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Mille pensieri di libertà (Italian Edition) [Amato Russomanno] on efycymepodor.tk I pensieri di schiavitù sono basati sulla negazione e sull'impotenza, e sono.
Table of contents
- Va, pensiero, sull'ali dorati; coro di Schiavi ebrei, Nabucco, atto III.
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- American Studies in Italy
In a previous study we evaluated the efficacy of buprenorphine and methadone on psychopathological symptoms according to a standard SCL nine-factor structure [ 27 ]. We treated patients of these on buprenorphine and on methadone in an open study, following patients between months of their treatment; those who left the program before the end of their third month of treatment were excluded from the study sample.
The results of this study showed statistically significant improvements in opioid use, psychiatric symptomatology and quality of life between months for both medications [ 24 ]. In the present study we compared the effects of buprenorphine and methadone on the psychopathological symptoms of these same patients after re-evaluation on the basis of our new five-factor SCL structure. In all, patients were being treated with buprenorphine and with methadone.
For further details, please see Maremmani et al. On the basis of the highest z scores obtained on the five SCL factors dominant SCL factor see Instruments section below subjects were assigned to five mutually exclusive groups. The group whose dominant factor was 'worthlessness-being trapped' comprised 33 subjects These five groups were sufficiently distinct, and did not show any significant overlap.
The questionnaire rates ten items: The specific clinical variables addressed are: The SCL [ 27 ] is an inventory composed of 90 items, with a point scale ranging from 0 to 5, to allow assessment of intensity. The items are grouped into five factors related to different psychopathological dimensions: The five-factor solution is based on an exploratory factor analysis we performed on the 90 SCL items. This analysis involved 1, patients [ 26 ].
Factors were extracted by using a main component analysis principal component analysis PCA type 2 and then rotating this orthogonally to achieve a simple structure. This simplification is equivalent to maximizing the variance of the squared loading in each column. This procedure makes it possible to minimize the crossloadings of items on factors. In order to make factor scores comparable, they can be standardized into z scores. All subjects can be assigned to one of the five different subtypes on the basis of the highest factor score achieved dominant SCL factor.
This procedure allows the classification of subjects on the basis of their dominant symptomatological cluster. In this way it is possible to solve the problem of identifying a cut-off point for the inclusion of patients in the different clusters identified. PCC expresses the percentage ratio of urinalyses proving negative for the presence of morphine and the total number of urinalyses carried out for each patient during the period of treatment.
TEC is the percentage ratio between the number of urinalyses that proved to be negative for the presence of morphine and the number of urine analyses that the protocol has envisaged throughout the process. In this case, the reference number was 37 the maximum number of urine samples per patient. PCC tends to give preference to patients who remain 'opiate free', but who terminate the study in advance for reasons not correlated with the study for example, imprisonment.
TEC additionally considers how long the patient remains in the protocol, and gives less precedence to these patients. These two indices represent the two extremes, but results tend to balance out. With regard to these parameters, the comparison between the two groups was made with Student's t test.
Analysis of the results was performed on completion of the 12 months of treatment. Patients belonging to one of the five dominant subgroups and undergoing treatment, with buprenorphine or with methadone, were compared for their retention in treatment. Retention in treatment was analyzed by means of survival analysis and Leu-Desu statistics for comparison between the survival curves.
For the purpose of this analysis, 'completed observations' is a term that refers to patients who left the treatment, while 'censored observations' refers to patients who are still in treatment at the end of the 12 month period or have decided to leave the treatment for reasons unrelated to treatment for example, patients moving to other towns, imprisonment, and so on.
Similarly, no statistically significant differences were observed for patients belonging to the 'somatization', and 'panic-anxiety' dominant groups. Survival in treatment of buprenorphine-treated or methadone-treated heroin-dependent patients according to dominant psychopathological groups. Regarding the 'sensitivity-psychoticism' dominant group, 14 During the same period, only 8 This difference was statistically significant.
Va, pensiero, sull'ali dorati; coro di Schiavi ebrei, Nabucco, atto III.
Patients treated with buprenorphine or methadone did not differ significantly in rates for gender, education, civil status, presence of somatic comorbidity, psychiatric comorbidity, baseline household major problems, sexual major problems, social-leisure major problems, legal problems or polyabuse. No significant differences were observed either in age, age at first use of substances, age at dependence onset, dependence duration or age at first treatment. During the follow-up period no statistically significant differences were observed regarding urinalyses for heroin or cocaine metabolites.
Demographic and clinical characteristics of the sensitivity-psychoticism dominant groups according to treatment. During the same period, 14 Patients treated with buprenorphine or methadone did not differ significantly in rates of employment, education, civil status, presence of somatic comorbidity, psychiatric comorbidity, baseline work major problems, household major problems, sexual major problems, legal problems, polyabuse or unsuccessful treatments in the past. No significant differences were observed either in age, age at first use of substances, age at dependence onset, dependence duration, age at first treatment.
Demographic and clinical characteristics of the violence-suicide dominant groups according to treatment. In our sample, the question of whether a patient belonged to one of the 'worthlessness-being trapped', 'somatization' and 'panic-anxiety' dominant groups did not affect survival in treatment. Patients with 'sensitivity-psychoticism' as their predominant characteristics showed a better outcome when treated with methadone.
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Patients with 'violence-suicide' as their predominant characteristics showed a better outcome when treated with buprenorphine. This occurred despite the fact that methadone-treated sensitivity-psychoticism patients showed a higher frequency of unemployment, of work major problems and of unsuccessful treatments in the past compared with patients possessing the same predominant characteristics who were treated with buprenorphine.
Buprenorphine-treated violence-suicide patients were characterized by the male gender and showed a better outcome, despite the presence of social-leisure major problems. In our sample methadone and buprenorphine showed the same effect on heroin dependence as proved by results for urinalyses that were not statistically different , but did show a different impact on psychopathology when patients were assessed using our new five-factor SCL solution. The impact of long-acting opioid treatment on the psychopathological profile of heroin addicts has not yet been fully investigated, despite the possibility reported in the literature that opioid agents have a specific therapeutic action on psychopathological symptoms.
In the literature, opioid agents have been reported to have a therapeutic effect in a wide range of psychopathological conditions. With regard to mood disorders, opiates were used to treat major depression until the s. More recently, consistently with the endorphinergic hypothesis of dysthymic disorders [ 30 ] opioid peptides have been considered potential candidates for the development of novel antidepressant treatment [ 31 , 32 ]. Codeine has been evaluated as a possible therapeutic agent in the treatment of involutional and senile depression [ 34 ]. More recently buprenorphine, thanks to its partial agonist activity, bringing with it a reduced risk of dependence and abuse, has turned out to offer an effective therapeutic strategy in depressed patients who are unresponsive to, or intolerant of, conventional antidepressant agents [ 35 - 37 ].
Although opiates are known to produce euphoric states, and spontaneous states of elation are associated with high CNS levels of endorphins, a low incidence of manic states has been reported among heroin addicts. Inspired by the dramatic reconfiguration of the Italian and European role in the age of globalization and international terrorism, such studies have been nurtured by constant exchanges at several institutions including the European University Institute, the London School of Economics, the Cold War History Project at NYU, and the Charles Warren Center at Harvard.
Comprising one third of the most recent monographs and reflecting current widespread concerns about democracy at a time of deep economic and cultural disruption, this composite cluster of enquiries has branched out into the study of political and public culture Raffaella Baritono, Oliviero Bergamini, Daniele Fiorentino, Daria Frezza, Marco Mariano, and Arnaldo Testi , race and gender issues Alessandra Lorini, Vezzosi, and Baritono , and mass society and the politics of consumption Cartosio, Fasce, Cristina Scatamacchia. Drawing on both private and public financial resources, the Bairati Centre has knitted together research, public initiatives aimed at a wider audience than the academic one, and educational activities.
The Issue of American Exceptionalism. Over the past decade this environment has undergone a complex process of reform, whose impact is difficult to gauge, given its still largely unfinished nature. Increasingly dark financial prospects, especially for the humanities and the historical disciplines 21 , may reinforce this selective tendency, making it harder to carry out research in extra-European area studies.
Massimo Bacigalupo and Gabriella Ferruggia, eds. To strengthen her argument Martellone also points to the rolls of the Organization of American Historians foreign-language book and article prizes, featuring several Italian scholars among the winners in both categories. His publications include An American Family.
This text is under a Creative Commons license: European journal of American studies. Contents - Previous document - Next document. Emigration , international relations , political history , exceptionalism , Wilsonianism. Full text PDF Send by e-mail. The relationship of fruitful cooperation and exchange between the two fields goes well beyond the confines of the present article. American Studies in a Changing World. Rome November Turin: Destra, sinistra e cattolici: University of California Press, , Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App.
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American Studies in Italy
Come spiegare, allora, che l'uomo aspira alla liberta, ma vive spesso in uno stato di quasi prigionia? Si spiega col fatto che, pur sognando la liberta, elabora prevalentemente pensieri di schiavitu. Un pensiero di schiavitu afferma il limite, mentre un pensiero di liberta afferma le possibilita. I pensieri di schiavitu sono basati sulla negazione e sull'impotenza, e sono talmente diffusi, che l'uomo li elabora ormai automaticamente e inconsapevolmente.
Ad esempio il pensiero tipico dello schiavo e: Questo libro e una raccolta di pensieri di liberta.