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Frequently asked SQL Server Interview Questions with detailed answers and examples. In Microsoft SQL SERVER context, hotfixes are small patches designed to address specific issues, most . Explain the purpose of INTENT locks?.
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What were the latest updates to SQL Azure service? When does a workload on SQL Azure get throttled? Malathi has asked a simple question which have several answer. Each answer make you think and ponder about the reality of the IT world. Each answer has its own story. Rick Morelan of Joes2Pros has written excellent blog post on subject how to find top N values. After years preparing so many students to pass the SQL Certification I noticed they were pretty well prepared for job interviews too.

Yes, they would do well in the interview but not great. There seemed to be a few questions that would come up repeatedly for almost everyone. Rick addresses similar question in his lucid writing skills. Feodor is our most read gust blog author. He always comes up with interesting subject. Revisiting stored procedures every six months or so, to ensure that they are still running at their optimum performance is essential. However, actual techniques themselves include working with as short a transaction area as possible, as lock contention will certainly impact performance.

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Recompiling your stored procedures after index additions if you are unable or not wishing to restart SQL Server, will also ensure that a procedure is using the correct index, if that stored procedure is accessing the table which has received the new index. If you have a T-SQL command that joins several tables, and it takes a long time to return a value, first of all check out the indexes. But what you may find tends to help, is to break down the code and try to determine which join it is that is causing the performance problem.

Then analyze this specific join and see why it is a problem. Also, try to look at using sub queries when you are trying to find a handful of values in the sub query statement, and there is no key on the column you are looking up on. SQL Server cursors are perfect when you want to work one record at a time, rather than taking all the data from a table as a single bulk. However, they should be used with care as they can affect performance, especially when the volume of data increases. There will be times when it is not possible to avoid cursors, and I doubt if many systems exist without them.

If you do find you need to use them, try to reduce the number of records to process by using a temporary table first, and then building the cursor from this. The lower the number of records to process, the faster the cursor will finish.

The Best SQL Server Interview Questions [UPDATED - ]

In other words, how can developers perform the same function as a cursor without using a cursor? Perhaps one of the performance gains least utilized by developers starting out in SQL Server are temporary tables. For example, using one or more temporary tables to break down a problem in to several areas could allow blocks of data to be processed in their own individual way, and then at the end of the process, the information within the temporary tables merged and applied to the underlying data. The main area of your focus should be, is there an alternative way of doing things?

Even if I have to break this down into several chunks of work, can I do this work without using cursors, and so result in faster performance. Another area that you can look at is the use of CASE statements within your query.

SQL Server Interview Questions

By using a CASE statement, you can check the value within a column and make decisions and operations based on what you have found. Although you will still be working on a whole set of data, rather than a subset found in a cursor, you can use CASE to leave values, or records as they are, if they do not meet the right criteria. Care should be taken here though, to make sure that by looking at all the data, you will not be creating a large performance impact.

Again, look at using a subset of the data by building a temporary table first, and then merging the results in afterwards. Cursors can be faster if you are dealing with small amounts of data.

Top SQL Server Interview Questions And Answers

However, what I have found, to be rule number one, is get as little data in to your cursor as is needed. Q33 If you have no choice but to use a SQL Server-based cursor, what tips do you have in order to optimize them? Perhaps the best performance gain is when you can create a cursor asynchronously rather than needing the whole population operation to be completed before further processing can continue.

Then, by checking specific global variables settings, you can tell when there is no further processing to take place. However, even here, care has to be taken. Asynchronous population should only occur on large record sets rather than those that only deal with a small number of rows. Use the smallest set of data possible.


Break out of the cursor loop as soon as you can. If you find that a problem has occurred, or processing has ended before the full cursor has been processed, then exit. If you are using the same cursor more than once in a batch of work, and this could mean within more than one stored procedure, then define the cursor as a global cursor by using the GLOBAL keyword, and not closing or deallocating the cursor until the whole process is finished.

A fair amount of time will be saved, as the cursor and the data contained will already be defined, ready for you to use. Q34 What are the steps you will take to improve performance of a poor performing query? This is a very open ended question and there could be lot of reasons behind the poor performance of a query. But some general issues that you could talk about would be:. An ER diagram or Entity-Relationship diagram is a special picture used to represent the requirements and assumptions in a system from a top down perspective.

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  • It shows the relations between entities tables in a database. Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability.

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    • A non-prime attribute is an attribute that is not a part of a candidate key. This means the transaction finish completely, or it will not occur at all. Consistency means that the transaction will repeat in a predictable way each time it is performed. The data the transactions are independent of each other. Guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes so that the server will be able to recover if an error occurs. A DBMS is a set of software programs used to manage and interact with databases.

      It is a set of software programs used to interact with and manage relational databases. Relational databases are databases that contain tables. Database normalization is the process of organizing the fields and tables of a relational database to minimize redundancy and dependency. An OLTP is the process of gathering the data from the users, and a database is the initial information.

      Something that exists by itself, although it need not be of material existence. An attribute that would not exist if it were not for the existence of a relation. An associative entity is a conceptual concept. An associative entity can be thought of as both an entity and a relationship since it encapsulates properties from both. It is a relationship since it is serving to join two or more entities together, but it is also an entity since it may have its own properties.

      SQL Server DBA Interview Questions and Answers

      Q55 What is the difference between a derived attribute, derivedpersistent attribute, and computed column? A derived persistent attribute is a derived attribute that is stored. A computed attribute is a attribute that is computed from internal system values. Q56 What are the types of attributes? Hotfixs are software patches that were applied to live systems the ones still running. A hotfix is a single, cumulative package that includes one or more files used to address a problem in a software product i.

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      So current owner is the active node and other nodes are passive. The only way if you want to get a backup by using windows backup for option resource mdf and ldf files. To analyze Reporting Services, Upgrade Advisor must be installed and executed on the report server. The safest approach is the side-by-side upgrade. The conversion process will not proceed to the next step if it does not receive verification that the SQL Server has been completely stopped.

      If the legacy SQL Server instance is replaced by a new SQL Server instance, rolling back an in-place upgrade can be complex and time-consuming, whereas in a side-by-side upgrade the legacy instance remains available if a rollback is needed. This command limits checking the integrity of the physical structure of the page and record headers and can also detect torn pages, checksum failures, and common hardware failures. It also limits the checking of integrity of the physical structure of the page and record.

      The Database Engine uses intent locks to protect placing a shared S lock or exclusive X lock on a resource lower in the lock hierarchy. Intent locks are named because they are acquired before a lock at the lower level, and therefore signal intent to place locks at a lower level.

      Intent locks serve two purposes:. Thanks for making this platform available. I hope to bring more people from Nigeria to embrace intellipaat as the bridge to filling the gaps in their career needs. I will definitely recommend this training to others as well as plan to attend other courses from intellipaat.. This training was very informative and helped a lot in understanding Hadoop.

      You all do a fantastic job! Pls stay in touch. You must be logged in to post a comment. How our support Works? Don't have an account? Already have an account? Sign Up or Log In using. Here are top 32 objective type sample SQL Server Interview questions and their answers are given just below to them. We have taken full care to give correct answers for all the questions. Do comment your thoughts Happy Job Hunting! How can SQL Server instances be hidden? Become SQL Certified in 16 hrs.