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the Compensation, Accessions, and Personnel Management (CAPM) Model .. This tutorial guides the reader through five exercises using CAPM in order to.
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More about Copyright and other Restrictions For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources. Cite This Item Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate. Includes bibliographical references p. To do so effectively, however, it must undertake several initiatives. Government Accountability Office Date: You might also like. Army and chairman of the joint chiefs of staff At this level, engineers and scientists have demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in anticipating and solving unprecedented problems, determining program objectives and requirements, organizing programs and projects, and developing standards and guides for diverse activities.

As a supervisor, Is responsible for an important segment of a company's or government agency's engineering or scientific program with extensive and diversified requirements; or the entire engineering or scientific program of a company or agency when the program is more limited in scope. Resolves critical problems which require major technological advances and opens the way for extensive related development.

Recommends the most profitable scientific objectives and levels of work taking into consideration the organization's program requirements and scientific and industrial trends and developments. As an individual researcher or consultant, is recognized as a leader and authority in the company or government agency in a broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely specialized field. Advises officials on complex aspects of extremely broad and important programs. Conceives and plans investigations of broad areas of considerable novelty and importance, for which precedents are lacking in areas critical to the overall engineering or scientific program.

Is consulted extensively by associates and others, with a high degree of reliance placed on the professional's scientific interpretations and advice. Directs several subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are in positions comparable to level 6; or as an individual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on projects by other engineers, scientists, and technicians. Makes decisions and recommendations that are authoritative and have far-reaching impact on extensive engineering and scientific programs and related activities. Negotiates critical and controversial issues with top level scientists and officials of other organizations, who are themselves regarded as authorities in the specialized scientific field, and represents the organization in professional forums.

Scientists and engineers have demonstrated a high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organizing and guiding extensive engineering and scientific programs and activities of outstanding novelty and importance. As a supervisor, i s responsible for an important segment of very extensive and highly diversified engineering or scientific program of a company or government agency; or the entire engineering or scientific program of a company or agency when the program is of moderate scope.

The programs are of such complexity and scope that they are of critical importance to overall objectives, include problems of extraordinary difficulty that have resisted solution, and consist of several segments requiring subordinate supervisors. Decides the kind and extent of programs needed to accomplish the objectives of the company or agency, chooses scientific approaches, plans and organizes facilities and programs, and interprets results. As an individual researcher and consultant, formulates and guides the plan for resolving problems of exceptional difficulty and marked importance to the company, industry, or government.

Problems are characterized by their lack of scientific precedent and source material, or the lack of success of prior research and analysis so that their solution would represent an advance of great significance and importance. Serves as the authority and consultant for broad program areas or for an intensely specialized area considerable novelty and importance.

Supervises several subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whom are comparable to level 7, or individual researches some of whom are comparable to level 7 and sometimes 8. As an individual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on projects by other engineers, scientists, or technicians. Preparing budget estimates to support programs; presenting and justifying budget estimates; administering approved budgets and determining funding requirements within authorized limits; evaluating and administering requests for funds and monitoring and controlling obligations and expenditures; and developing and interpreting budget policies.

In addition to the technical responsibilities described in levels 1 through 4, budget analysts may also supervise subordinate staff members. At levels 1 and 2, the subordinate staff typically consists of clerical and paraprofessional employees; level 3 may also coordinate the work of lower level analysts; and level 4 may supervise one or two analysts.

Positions responsible for supervising three or more budget analysts and support staff should typically be matched to the budget analyst supervisor definition. Financial analysts evaluating the financial operations, transactions, practices and structure of an organization; and. Budget analysts above level 4 responsible for analyzing and administering highly complex budgets requiring frequent reprogramming and evaluating the impact of complicated legislation or policy decisions on the organization's budget; and.

As a trainee, performs a variety of clearly-defined tasks assigned to increase the employee's knowledge and understanding of budget concepts, principles, practices, and procedures. Assists in the development of budgets by comparing projected costs to schedules; or assists in budget administration by examining and highlighting obvious deviations in reports listing the status of financial obligations and expenditures.

Work is performed under close supervision. Assignments are clearly defined, methods are specified, and items to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified. Performs routine and recurring budget analysis duties which typically facilitate more complex review and analysis performed by supervisors or higher-level budget analysts. Initial assignments are designed to expand practical experience and to develop judgment in applying basic budget analysis techniques. Follows specific guidelines and previous budget reports in analyzing budgets for operating programs which are uniform and repetitive.

Screening requests for allocations of approved budgets and recommending approval, disapproval, or modification based on availability of funds and conformance with regulations; analyzing operating reports to monitor program expenditures and obligations; and summarizing narrative and statistical data in budget forms and reports. Applies previously learned skills to perform routine work independently. Supervisor provides information regarding budgetary actions to be performed, organizational functions to be covered, and specific instructions for unfamiliar work or complex problems.

Uses a knowledge of commonly used budgetary procedures and practices, regulations, and organizational policies to analyze budgets for relatively stable operations e. Forecasts funding needs for operating programs with varying annual requirements for goods, services, equipment, and personnel. Certifies obligations and expenditures, monitors trends in spending, and anticipates funding and reprogramming needs; within established limits, recommends transfer of funds within accounts to cover increased expenditures; assembles data for use in preparing budget and program evaluations; and recommends the approval of or revises requests for allotments.

Carries out assignments independently in accordance with standard procedures and practices. Supervisor provides assistance on unfamiliar or unusual problems. May perform more complex assignments to assist supervisor or higher level analyst. Provides analytical support for budgets which require annual modifications due to changing work processes, resource needs, funding requirements, or fluctuating revenue. Interprets guidelines and precedents and advises operating managers concerning budgeting policies. May recommend new budgeting techniques. Prepares a variety of reports detailing the status of funds, expenses, and obligations; identifies trends and recommends adjustments in program spending; advises management on budgeting deadlines and alternative means of accomplishing budgetary objectives; and serves as budgeting liaison between managers and staff of various organizational programs.

Participates with supervisor in determining deadlines for assigned projects, which are linked to the budget cycle and typically require more than a year for completion. Works independently for several months at a time, with little review, while work progresses. Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and services e. In some instances items purchased are of types that must be specially designed, produced, or modified by the vendor in accordance with drawings or engineering specifications.

Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects or recommends suppliers. At levels 3 and higher, formal contract negotiation methods are typically used where knowledge of market trends and conditions is required. May interview prospective vendors. Purchases items and services or negotiates contracts at the most favorable price consistent with quality, quantity, specification requirements, and other factors.

Prepares or supervises preparation of purchase orders from requisitions. May expedite delivery and visit vendors' offices and plants.

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Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are consistent with past experience and are in conformance with established rules and policies. Proposed purchase transactions that deviate from the usual or from past experience in terms of prices, quality of items, quantities, etc. Contract administration includes determining allowable costs, monitoring contractor compliance with contract terms, resolving problems concerning obligations of the parties, explaining and renegotiating contract terms, and ensuring satisfactory contract completion.

In addition to work described above, some but not all buyers or contracting specialists direct the work of one or a few clerks who perform routine aspects of the work.

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As a secondary and subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or dispose of surplus, salvage, or used materials, equipment, or supplies. Some buyers or contracting specialists are responsible for the purchasing or contract administration of a variety of items and materials. When the variety includes items and work described at more than one of the following levels, the position should be considered to equal the highest level that characterizes at least a substantial portion of the buyer's time. Positions that specifically require professional education and qualifications in a physical science or in engineering e.

Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a few related items of highly variable quality such as raw cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe uppers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is required to judge the relative value of the goods offered, and to decide the quantity, quality, and price of each purchase in terms of its probable effect on the organization's profit and competitive status;.

Buyers or contracting specialists whose principal responsibility is the supervision of a purchasing or contracting program;. Persons whose major duties consist of ordering, reordering, or requisitioning items under existing contracts;. These specialists use extensive judgment and originality to plan procurement strategies for large scale acquisition programs or systems.

Purchases "off-the-shelf" types of readily available, commonly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture, services, etc. Transactions usually involve local retailers, wholesalers, jobbers, and manufacturers' sales representatives. Examples of items purchased include: As a trainee, performs various clearly defined procurement tasks designed to increase the employee's knowledge and understanding of procurement and contracting concepts, principles, practices, and procedures. Examples of duties include: Purchases "off-the-shelf" types of standard, generally available technical items, materials, and services.

Transactions may involve occasional modification of standard and common usage items, materials, and services, and include a few stipulations about unusual packing, marking, shipping, etc. Transactions usually involve dealing directly with manufacturers, distributors, jobbers, etc. Limited contract negotiation techniques may be used, primarily for developmental purposes to increase employee's skill and knowledge.

Quantities of items and materials purchased may be relatively large, particularly in the case of contracts for continuing supply over a period of time. May be responsible for locating or promoting possible new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep abreast of market trends, changes in business practices in the assigned markets, new or altered types of materials entering the market, etc.

Examples of items purchased or under contract include: Also included at this level are buyers of materials of the types described for Buyer 1 when the quantities purchased are large, so that local sources of supply are generally inadequate and the buyer must deal directly with manufacturers on a broader than local scale.

Assigned work is designed to provide diversified experience, as a background for future higher level work. Supervisor provides general instructions, monitors work, and reviews recommendations. Standard or routine aspects of work are performed with greater independence. Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical and specialized nature, usually by negotiating a standard contract based on reimbursement of costs and expenses or a fixed price ceiling.

May be responsible for overseeing the post award contract administration functions e. The items, while of a common general type, are usually made, altered, or customized to meet the user's specific needs and specifications. The number of potential vendors is likely to be small and price differentials often reflect important factors quality, delivery dates and places, etc.

Many of the purchases involve one or more such complications as: Is expected to keep abreast of market and product developments. May be required to locate new sources of supply. Some positions may involve assisting in the training or supervision of lower level buyers or clerks. Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and often involve persuading potential vendors to undertake the manufacture of custom designed items according to complex and rigid specifications. Negotiation techniques are also frequently involved with convincing the vendor to reduce costs.

Quantities of items and materials purchased are often large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire large organization for an extended period of time. Complex schedules of delivery are often involved. Contracting specialists determine appropriate quantities to be contracted for at any given period of time and negotiate with vendors to establish or adjust delivery schedules. Negotiations and contract administration are often complicated by the following: In reviewing contract proposals, extensive cost analysis is required to evaluate the cost of such factors as 1 numerous technical specifications, and 2 potential changes in manufacturing processes that might affect projected cost figures.

These complications result in the incorporation of numerous special provisions and incentives in renegotiated contracts. In addition to the work described above, a few positions may also require supervision of a few lower level buyers, contracting specialists or clerks. No position is included in this level solely because supervisory duties are performed.

Serves as lead negotiator or contract administrator for: Examples of contracts include prototype development of sophisticated research and testing equipment, software systems development, scientific studies involving waste and transportation systems, facilities for production of weapons systems, and research laboratories requiring special equipment.

Performs large-scale centralized purchasing or contract administration for a multi-unit organization or large establishment that requires either items with unique requirements as to construction, testing, durability, or quality characteristics, or organization-wide services. Examples of contracts include organization-wide software or communication systems, and industry-specific testing equipment with unique specifications.

May persuade suppliers to expand their plants or convert facilities to the production of new items or services. Transactions are often complicated by technological changes, urgent needs to override normal production, great volume of production, commodity shortages, and lack of competition among vendors.

Frequent technological changes require delays or modifications to contract proposals or to existing contracts. In-depth cost analysis is required, often with little pricing precedent due to the unique aspects of the products. Contracts are usually long-term exceeding 2 years and involve numerous subcontracts and special provisions that must be changed and renegotiated throughout the duration of the contract.

Performs programming services for establishments or for outside organizations who may contract for services. Converts specifications precise descriptions about business or scientific problems into a sequence of detailed instructions to solve problems by electronic data processing EDP equipment, i. Draws program flow charts to describe the processing of data and develops the precise steps and processing logic which, when entered into the computer in coded language COBOL, FORTRAN, or other programming language , cause the manipulation of data to achieve desired results.

Tests and corrects programs and prepares instructions for operators who control the computer during runs. Modifies programs to increase operating efficiency or to respond to changes in work processes; maintains records to document program development and revisions. At levels 1, 2, and 3, computer programmers may also perform programming analysis such as: In contrast, at levels 4 and 5, some programming analysis must be performed as part of the programming assignment.

The analysis duties are identified in a separate paragraph at levels 1, 2, 3, and 4, and are part of each alternative described at level 5. However, the systems requirements are defined by systems analysts or scientists. Positions which require a bachelor's degree in a specific scientific field other than computer science , such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or chemistry degree; however, positions are potential matches where the required degree may be from any of several possible scientific fields;. Computer programmers who perform level 4 or 5 duties but who perform no programming analysis;.

Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate problems concerning computer equipment or its selection or utilization;. Computer systems programmers or analysts who primarily write programs or analyze problems concerning the system software, e.

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Employees who have significant responsibility for the management or supervision of workers e. At this trainee level, assignments are usually planned to develop basic programming skills because incumbents are typically inexperienced in applying such skills on the job. Assists higher level staff by performing elementary programming tasks which concern limited and simple data items and steps which closely follow patterns of previous work done in the organization, e. May perform routine programming assignments as described in level 2 under close supervision. In addition, as training and to assist higher level staff, may perform elementary fact finding concerning a specified work process, e.

May receive training in elementary fact-finding. Detailed, step-by-step instructions are given for each task and any deviation must be authorized by a supervisor. Work is closely monitored in progress and reviewed in detail upon completion. At this level, initial assignments are designed to develop competence in applying established programming procedures to routine problems. Performs routine programming assignments that do not require skilled background experience but do require knowledge of established programming procedures and data processing requirements.

Works according to clear-cut and complete specifications.

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The data are refined and the format of the final product is very similar to that of the input or is well defined when significantly different, i. Maintains and modifies routine programs. Makes approved changes by amending program flow charts, developing detailed processing logic, and coding changes. Tests and documents modifications and writes operator instructions. May write routine new programs using prescribed specifications; may confer with EDP personnel to clarify procedures, processing logic, etc. In addition, and as continued training, may evaluate simple interrelationships in the immediate programming area, e.

The incumbent is provided with charts, narrative descriptions of the functions performed, an approved statement of the product desired e. Reviews objectives and assignment details with higher level staff to insure thorough understanding; uses judgment in selecting among authorized procedures and seeks assistance when guidelines are inadequate, significant deviations are proposed, or when unanticipated problems arise.

Work is usually monitored in progress; all work is reviewed upon completion for accuracy and compliance with standards. As a fully qualified computer programmer, applies standard programming procedures and detailed knowledge of pertinent subject matter e. Works according to approved statements of requirements and detailed specifications. While the data are clear cut, related, and equally available, there may be substantial interrelationships of a variety of records and several varied sequences of formats are usually produced.

The programs developed or modified typically are linked to several other programs in that the output of one becomes the input for another. Recognizes probable interactions of other related programs with the assigned program s and is familiar with related system software and computer equipment. Solves conventional programming problems. In small organizations, may maintain programs which concern or combine several operations, i. Performs such duties as: Scientific programming includes assignments such as: Tests and documents work and writes and maintains operator instructions for assigned programs.

Confers with other EDP personnel to obtain or provide factual data. In addition, may carry out fact-finding and programming analysis of a single activity or routine problem, applying established procedures where the nature of the program, feasibility, computer equipment, and programming language have already been decided. May analyze present performance of the program and take action to correct deficiencies based on discussion with the user and consultation with and approval of the supervisor or higher level staff.

May assist in the review and analysis of detailed program specifications and in program design to meet changes in work processes. Works independently under specified objectives; applies judgment in devising program logic and in selecting and adapting standard programming procedures; resolves problems and deviations according to established practices; and obtains advice where precedents are unclear or not available. Completed work is reviewed for conformance to standards, timeliness, and efficiency. May guide or instruct lower level programmers; may supervise technicians and others who assist in specific assignments.

Works on complex programs as described in level 4 under close direction of higher level staff or supervisor. May assist higher level staff by independently performing moderately complex tasks assigned, and performing complex tasks under close supervision. Assigned programs typically affect a broad multi-user computer system which meets the data processing needs of a broad area e. Plans the full range of programming actions to produce several interrelated but different products from numerous and diverse data elements which are usually from different sources; solves difficult programming problems.

Uses knowledge of pertinent system software, computer equipment, work processes, regulations, and management practices. Tests, documents, and writes operating instructions for all work. Confers with other EDP personnel to secure information, investigate and resolve problems, and coordinate work efforts. In addition, performs such programming analysis as: Works independently under overall objectives and direction, apprising the supervisor about progress and unusual complications.

Modifies and adapts precedent solutions and proven approaches. Guidelines include constraints imposed by the related programs with which the incumbent's programs must be meshed. Completed work is reviewed for timeliness, compatibility with other work, and effectiveness in meeting requirements. May function as team leader or supervise a few lower level programmers or technicians on assigned work. At level 5, workers are typically either supervisors, team leaders, staff specialists, or consultants.

Some programming analysis is included as a part of the programming assignment. Supervision and review are similar to level 4. A substantial portion of the work supervised usually 2 to 3 workers is comparable to that described for level 4. Supervises, coordinates, and reviews the work of a small staff, normally not more than 15 programmers and technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules, assigns and reviews work to meet completion date.

These day-to-day supervisors evaluate performance, resolve complaints, and make recommendations on hiring and firing. They do not make final decisions on curtailing projects, reorganizing, or reallocating resources. As team leader, staff specialist, or consultant , defines complex scientific problems e. In conjunction with users scientists or specialists , defines major problems in the subject-matter area. Contacts co-workers and user personnel at various locations to plan and coordinate project and gather data; devises ways to obtain data not previously available; arbitrates differences between various program users when conflicting requirements arise.

May perform simulation studies to determine effects of changes in computer equipment or system software or may assess the feasibility and soundness of proposed programming projects which are novel and complex. Typically develops programming techniques and procedures where few precedents exist. May be assisted on projects by other programmers or technicians. Analyzes business or scientific problems for resolution through electronic data processing.

Gathers information from users, defines work problems, and, if feasible, designs a system of computer programs and procedures to resolve the problems. Develops complete specifications to enable computer programmers to prepare required programs: May also write the computer programs. Trainees who receive detailed directives and work plans, select authorized procedures for use in specific situations, and seek assistance for deviations and problems;.

Computer programmers who write computer programs and solve user problems not requiring systems modification;. Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate problems concerning computer equipment or its selection or utilization; and. At this level, initial assignments are designed to expand practical experience in applying systems analysis techniques and procedures.

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Provides several phases of the required systems analysis where the nature of the system is predetermined. Uses established fact finding approaches, knowledge of pertinent work processes and procedures, and familiarity with related computer programming practices, system software, and computer equipment. Carries out fact finding and analysis as assigned, usually of a single activity or a routine problem; applies established procedures where the nature of the system, feasibility, computer equipment, and programming language have already been decided; may assist a higher level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by computer programmers from information developed by the higher level analyst; may research routine user problems and solve them by modifying the existing system when the solutions follow clear precedents.

When cost and deadline estimates are required, results receive close review. The supervisor defines objectives, priorities, and deadlines. Incumbents work independently; adapt guides to specific situations; resolve problems and deviations according to established practices; and obtain advice where precedents are unclear or not available. Completed work is reviewed for conformance to requirements, timeliness, and efficiency. May supervise technicians and others who assist in specific assignments.

Applies systems analysis and design skills in an area such as a recordkeeping or scientific operation. A system of several varied sequences or formats is usually developed, e. Requires competence in most phases of system analysis and knowledge of pertinent system software and computer equipment and of the work processes, applicable regulations, work load, and practices of the assigned subject-matter area.

Recognizes probable interactions of related computer systems and predicts impact of a change in assigned system. Reviews proposals which consist of objectives, scope, and user expectations; gathers facts, analyzes data, and prepares a project synopsis which compares alternatives in terms of cost, time, availability of equipment and personnel, and recommends a course of action; and upon approval of synopsis, prepares specifications for development of computer programs.

Determines and resolves data processing problems and coordinates the work with program, users, etc. May conduct special projects such as data element and code standardization throughout a broad system, working under specific objectives and bringing to the attention of the supervisor any unusual problems or controversies. Works independently under overall project objectives and requirements; apprises supervisor about progress and unusual complications. Guidelines usually include existing systems and the constraints imposed by related systems with which the incumbent's work must be meshed.

Adapts design approaches successfully used in precedent systems. May provide functional direction to lower level assistants on assigned work. Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or broad system, as described for computer systems analyst level 3. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instructions and guidance on complex assignments.

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Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure proper alignment with the overall system. Applies systems analysis and design techniques to complex computer systems in a broad area such as manufacturing; finance management; engineering, accounting, or statistics; logistics planning; material management, etc.

Usually, there are multiple users of the system; however, there may be complex one-user systems, e. Requires competence in all phases of systems analysis techniques, concepts, and methods and knowledge of available system software, computer equipment, and the regulations, structure, techniques, and management practices of one or more subject-matter areas. Since input data usually come from diverse sources , is responsible for recognizing probable conflicts and integrating diverse data elements and sources.

Produces innovative solutions for a variety of complex problems. Maintains and modifies complex systems or develops new subsystems such as an integrated production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, or sales analysis record in which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records. Guides users in formulating requirements; advises on alternatives and on the implications of new or revised data processing systems; analyzes resulting user project proposals, identifies omissions and errors in requirements, and conducts feasibility studies; recommends optimum approach and develops system design for approved projects.

Interprets information and informally arbitrates between system users when conflicts exist. May serve as lead analyst in a design subgroup, directing and integrating the work of one or two lower level analysts, each responsible for several programs. Supervision and nature of review are similar to level 2; existing systems provide precedents for the operation of new subsystems. Work requires a broad knowledge of data sources and flow, interactions of existing complex systems in the organization, and the capabilities and limitations of the systems software and computer equipment.

Objectives and overall requirements are defined in the organization's EDP policies and standards; the primary constraints typically are those imposed by the need for compatibility with existing systems or processes. Supervision and nature of review are similar to levels 2 and 3. As team or project leader, provides systems design in a specialized and highly complex design area , e.

Establishes the framework of new computer systems from feasibility studies to post-implementation evaluation. Devises new sources of data and develops new approaches and techniques for use by others. May serve as technical authority for a design area. At least one or two team members perform work at level 3; one or two team members may also perform work as a level 4 staff specialist or consultant as described below. As staff specialist or consultant, with expertise in a specialty area e.

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Identifies problems and specific issues in assigned area and prepares overall project recommendations from an EDP standpoint including feasible advancements in EDP technology; upon acceptance, determines a design strategy that anticipates directions of change; designs and monitors necessary testing and implementation plans. Performs work such as: Considers such requirements as broad organization policy, and the diverse user needs of several organizational levels and locations.

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