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Protection of the environment has nowadays become a major challenge and a condi tion for Language · Energy · Engineering · Environmental Sciences · Food Science & Nutrition The first three chapters describe the origins, structure, function and management of mangrove forests in tropical America, Africa and Asia.
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Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. In-situ data collection methods can be expensive, as the ecosystems should be monitored continuously over time. An approach showing increasing interest from scientists and managers is using citizen scientists, which has many benefits not only financially but also socially Dickinson et al.
Stakeholders could develop an integrated ecosystem assessment IEA for all ecosystems at the landscape scale, i. This assessment should establish evaluation criteria for example Is the reciprocal ecosystem degraded? Figure 2 , panel 2. Where the variables and goals are clearly defined and the IEA is adaptive so new information and knowledge are fed back into the IEA to facilitate evaluation and assessment Rodriguez, Allowing managers to develop strategies i. More physical processes, fluxes, and ecosystem engineering traits are being monitored than before, but not in a way elucidating interactions between ecosystems.
Monitoring is used to understand individual units, for example, sequestration of carbon McLeod et al. An important step would be to monitor fluxes between ecosystems with new developing techniques.
A new innovative tool could be developing LIDAR to estimate wave energy over seagrass beds and entering mangrove forests, we could therefore monitor how wave energy changes from one ecosystem to another in combination with ecosystem engineering distribution. Such remote estimates can be complemented using, sediment traps and Secchi disks for turbidity, water quality samples for nutrients, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiling for water fluxes Figure 2 ; Talbot and Wilkinson, Methods are already in use for local singular ecosystem-based monitoring but this could be expanded to determine how changes occur between one ecosystem and another.
Remote and local data can then be integrated using satellite maps and spatial analysis to help create spatial explicit maps of fluxes across the seascape, which will cover mechanisms at the level of ecosystem extrapolated to the large-scale seascape Brodie et al. Many of the remote and local monitoring techniques can be used to assess structural characteristics of donor ecosystems relevant to their ecosystem engineering effects on fluxes but currently they have not. For example, LIDAR bathymetry and acoustic ground determination of coral reefs can estimate reef rugosity—key to determining effects on wave energy Walker et al.
LIDAR could quantify structural elements of seagrass beds relevant to wave energy attenuation and sediment trapping. A cutting edge development would be to combine LIDAR data of i fluxes across ecosystems and ii information on ecosystem engineers, to map connectivity across the seascape to determine the potential controls of connectivity. Airborne and satellite optical sensing could be utilized to establish the extent of these ecosystems and therefore the potential connective pathways Dierssen et al. Local measures of structure could be used to assess the extent of the ecosystem Talbot and Wilkinson, The resulting information could be used to validate remote data and provide information that cannot be obtained remotely e.
When new data and knowledge are available from monitoring i. Knowing if at least two or all three of these ecosystem types in an area are sufficiently proximate or were so, if lost requires mapping their distribution. This information can then be combined with models that estimate effects on wave energy, nutrients, and sediments as a function of distance and ecosystem engineering attributes. This can serve as an effective tool for accessing how to bring connectivity into management.
While feasible using satellite imagery and the development of models from current data, it has yet to be done. NASA and the European Copernicus program have developed a strategy for the global acquisition of freely available satellite imagery for the next decades Skidmore et al. These developments facilitate cost-efficient use of remote sensing technology, and compensate for required resources toward specialized image processing, analysis, validation, and interpretation.
If an ecosystem is in a pristine state or has a natural recovery potential, monitoring of fluxes, and ecosystem engineering traits should continue as long as no other stressors occur Figure 2 , panel 2, step 2. When donor ecosystems have deteriorated to the point and they have no positive influence on recipient ecosystems, or when a connected ecosystem type has been destroyed, restoration of donor ecosystems is required in order to manage and restore recipient ecosystems Figure 2 , panel 2, step 4. We believe one should target those ecosystem-engineering donor species that alter fluxes for the persistence or establishment of recipient ecosystems Figure 2.
This is an essential tool for managing and restoring connectivity fluxes between connected ecosystems. Current understanding can help guide restoration. Restoring connectivity in tropical seascapes means restoring donor ecosystems and their ecosystem engineers to the point where there is sufficient relevant physical structure for the positive effects on the recipient ecosystems van der Heide et al. In some cases artificial structures may be preventing connected fluxes between adjacent ecosystems, however the scale and impact of artificial structures is still relatively unknown Bishop et al.
Further qualification and quantification is urgently needed in this respect to understand how coastal modifications will affect restoration of fluxes. The need to rapidly restore physical structure in donor ecosystems to prevent further deterioration in recipient ecosystems suggests choices among native species. Other, slower-growing coral species, or species that have little high rugosity e. Replanting fast-growing seagrass species is more likely to lead to rapid nutrient uptake and sediment trapping that debilitates coral reefs Yap, Fast-growing mangrove species with extensive prop root systems i.
Successful establishment of ecosystem engineers will not lead to restoration of connectivity until there is sufficient physical structure-thus time for growth is needed. When loss of ecosystem connectivity adversely affects establishment and growth of the engineering species e. For example, ecological restoration using the natural seeding potential of mangrove forests, rather than planting seedlings, has been successful when the hydraulic thresholds Olds et al.
In areas such as the Caribbean and South-East Asia Figure 1C , practices already consider management at the ecosystem scale Figure 1C , but they do not explicitly consider connectivity. Other areas have shown ridge-to-reef management The Great Barrier Reef , but without concentrating on fluxes between ecosystems Figure 1C. Nevertheless, in these regions, restoration has not generally been successful for example using inappropriate species Yap, Combining our understanding of connectivity and ecological restoration may be the most efficient and effective way to successfully restore and manage ecosystems.
We question why this approach has not yet been used more broadly? Many of the scientific challenges of connective seascape management and restoration have become solvable with recent progress in science and technology such as our understanding of long distance fluxes, satellite imagery, and data sharing. There are, of course, many challenges to implementation e.
Utilizing local stakeholder knowledge of ecosystem connectivity, and citizen science that helps monitor changes in connectivity, can, with freely available satellite images and tools for analyzing them , be central to better seascape-level management, especially when financial resources are limited.
Some of the most threatened mangrove forests, seagrass beds, and corals reefs show the greatest prevalence of these ecosystems adjacent to each other and therefore the highest chance of connected ecosystems; Figure 1C. Conventional management in these regions already exists but it does not appear to be the most effective in stopping further degradation of ecosystems Figure 1C. In these regions, because of the potential high prevalence of connected ecosystems, integrating connectivity into management at the tropical seascape level is viable.
Seascape-scale management, such as ecological restoration, could reverse degradation in addition to restoring coastal ecosystems as well as their services and functions. Using specific ecosystem engineers known to develop long-distance flux exchanges should be the focal point of restoration and management efforts. The necessary knowledge regarding the fluxes needed to be monitored and the ecosystem engineering traits altering specific fluxes is now readily available.
Using ecosystem engineers, which by their own physical structure affect landscape scale connectivity, to restore and manage tropical coastal zones is a challenging and promising opportunity.
This approach demands integrating connectivity principles into management strategies. Moreover, it is timely to do so, as we are now facing a growing need for implementing nature-based coastal protection. LG is the principle author and analyses. CJ helped develop the idea and gave feedback on writing, AZ provided strong support on writing and provided feedback to the original idea, DvdW supported and provided information for the monitoring section, AB supported social science and restoration sections, and TB helped with the perceived idea and developed writing.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Critical transitions in disturbance-driven ecosystems: Seedling establishment in a dynamic sedimentary environment: Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. Confronting the coral reef crisis. Effects of ocean sprawl on ecological connectivity: Density-dependent linkage of scale-dependent feedbacks: Dispersal of suspended sediments and nutrients in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon during river-discharge events: Reefs at Risk Revisited.
The impact of sediment burial and erosion on seagrasses: The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement. Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery. Environmental impacts of dredging and other sediment disturbances on corals: The convergence of integrated coastal zone management and the ecosystems approach. Sustainable Human Interactions with Ecosystems and the Biosphere. Potential for landscape-scale positive interactions among tropical marine ecosystems.
Conservation and Management of Tropical Coastal Ecosystems. The power of three: Remote sensing of coral reefs for monitoring and management: Identifying the consequences of ocean sprawl for sedimentary habitats. Airborne lidar measurements of wave energy dissipation in a coral reef lagoon system. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Long-distance interactions regulate the structure and resilience of coastal ecosystems. Ecologically based goal setting in mangrove forest and tidal marsh restoration. Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. Key principles of marine ecosystem-based management.
Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous Landscapes.
Who needs environmental monitoring?