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The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. As of October the full Bible has been.
Table of contents
- A Justification for Translation | Desiring God
- 1516, publication of Erasmus' Greek New Testament
- Translating the Bible is no joke. But what's in a political 'translation'?
- Virtual Museum of Protestantism
- The contribution of Humanism
When the New testament was published, it was criticized for its translation. A committee of new translation was formed and started translating from the original Greek Bible in In , Japan bible Society established a committee of the Japanese Colloquial bible believing that the bible is for all people and should be understandable to them. It took about four years to complete the New Testament and one year later the Old testament was published. The biggest news in was the publication of the Japanese Interconfessional New Testament.
The new version is the product of hard work on the part of the Executive Committee and its sub-committee of the Japanese Common Bible Translation. About 70 translators made a great effort and it took 18 years to complete both the New Testament and the Old Testament the NT published in was revised: This Interconfessinal Bible symbolizes the ecumenical movement of Japan. Brief History of JBS. History of Japanese Bible Translation. Notes were published separately in a second volume, together with an explanation by the translator of his amendments.
A Justification for Translation | Desiring God
The author of this Latin translation was sharply criticised by traditional theologians, who considered the Vulgate to be a sacred text. Erasmus wanted translation into the vernacular so that everyone including women could read the Bible, but it was not in his time that this finally came about. However, his Greek New Testament was the basis of a large number of the translations into the vernacular in Europe in the 16th century. This translation, published in Paris in and , was highly successful. However, it too received much criticism from the doctors of theology in the University of Paris, who, in , called on Parliament to forbid any translation of the Scripture into French.
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It was revised several times and became a reference for over a century. As soon as he was appointed professor at the University of Wittenberg in , Luther gave a Bible commentary for his students. When it was published, this translation received great acclaim and went into 85 editions between and A group of Hebrew scholars undertook the translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text and the complete Bible was published in In its prefaces, Luther called on his readers to study the Scriptures.
The received text of the Christian New Testament is in Koine Greek , [a] and nearly all translations are based upon the Greek text.
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Jerome began by revising the earlier Latin translations, but ended by going back to the original Greek, bypassing all translations, and going back to the original Hebrew wherever he could instead of the Septuagint. The Bible was translated into Gothic in the 4th century by a group of scholars, possibly under the supervision of Ulfilas. There are also several ancient translations, most important of which are in the Syriac dialect of Aramaic including the Peshitta and the Diatessaron gospel harmony , in the Ethiopian language of Ge'ez , and in Latin both the Vetus Latina and the Vulgate.
Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists , and that Codex Vaticanus Graecus , Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus are examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta , these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles. When ancient scribes copied earlier books, they wrote notes on the margins of the page marginal glosses to correct their text—especially if a scribe accidentally omitted a word or line—and to comment about the text.
When later scribes were copying the copy, they were sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to be included as part of the text. Over time, different regions evolved different versions, each with its own assemblage of omissions, additions, and variants mostly in orthography. The earliest surviving complete manuscript of the entire Bible in Latin is the Codex Amiatinus , a Latin Vulgate edition produced in 8th-century England at the double monastery of Wearmouth-Jarrow.
1516, publication of Erasmus' Greek New Testament
During the Middle Ages , translation, particularly of the Old Testament was discouraged. Nevertheless, there are some fragmentary Old English Bible translations , notably a lost translation of the Gospel of John into Old English by the Venerable Bede , which he is said to have prepared shortly before his death around the year An Old High German version of the gospel of Matthew dates to Alfred the Great had a number of passages of the Bible circulated in the vernacular in around These included passages from the Ten Commandments and the Pentateuch , which he prefixed to a code of laws he promulgated around this time.
In approximately , a full and freestanding version of the four Gospels in idiomatic Old English appeared, in the West Saxon dialect; these are called the Wessex Gospels. Around the same time, a compilation now called the Old English Hexateuch appeared with the first six or, in one version, seven books of the Old Testament.
Translating the Bible is no joke. But what's in a political 'translation'?
The synods of Toulouse and Tarragona outlawed possession of such renderings. There is evidence of some vernacular translations being permitted while others were being scrutinized. The complete Bible was translated into Old French in the late 13th century. Parts of this translation were included in editions of the popular Bible historiale , and there is no evidence of this translation being suppressed by the Church. A Hungarian Hussite Bible appeared in the mid 15th century, and in , a Catalan translation in the dialect of Valencia.
Virtual Museum of Protestantism
The earliest printed edition of the Greek New Testament appeared in from the Froben press, by Desiderius Erasmus , who reconstructed its Greek text from several recent manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type. He occasionally added a Greek translation of the Latin Vulgate for parts that did not exist in the Greek manuscripts.
He produced four later editions of this text. Erasmus was Roman Catholic, but his preference for the Byzantine Greek manuscripts rather than the Latin Vulgate led some church authorities to view him with suspicion. During and Francysk Skaryna printed a translation of the Bible in Old Belarusian language in twenty-two books. During his time there, he translated the New Testament from Greek into German. It was printed in September The first complete Dutch Bible, partly based on the existing portions of Luther's translation, was printed in Antwerp in by Jacob van Liesvelt.
The first printed edition with critical apparatus noting variant readings among the manuscripts was produced by the printer Robert Estienne of Paris in The Greek text of this edition and of those of Erasmus became known as the Textus Receptus Latin for "received text" , a name given to it in the Elzevier edition of , which termed it as the text nunc ab omnibus receptum "now received by all".
The use of numbered chapters and verses was not introduced until the Middle Ages and later.
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Later critical editions incorporate ongoing scholarly research, including discoveries of Greek papyrus fragments from near Alexandria, Egypt, that date in some cases within a few decades of the original New Testament writings. Critical editions that rely primarily on the Alexandrian text-type inform nearly all modern translations and revisions of older translations. For reasons of tradition, however, some translators prefer to use the Textus Receptus for the Greek text, or use the Majority Text which is similar to it but is a critical edition that relies on earlier manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type.
Among these, some argue that the Byzantine tradition contains scribal additions, but these later interpolations preserve the orthodox interpretations of the biblical text—as part of the ongoing Christian experience—and in this sense are authoritative. Distrust of the textual basis of modern translations has contributed to the King-James-Only Movement. Bible of the Bear, which later became the Reina-Valera Bible upon its first revision in , the Czech Melantrich Bible and Bible of Kralice and numerous English translations of the Bible.
Tyndale's New Testament translation , revised in , and and his translation of the Pentateuch , and the Book of Jonah were met with heavy sanctions given the widespread belief that Tyndale changed the Bible as he attempted to translate it.
The contribution of Humanism
Tyndale's unfinished work, cut short by his execution, was supplemented by Myles Coverdale and published under a pseudonym to create the Matthew Bible , the first complete English translation of the Bible. Attempts at an "authoritative" English Bible for the Church of England would include the Great Bible of also relying on Coverdale's work , the Bishops' Bible of , and the Authorized Version the King James Version of , the last of which would become a standard for English speaking Christians for several centuries. The work was not printed until The Slovenes thus became the 12th nation in the world with a complete Bible in their language.
Following the distribution of a Welsh New Testament and Prayer Book to every parish Church in Wales in , translated by William Salesbury , Welsh became the 13th language into which the whole Bible had been translated in , through a translation by William Morgan, the bishop of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant. The Bible is the most translated book in the world. The United Bible Societies announced that as of 31 December  the complete Bible was available in languages, of which included the deuterocanonical material as well as the Tanakh and New Testament.