munificent patrons, though I live still a collegiate student, as Democritus in his garden, and lead a monastic life, ipse mihi theatrum , sequestered from those tumults and troubles of the world, Et tanquam in specula positus , [42]as he said in some high place above you all, like Stoicus Sapiens, omnia saecula, praeterita presentiaque videns, uno velut intuitu , I hear and see what is done abroad, how others [43]run, ride, turmoil, and macerate themselves in court and country, far from those wrangling lawsuits, aulia vanitatem, fori ambitionem, ridere mecum soleo: I laugh at all, [44]only secure, lest my suit go amiss, my ships perish, corn and cattle miscarry, trade decay, I have no wife nor children good or bad to provide for.

A mere spectator of other men's fortunes and adventures, and how they act their parts, which methinks are diversely presented unto me, as from a common theatre or scene. A vast confusion of vows, wishes, actions, edicts, petitions, lawsuits, pleas, laws, proclamations, complaints, grievances are daily brought to our ears. Now come tidings of weddings, maskings, mummeries, entertainments, jubilees, embassies, tilts and tournaments, trophies, triumphs, revels, sports, plays: Today we hear of new lords and officers created, tomorrow of some great men deposed, and then again of fresh honours conferred; one is let loose, another imprisoned; one purchaseth, another breaketh: This I daily hear, and such like, both private and public news, amidst the gallantry and misery of the world; jollity, pride, perplexities and cares, simplicity and villainy; subtlety, knavery, candour and integrity, mutually mixed and offering themselves; I rub on privus privatus ; as I have still lived, so I now continue, statu quo prius , left to a solitary life, and mine own domestic discontents: In which passion howsoever I may sympathise with him or them, 'tis for no such respect I shroud myself under his name; but either in an unknown habit to assume a little more liberty and freedom of speech, or if you will needs know, for that reason and only respect which Hippocrates relates at large in his Epistle to Damegetus, wherein he doth express, how coming to visit him one day, he found Democritus in his garden at Abdera, in the suburbs, [49]under a shady bower, [50]with a book on his knees, busy at his study, sometimes writing, sometimes walking.

The subject of his book was melancholy and madness; about him lay the carcases of many several beasts, newly by him cut up and anatomised; not that he did contemn God's creatures, as he told Hippocrates, but to find out the seat of this atra bilis , or melancholy, whence it proceeds, and how it was engendered in men's bodies, to the intent he might better cure it in himself, and by his writings and observation [51]teach others how to prevent and avoid it.

Which good intent of his, Hippocrates highly commended: Democritus Junior is therefore bold to imitate, and because he left it imperfect, and it is now lost, quasi succenturiator Democriti , to revive again, prosecute, and finish in this treatise.

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You have had a reason of the name. If the title and inscription offend your gravity, were it a sufficient justification to accuse others, I could produce many sober treatises, even sermons themselves, which in their fronts carry more fantastical names. Howsoever, it is a kind of policy in these days, to prefix a fantastical title to a book which is to be sold; for, as larks come down to a day-net, many vain readers will tarry and stand gazing like silly passengers at an antic picture in a painter's shop, that will not look at a judicious piece.

And, indeed, as [52]Scaliger observes, "nothing more invites a reader than an argument unlooked for, unthought of, and sells better than a scurrile pamphlet," tum maxime cum novitas excitat [53]palatum. I will cite one for all, Anthony Zara, Pap. If any man except against the matter or manner of treating of this my subject, and will demand a reason of it, I can allege more than one; I write of melancholy, by being busy to avoid melancholy. There is no greater cause of melancholy than idleness, "no better cure than business," as [56]Rhasis holds: I wrote therefore, and busied myself in this playing labour, oliosaque diligentia ut vitarem torporum feriandi with Vectius in Macrobius, atque otium in utile verterem negatium.

Profit and pleasure, then, to mix with art, T' inform the judgment, nor offend the heart, Shall gain all votes. I might be of Thucydides' opinion, [59]"to know a thing and not to express it, is all one as if he knew it not. Besides, I might not well refrain, for ubi dolor, ibi digitus , one must needs scratch where it itches. I was not a little offended with this malady, shall I say my mistress Melancholy, my Aegeria, or my malus genius?

Or as he did, of whom [63]Felix Plater speaks, that thought he had some of Aristophanes' frogs in his belly, still crying Breec, okex, coax, coax, oop, oop , and for that cause studied physic seven years, and travelled over most part of Europe to ease himself. To do myself good I turned over such physicians as our libraries would afford, or my [64]private friends impart, and have taken this pains. Cardan professeth he wrote his book, De Consolatione after his son's death, to comfort himself; so did Tully write of the same subject with like intent after his daughter's departure, if it be his at least, or some impostor's put out in his name, which Lipsius probably suspects.

All unstressed except almost, always. Extension with two intervening consonant letters: Even though this is the predominant pronunciation in unstressed syllables which in any case cannot be deduced from the written forms of words — see section A. For the dual percentages see Notes.

I have therefore not promoted this correspondence to the main system, but I have re-calculated all the percentages for this grapheme omitting those two words. Where they differ from the originals, the revised percentages are shown second. Always stressed except in corsair usually , millionairess always , mohair always. Before a consonant letter, only in scarce, scarcity. Otherwise only medial and only in an unpredictable ragbag of words, e. For dual-functioning see section 7.

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Arab, lariat, larynx, pharynx, scarab, scarify, variety. In this case, specifically because they show the number of occurrences of because in their database, Gontijo et al. Regular in some suffixes. However, the exceptions are more numerous: This also applies in: There might then be a barely perceptible difference in pronunciation between two words spelt seer: See also section A. Re-allocation proved impossible, hence the absence of percentages. In words like brilliant, envious, million, pronunciation and cf.

Acoustically, the difference is very slight. See also most exceptions to next category. This is especially true: On the percentages see Notes. Always follows a consonant letter, and is therefore never word-initial. However, as far as I can ascertain even digging around for rare and archaic words , there seem to be just 26 stem words in the entire language containing this grapheme: When the letter i is followed by the letters gh , the i usually stands for its long sound and the gh is silent. When ght is seen in a word, gh is silent.

OO is a double agent! Deptford and many other placenames with this element , Holborn, scissors, stubborn ; regular wordfinally, e. For exceptions see next three paragraphs and the 2-phoneme sequence. See also Notes to section 9. There appear to be only two words for which this does not work: However, based on un - ion is one of the longest homographs in English: In adjectives derived from nouns in that list, e.

I think that the tendency for the vowel to disappear in rapid speech is stronger in the adverbs alluded to in this paragraph and listed in section 5. Except in gruesome, muesli, Tuesday , only word-final. There is also one 2-grapheme exception in final position: For exceptions see the next paragraph and the 2-phoneme graphemes. There are only six words with a following consonant letter: See Notes for how this split digraph is defined. The only extension needed is to cover two words with two intervening consonant letters forming a digraph: Two more regularities are: This applies even more strongly to barre, bizarre, parterre, myrrh.

See also section Before other consonant clusters and single consonant letters. This even applies to various short pronunciations which are exceptions to the main one, e. The rule extends to consonant letter clusters which are or look like trigraphs even though this not how I would analyse them: As can be seen in Table However, I recognise that these are sometimes difficult to distinguish from cases where they have their vocalic pronunciations, and that some words slither between the two;.

However, again I recognise that these are sometimes difficult to distinguish from cases where the two letters are separate graphemes. A few examples are aorta, archaic, chaos, chaotic, dais, kaolin, laity, prosaic; azalea, cameo, deity, erroneous, meteor, museum, neon, peony, petroleum, spontaneity; boa, heroic, poem, poetry, soloist, stoic; actual, annuity, bruin, continuity, cruel, cruet, dual, duel, fluid, genuine, gratuity, ruin, suicide, usual. There seem to be few or no exceptions. And all six vowel letters are so rarely stressed when functioning as word-final single-letter graphemes that no rule is worth giving for that situation but see section A.

For a major class of exceptions see rule Some of these exceptions are derived forms retaining a letter-name vowel from the stem word. A few examples are able, cradle, maple; bible, disciple, idle, title, trifle; noble; bugle, duplex, scruple; cycle, cyclone; acre, April, apron, flagrant, fragrant, sabre; fibre, mitre; cobra, ogre; lucre, putrid; cypress, hybrid.

A few examples are gamut, granite, planet, tacit; legate, senate; rivet, limit, bigot, minute; unit. A few examples are acid, rabid, squalid, tepid, frigid, timid, solid, stolid, cubic, humid, lucid, music, punic, putrid, runic , stupid, tunic. There are thousands of examples; a few are: