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Description The work of Karl Marx is revered in social philosophy, political science and literary criticism, but there is an area where Marxism seems not to have penetrated. That area is the study of popular culture, especially the cinema, where Marxism provides a useful lens through which seemingly disparate films can be explored.

As a whole the new essays assembled here approach a wide cross-section of cinematic history and provide analysis of blockbusters, cult hits, comedies, suspenseful dramas and history-making films within a framework of power, power relations and class struggle. The collection brings to popular culture studies the same scholarly weight that attends the work of Aristotle or Plato or Derrida and, at the same time, presents that scholarship in an accessible style.

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PayPal accepts all major credit cards. We can provide an Australian tax invoice inclusive of GST on request. Returns Policy Please choose carefully as AusReseller does not accept return of goods if you change your mind or made a wrong decision. There is an antagonistic relationship between classes Wayne. This sort of relationship brings in more ruptures in the society. The antagonistic relationship is not only because of the economic differences but there are other factors too. Geographical differences, differences due to caste, creed and gender are some of the other factors.

Even due to various political affiliations there can be a difference among the class. Other than Karl Marx himself many other authors have interpreted class and class Property of Christ University. Class can be considered more than an aggregate of class Use it for fair purpose. According to Schumpeter class is aware of its identity as a whole Bensaid. Capital can be classified in three fundamental groups: Cultural capital on some occasions can be converted to economic capital and it can be represented in the form of educational qualifications.

It is a representation of nobility Bourdieu. The structure is divided into classes namely the capitalists and the working class. Other than this Marx had also extensively mentioned the role of religion in Marxism. Religion acts as an ideology too which creates virtual relations leaving the real relations intact Joseph, Ideology is considered to be a representation of consciousness.

It represents a set of Property of Christ University. In some cases it also represents different theoretical Use it for fair purpose. Defining class and class struggle in society has always been the most popular reading in Marxism. Here in this chapter the representation of class in films will be discussed. Through the discussion it can be find out whether there is any representation of class happening in films as such.

To get an understanding of it various other factors will be discussed first such as: Other Theories of Class and iii. According to Marx, social class selects a position in the economic structure of society. The main subject is the material production and the materials involved in getting that material production. Various entities which help to obtain the production are raw materials, factories, tools in the factories and more.

The means of production becomes important in the society and moreover it brings forward the social divisions. The social divisions are also known as classes. The factories are owned by the people who have capital and people who are working in the factories for the means of production are the workers. Marx says that in a capitalist society there are two classes, namely bourgeois and proletarian. They also talk about the period during the end of 19th century when industries started to grow in quite a pace; the feudalism model was slowly and steadily losing against capitalism.

In the feudalism model there were signs of class division between the landowners and the farmers, whereas in capitalism the division started to happen Property of Christ University. Marx quoted Use it for fair purpose. Class also has been considered in a more complex form where in addition to economic category it is also seen as a political category.

Marx states that over a period of time the meaning of class has become a complex one as it has given rise to more class fractions such as in finance, industry, army, intellectual society, clergy and more. From the macro perspective there is a presence of class division in the society and from the micro perspective there have been more formation of classes in the fields of finance, industry, army, intellectual society, clergy and more.

Marxism is a philosophy which is based on the ideas and observations of Karl Marx. He stated that the class which is capable of controlling the material production is also able to control mental production. The ruling class ideas become the ruling ideas of the society. Another philosopher Louis Althusser had also contributed extensively in the Marxism philosophy.

Other than the Marxist theory of class, there are also non Marxist theories of class. Even post Marxist studies have also extensively discussed about class and their role in the society. However, other than Marx there are many other philosophers too whose contribution in Property of Christ University. In fact, these Use it for fair purpose. One of them is Mark Weber, who had defined class not from the perspective of product manufacturing but from the point of market relations. His parameters in defining class owned of property, possession of skills and education.

Marx had said that there would be always a structural conflict among the people of different classes. They are managers and supervisors, small employers and wage earners. On the other hand the wage earners neither own or control the means of production nor lose their power. According to him the higher class people in a society can reproduce itself and over a period of time it becomes better with better education.

This leads to their cultural development the cultural hegemony in the society comes under their grasp. It makes them culturally very powerful in the society. Sometimes more than one philosophy is portrayed through a film. The audience can understand the philosophy in a film through dialogue which comes out in the linguistic form Litch. When a philosopher presents a philosophy there is a hypothetical situation put forward by him in front of the reader.

Different readers interpret the hypothesis in different ways. It is totally left to the reader how he is going to interpret the philosophy which is in the form of a hypothesis.

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Films are one of those mediums which can be used to portray various philosophical ideas, issues and views Livingston. These ideas when reflected can lead to the exploration of various thoughts. It also brings out various arguments. Various philosophical thoughts when discussed more lead to complex and advanced understanding about them. There are various types of philosophies which are being portrayed through films. Often these philosophies are being indirect and it is very subjective. Some of the popular philosophies which have been discussed by Mary M. Free Will and Determinism vi.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels developed the concept of Marxism. Other than Marxism the other ideologies which they Property of Christ University. It usually entails a doubt in the mind of the person. It is one sort of hindrance, where one is unable to commit to something. Moral skepticism is defined as the situation where nobody can claim what is right or wrong. A moral skeptic would be unable to answer whether moral statements are right or wrong. But the possibility of gaining knowledge is always present Greco, Over a period of time many philosophers have extensively explored the world of skepticism.

They have argued about the results of taking different skeptical standpoints. In ancient period skepticism was considered as something good and one the ways to lead a life. However, in the present context the philosophers have brough the notion that it should be avoided for the betterment of the society. Peter Suber, from the Philsophy Department of Earlham College says that if one person believes in something, then the other person may disbelief that and the rest of the people are unsure.

A explains relativism as the thesis where all points of view are correct and valid. It means that people having different sets of belief systems are uniformly true. There are couple of distinct attributes of all kinds of relativism and they are as follows: They all affirm one thing, i.

There is a denial that any standpoint is distinctively priviliged over all others. Present-day philosophy is classified has 3 types of relativism, namely: Moral relativism Property of Christ University. Cognitive relativism and Use it for fair purpose. Aesthetic credit to the author by citing properly, if your are using it. Cognitive relativism deals with the concept of truth and concepts of knowledge, rationality and justification. He struggles to relate himself with the society due to the lack of identity. This kind of philosophy brings out the problem of identity over time.

For example, if a part of a car starts to malfunction, that part is replaced leaving the frame of the car as same. Over a period of time many other parts are changed in the car like breaks, tires, gearbox and other parts, but the car remains the same. This example brings about the problem of identity over time Litch, John McCarthy coined this term and defined it as a genuine intelligence. This intelligence is being created by an artificial device which is invented by human beings only. Many science fiction movies which deal with this subject, there it is shown a presence of fight for ownership between the world of robots and human beings Litch, For example, while Property of Christ University.

There can be Use it for fair purpose. Either the water supply corporation failed to supply water or maybe there is a leakage in the pipe or maybe there can be a situation that the person had forgotten to pay the amount. There can be many probabilites which may lead to this circumstance.

So, there can be many reasons for an incident which forces one to believe that there is a cause for the happening. Universal Determinism establishes the fact that behind every occurrence of event there is a cause. Through ethics one can identify about their roles, responsibilites and rights Ethics: Ethics also know as moral philosophy helps one to make an idea of moral evaluations related to their actions. The four estates are Judiciary, Legislative, Executive and Press. Political Philosophy is often related to the legislative part of the four estates where it tries to analyze why a particular legal code has been made.

It also emphasizes on the politcal belief and general view about certain political ideologies. Political philosophy not only looks into the present context of the law making process but it also deals with the history and evolution of the law Political philosophy. Existentialism is a composite structure involving philosophy and as well as literature Stone, Existentialism is initiated with the human subject, rather the commencement of thinking subject. The individual characteristics carried by human beings and their individuality mostly matters. Methodology The researcher has chosen qualitative research methodology to understand and analyze the context of the films from the perspective of Marxism.

The research problem is to understand and analyze the Marxist philosophy and critical social theory. There are many films which hold the ideology of Marxism. The Marxism theory mainly deals with class struggle, class conflict, economy struggle, alienation and hegemony. The power which the capitalists have through capitalism helps them to persuade their ideas in the society. The proletariats often struggle in the class conflict between the bourgeois and proletariat. Analyzing those films through a specific methodology will help the researcher to come to a conclusion.

The researcher has followed the qualitative research methodology. Qualitative research methodology represents the quality. This quality is important to understand the characteristics of things. Moreover, quality helps to find the answers of what, how, when and where of a thing. These are associated with the essence and ambience of the thing. Qualitative research helps one to understand the concepts, meanings, definitions, attributes, metaphors, symbols and descriptions of things Berg, Qualitative research is one kind of scientific research.

Qualitative research holds similar attributes when compared to scientific research. Both look for the answer to the research question. Moreover, it tries to find the answer on a defined set of parameters. Both work on the lines of collecting data, followed by analyzing the data based on the set parameters. Later after analyzing the data, findings and conclusions can be made. It works on various kinds of opinions which are expressed, behaviors which are found and understanding of an issue which is portrayed. Moreover, the indescribable factors like class, society, caste, creed, religion are being recognized through this type of methodology.

Through this research methodology the data collected from a sample can be extended to a larger mass having similar attributes Property of Christ University. Theories like Marxist theory and Auteur theory had been extensively used. The Oxford English Dictionary defines theory as a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.

The theories Marxist and Auteur applied in this research had helped to understand various relations between one or more parameters, the attributes of the scenes present in the films, various processes used by the filmmaker to portray and establish the plots. Various patterns have been also identified through the help of the theory. Implementing the theories had helped the researcher to work extensively on the idea. The idea has been put in a frame with the practicing of the theories. In the later stages the data collection, analysis and conclusion had helped the researcher to get an overview understanding about the study, thus helping the researcher to achieve the objective.

Content analysis, in-depth interview, focus group discussions and participant observation are the methodologies exercised by the researcher. Mostly these are presented in the form of written documents. The documents represent the verbal communication in a written format. Content analysis can be effortlessly applied to study any type of communication. Content analysis can be a part of both quantitative and qualitative research methodology. However, here the researcher had analyzed the films through content analysis of qualitative research methodology. Films are a kind of storytelling, a narration of either a set of stories, incidents or occurrences or all.

Narrative analysis in films often begins with the usage of specific set of theories and the content in the films is analyzed from a qualitative textual approach Berg, Content Analysis is classified into i. Manifest Content Analysis Use it for fair purpose. Latent credit Content to the author by citing properly, if your are using it. Manifest content analysis analyzes the elements which are physically present and countable. This kind of analysis works on the surface of a message. Often these symbols are found beneath the physical data layer. Latent Content Analysis is the deep structural meaning transmitted in a message.

Here, while analyzing the films the researcher has done the analysis though latent content analysis. The major elements or parameters which the researcher has identified to analyze the films through latent content analysis are as follows: In France before the advent of French New Wave, many prominent filmmakers used to discuss about the role of a filmmaker in making a film. The film was considered as an art created by the director.

Later Use it for fair purpose. The message which is disseminated to the audience through the film is highly influenced by the director. The camera angle, the camera movement, positioning of the characters, place of shot are all important to analyze a film and in that context direction plays one of the major roles in the representation of a specific ideology in a film. Certain colors or metaphors used are also one of the ways to define a specific scene of a film. Theme The subject matter is one of the other important aspects in a film.

There are certain ideologies and philosophies which are carried in a film. In a film which is based on Marxist ideology the content of the subject will help the researcher to identify the reason of choosing the theme of the film. Story After theme, story of the film is another key feature in a film. The stories related to Marxist ideologies are going to be very real. The issues which Marxism deals with are the issues faced by the people in the society. The class conflict and struggle, the problems faced by the labor class, the economic imbalance between the wage laborers and capitalists and the rich becomes richer and poor becomes poorer are the main points are mostly discussed in Marxism.

To get a clear understanding on these, the story of the film becomes very important to interpret and analyze. On one hand there are cases where some specific actors are good in representing a certain ideology in a film. On the other hand many a times it has been observed irrespective of specific actors various ideologies have been portrayed well.

It was first used by the critics in Cahiers du cinema. It focuses on the presence of different objects in the picture. It consists of the presence of actors in specific locations in the stage. This puts the audience to analyze it from their point of view. While analyzing the films through content analysis it was found that though the process was simple but quite effective.

The materials here in this case films were accessible and the entire research was cost efficient. The films, the parameters set helped the researcher to do his research. The parameters had helped the researcher to understand the representation of the art form in the perspective of the theories set. In some cases, the researcher had also founded issues while trying to analyze the usage of certain camera angles or lighting through content analysis. It helps the researcher to get inputs from people who are well versed in the relevant field. The in-depth interview conducted was face to face.

The in-depth interview conducted had helped the researcher to understand the trends of using Marxist ideology in films. The researcher had conducted an unstructured interview to get narratives on specific topics. The questions were direct and open ended to get a vivid understanding on the topic. The interview data was recorded and as well as noted down by the interviewer. The Marxist theory is based on certain strictures like class conflict, class struggle, economy struggle, cultural capital and ideology.

The aim of the researcher was to identify these points in the films and thus get a broader understanding through the in-depth interview. The information collected after analyzing the films was helpful for the researcher while conducting the interview. During the preparation of the interview, the interviewees were chosen based on their knowledge about films, film theories and Marxist theory. Based on these points, Mr. The interview was taken in a spacious room located in the University campus, devoid of any interruption.

The answers of open ended questions have given the researcher a better understanding about the topic. Often through the answers the researcher has come across with the viewpoints and beliefs of the interviewee. On one hand the responses from Mr. C M Cyriac, has helped the researcher to substantiate his findings and content analysis done on the four films. His long experience in the political field has given the researcher a lot of viewpoints to be analyzed.

His responses were based on the theoretical and practical experiences. On Property of Christ University. Sergei Eisenstein was a Soviet film maker who was artistic, brilliant and passionate about the film making process. He was a theorist to. His early experiences of the arts were in theatre and graphic arts. His first full-length feature film Strike is considered as the pioneer in Montage editing. The plot of this film is based on political backdrop it with strong statements about collectivism.

Eisenstein was an extremely cultured man who always preferred art and philosophy on screen. He was a socialist, a Marxist, a materialist and a Communist. He was a self styled Marxist and later the materialist film theory which he brought up became very popular among the audience, film critics and scholars.

The Soviet Revolution encouraged him to make films on the concern of the people, the workers and others who were struggling in the country due to various reasons. Eisenstein through his films put forwarded a new theory Roberge, The other seven films were never made Nelmes, , p. Strike deals with the issues of factory workers. It is about their portrayal of oppression in an industry lead Soviet Russia.

It is about the disputes, especially the confrontation with the factory owners and government forces. It ends up with the massacre of the strikes lead by the factory employee strikers and their families. Through this film Eisenstein came out with a revolution in the field of art. The revolutionizing of the aesthetics of theatrical forms has happened over a period of Property of Christ University.

Through the subject matter of this film the concept of mass Use it for fair purpose. The film is divided in six parts and they are as follows: Often this philosophy has attracted the audience to enrich their visual experiences through this art form. Moreover, they believed that theory and filmmaking should be closely linked as the revolution was aimed to bring worker and peasant classes to power Bordwell, Strike is a historically, aesthetically and theoretically distinctive political film that uses montage to easily and intellectually convey political ideas for general public viewing.

The plot of Strike revolves around the issues and challenges faced the labor class people. The suffering of the Proletariat class of people under the hands of Bourgeois people is one of the main portrayals in this film. Without organization of the masses, the proletariat is nothing. Organized, it is everything.

Being organized means unity of action, the unity of practical activity. Its focus on the brutal and bizarre treatment of the workers by the bourgeois leaves the audience shell shocked. Strike tells of a suppressed group of factory workers 20 years before it was made. One can also view how the Bolsheviks the workers , the administration and their spies worked. There are many scenes which helps one to understand the philosophy of oppression of the labor class people by the capitalist.

The odd and suspicious look of the director In one of the starting scenes there is this man who has the odd and suspicious look on his face. This is followed by a scene where the administration people are busy and running around the office to make sure the work is being done. Later through one of the scenes, one comes to know that this person happens to be the director.

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The spies inform the director In another scene, one can see the example of an administration which is cunning and manipulative. The spies come to the director to report against the laborers about their activities in the factory and also about a possible agitation.


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The workers are on the verge of a protest against oppression Property of Christ University. They are in a happy mood, singing, walking and dancing to the tune of an accordion. Their pathos, sorrows and suppression in life are being suppressed through music and collective support from the members. The reason being he discovers that a micrometer has been stolen. However, the administration accuses Yakov of stealing the micrometer.


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  8. This leaves him in sheer disappointment, as Yakov fails to convince that he is not the thief and he is innocent. Later, he hangs himself and leaves a letter telling his co-workers of the injustice he faced. This sparks the fight between the manager and the strikers. The furious workers start running and protesting against the administration The previous action where the worker hangs himself leads to the massive protest against the administration.

    They start leaving their work stations; throw away their tools and starts running with loud protests. The mass comes one Property of Christ University. An incident brought the desolate and alienated workers to life protesting and raising their voices against protest. The proletariats are united to fight against the capital This is one of the defining moments where the mass is awake and is ready to fight against the capital.

    People who had the capital had the power. The same set of people who were having the power was controlling the mass. So, when for a moment that realization hit the workers that they can also fight against the oppression, they went for huge protests through various demonstrations. The shareholders read the demands of the workers Use it for fair purpose. The shareholders and the director of the factory are discussing the demands of the workers. However, it is obvious to the audience are not convinced with the efforts of the shareholders and the director as the group discussing these demands do not take the workers seriously.

    The reason being the shareholders are in a jolly mood, where they are being shown drinking wine, smoking cigars and laughing with one another. None of them actually care about the workers. This scene is juxtaposed with the scene where the police raid the workers and it is cut back to the scene of the shareholders using the demand letter to clean up a spill.

    This leads the audience to get an understanding about the injustice towards the workers and their families. This has been effectively established through the use of montage as the film cuts to different scenes back and forth. There are many rhetoric moments in the film where Eisenstein has left a metaphor to the audience.

    For example, during the same turn of events where the shareholders are enjoying over drinks, one of the shareholders uses a juice squeezer. This can be rhetoric as it is an attempt to show the audience the ultimate consequences of the workers. Non-diegetic image of a bull being slaughtered Property of Christ University. In the last scene Eisenstein has showed the non diegetic image of a bull being slaughtered.

    This is an attempt to demonstrate the viciousness of the army towards the people. It also represents army in a very negative way as it is under the control of the bourgeois class, rather than being an independent authority protecting the mass. The film undoubtedly ends in a tragic bloody tone as the laborers are slaughtered like the bull instead of being listened to or reasoned with properly. In conclusion, Strike is a powerful political film that stands out aesthetically and historically. Grigori Aleksandrov played the role of the factory foremen who is considered as one of the protagonists of the film.

    Other than him there were many other characters like worker, chief of police, member of the strike committee and more. Throughout the film, one gets to see many aspects of mis-en-scene which is vivid and has a very important role to play to explain the importance of the presence of the objects in the frame. One of the opening scenes where reflection on the water is being shown This scene first show that the feet of a man are on the water and later it goes out of the screen followed by reflection of men discussing is shown. Reflection of discussion Property of Christ University.

    Give with the help of credit to Unlike reflection. The reflection scene can be analyzed in two different ways. On one hand it can be considered that the filmmaker has shown the reflection of thoughts on the minds of the workers. On the other hand it can be also established that maybe the filmmaker may has asked the question to the audience about their perception of the scene. This is generally a metaphor which has been used meticulously to express the form of art. The four spies are being shown through 4 frames In this scene Eisenstein has meticulously divided the single frame into four different frames in a window format and has put the four spies in them.

    The intelligent usage of dividing one frame into four represents the process of making an ordinary scene to an extraordinary format through comprehensively using the art of mis-en-scene. Here, mis-en-scene is the positioning of characters in a frame and extensively using the setting, costume, lighting and movement of figures to represent the dynamism in the scene. He was born in in Riga, Latvia in a middle class Jewish family. Eisenstein was a socialist, a Marxist, a materialist and a Communist.

    The Materialist Film Theory comprises of three attributes and they are mentioned below in pairs: Materialist films were known for its new content and new form. Through the new content and new form Eisenstein tried to use Cinema as a process to reach knowledge of the world. He also brought the new form. For example in most of his films the objects which he used got more exposure time. Battleship Potemkin dealt on the true story of a mutiny. The mutiny happened on board in The themes it dealt with were anti-bourgeois, anti-idealist, anti- capitalist and Marxism.

    Battleship Potemkin is a milestone film and many scholars and critics consider it as one of the best ten films ever made. The film is known for its Property of Christ University. Eisenstein extends most of his scenes in the Use it for fair purpose. For example, the open fire on the gathering leading to crowd panicking was extended to 11 minutes.

    Several shots were taken like people begging for mercy, praying, a woman carrying her bleeding child and walking up the steps and later she also gets struck with bullets, a lame person crawling to safety and more had left a great impact on the minds of the audience Rao, Part One The film consists of five episodes.

    Sergei Eisenstein hallmark In the films of Eisenstein who was basically a Marxist filmmaker one can see extensive use of speeches or dialogues given by great leaders related to revolution. During the days of Russian revolution Vladimir Lenin had extensively contributed by theorizing and effectively politicizing the efforts of the working class against oppression.

    The sailors are fed worm infected meat Use it for fair purpose. The sailors of Battleship Potemkin broke into a mutiny after returning from war. It happened due to the fact that they were being treated very badly with the basis amenities, especially food. In one of the scenes it shows the sailors were served worm infested meat. Part Two This lead to an outrage among the sailors and eventually it happened to be the beginning of a revolution.

    The captain of the ship who happens to be very diplomatic and aggressive orders his crew members to parade to the deck where they are trapped under a tarpaulin. Later, when the captain orders the other crew members to fire the sailors trapped under the tarpaulin, they break into mutiny. The mutiny has leaded to chase the officers and threw them overboard Rao, His revolutionary attitude even persuaded the rifle holders as they found out that they were killing their own brothers and they were unaware of the fact that the officers were only gratifying their selfish needs.

    Marx had stated in Communist Manifesto that to fight against social injustice a society needs a revolution. Part Three After Vakulinchuk was shot the sailors took his corpse to the city where he was being laid so, that people can come in and pay their respect who initiated the revolution against injustice and capitalism.

    People come in numbers to pay their respect People of Odessa come in thousands gather near his corpse to pay their tribute and Property of Christ University. After sometime they go berserk leading to become determinant, gather Use it for fair purpose. Giveto credit grit and courage to the protest. This author results by revolt in another citingagainst properly, the ruler.

    The crew initiates protest This is the beginning of another revolt. With capital they control the people who work for them, control the workers of the society. They have the arms and ammunitions which they use against their countrymen only. Property ofFigure Christ University.

    Part Four Use it for fair purpose. The extensive use of montage and different types of camera angles bring a live experience. The troops advance down the steps and starts shooting the gathering to disperse them. This leads to the slaughtering of many innocent citizens. Mass running away from bullets Karl Marx had said that the capitalist system works on the basis of ownership and non-ownership of the means of production.

    The filmmaker has portrayed that fact on screen with one of these scenes where they are running against bullet. Czar using his sheer power controls the troops with his orders which were quite impractical as the troops shot each and everyone, later the mother too. This kind of relationship brings in ruptures in the society. Part Five Property of Christ University. The last episode deals with the concern which the sailors of the battleship Potemkin Use it for fair purpose. Give carry towards theircredit fate. Thetoship theprotests author by citing against the massproperly, if your assassination are using it.

    The sailors in the battleship Potemkin looks forward to join the people on land. But their ship is surrounded by other squadron ships. It presents a situation where the battleship Potemkin is all one in the fight against other squadron ships. There is a reluctant attitude about targeting as they are unaware about who is going to initiate the first attack.

    In the stage of huge uncertainty one fact came as a silver lining. It turned out to be their fellow mates in the other squadron ships. It resulted into no more war and peace prevailed. Here the presences of certain actors were not important to put forward certain ideologies of oppression and suffering. Moreover, Eisenstein as a self styled Marxist was able to bring out successfully the pathos of the working class, class conflict and economy struggle.

    Sergei Eisenstein extensively used the montage editing in his work. The montage theory develops in Russia and later it has its influence on art, literature, theater, photography and painting Huttunen, Montage is an editing technique which comprises of separate elements and either these elements can be related or unrelated. According to Montage theory there is a relationship between the author and his reader. The ideas, thought processes, ideologies are encoded by the author in his piece of art which in turn is decoded by the reader.

    Montage - people running down the stairs Figure Montage - people running down the stairs. Later the vigorous propaganda leads to outburst and agitation by the sailors and the citizens of the state. As mentioned earlier the four main aspects of mise-en-scene are setting, costume, lighting and movement of figures, we will discuss them one by one about their usage in Battleship of Potemkin.

    Satyajit Ray was an Indian filmmaker and he began his career as a commercial artist. He is being admired across the globe by who all loves storytelling and technologies of cinema. The cinema fraternity understands his vision which he held towards his films. The films which he made were subtle and expressed the complexity of humans living in a society. His storytelling method in cinema was class apart. He made his films in Bengali and as mentioned his plots revolved around human race. Their relationships, emotions, struggle, conflicts, joys and sorrows are delicately handled and portrayed well leaving a very strong message for the audience.

    Satyajit Ray was known as the master storyteller for his aptitude towards making films dealt with various issues and thus establishing successfully establishing the roots of Indian Cinema in the global perspective. Over a period of time Satyajit Ray has covered many aspect and issues of Indian Use it for fair purpose. The attributes of Feudalism were very much prevalent. Shatranj-ke-Khilari The Chess Players, depicts the feudal irresponsibility. He also took the onus on making films on sensitive issues as untouchability and an unjust Hindu cast system.

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    Sadgati Deliverance, does that for him Cooper, Ritwik Ghatak was another stalwart filmmaker from Bengal who was very well connected with the ideology of Marxism and most of his films showed the revolution instinct of the protagonist protesting against the tyranny and oppression of the ruling class. The differences of ideologies among the capitalists and the working class can be seen.

    It also the shows economy struggle and the beginning of a revolution against the ruling class namely Naxalites Movement. This film set in Calcutta during the late s explores the various contrasting shades of the city. On one hand there is a serious dearth of jobs and employment and on the other hand still there are families who are well to do and are leading very high standards of living.

    The director tries to depict the social responsibility through this black and white film. The film revolves around the life of the protagonist Siddhartha. He belongs to a middle class Bengali family and starts looking out for a job when his father dies. During that time period to be an honest employee and leaving ample savings was beyond the imagination. The means and mode of production are one of the important themes of this film. In a society where this is an unvarying clash of various ideologies, philosophies and thought processes one has to struggle a lot to earn bread and butter.

    The mode of production becomes the key element to establish a relationship in the Property of Christ University. It is an economic relationship which shapes the society.

    A Brief Introduction to Marxism

    The economic system in a society represents the base whereas the values of a given society form the superstructure. The jobs are a representation of the means of production. On the other hand the ideological institution which forms the superstructure is not affected when the base struggles in the cat and mouse race.

    In one of the scenes it can be seen that there is a job vacancy for only four candidates and many have applied for the same. The mode of production affects the superstructure and it is a primary concern for the filmmaker here too. The economy struggle of the country during the s and 70s was a prime concern.

    The lavish life led by the capitalists, the constant dearth of jobs, various policies favouring the bourgeois lead to Naxal revolution in the s. The contributors to this movement were mostly students who were leaving schools, colleges and universities. They were called Naxalites and they were tough opponents of people like businessmen, policemen, politicians and against feudal system.

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    The police administration was given the full liberty curb this revolution and in that process many young students were being beaten to death Naxalite. Satyajit Ray also explores the revolution phase in many of the scenes in Pratidwandi. He is ready to raise his voice against the oppression of the proletariats. He is brave and his goals are set.

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    On the other hand Siddhartha is a person who has vague ideas about his goals in life. After losing his father, he only has the aim to find a job and help his family. The story of the film revolves around the life of the protagonist Siddhartha. It is set in Calcutta during the late s explores the various contrasting shades of the city. During that period Property of Christ University. Calcutta and the whole country was under turmoil. There was economic turmoil and Use it for fair purpose.

    The country was also suffering from various protests by opponent political leaders. Strike was a common phenomenon of protest incurring loss. Later the then Prime Minister of India Mrs. Some of the scenes which help one to understand the various themes in this film are discussed below: In one of the scenes it is seen that in a crowded bus he is standing on the footboard. The filmmaker has expressed his view point well here.

    The mass of a society, in this case the travellers in the bus have to struggle to commute. Siddhartha is one of them. Here, the commuters are being alienated. Here, alienation happens in two forms. On one hand it can be the alienation where the commuters are unable to experience the other modes of comfortable rides Property of Christ University. On the other hand there can be another form of it which is the Use it for fair purpose.

    People have the money to afford a cab or a private transport but still they prefer the local transport maybe because of its frequency and availability.