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XIII (Thirteen) is a Belgian graphic novel series about an amnesiac who seeks to discover his In the second volume, XIII is captured by General Carrington and his aide, XIII, Jones, and Barnowsky kidnap the Marquis de Préseau, a rich French . Previously available in Brazil were the Portuguese editions published by.
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As a result, Concino Concini was assassinated on 24 April Later, Louis conferred the title of Duke of Luynes on d'Albert.

Victor Hugo, Ninety-Three (Quatrevingt-treize) | Fiction and Film for Scholars of France

Luynes soon became as unpopular as Concini had been. Other nobles resented his monopolisation of the King. Luynes was seen as less competent than Henry IV's ministers, many now elderly or deceased, who had surrounded Marie de' Medici. The Thirty Years' War broke out in The French court was initially unsure which side to support. On the one hand, France's traditional rivalry with the House of Habsburg argued in favour of intervening on behalf of the Protestant powers and Louis's father Henry IV of France was once a Huguenot leader.

The French nobles were further antagonised against Luynes by the revocation of the paulette tax and by the sale of offices in Luynes was appointed Constable of France , after which he and Louis set out to quell the Huguenot rebellion. The siege at the Huguenot stronghold of Montauban had to be abandoned after three months owing to the large number of royal troops who had succumbed to camp fever.

One of the victims of camp fever was Luynes, who died in December Following the death of Luynes, Louis determined that he would rule by council. The campaign, however, followed the pattern of the previous year: The treaty confirmed the tenets of the Edict of Nantes: Valtellina was an area with Catholic inhabitants under the suzerainty of the Protestant Three Leagues.

It served as an important route to Italy for France and it provided an easy connection between the Spanish and the Holy Roman empires, especially in helping each other with armies if necessary.


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Spain was constantly interfering in the Valtellina, which angered Louis, as he wanted to hold possession of this strategically important passageway. In these years, the French kingdom was literally surrounded by the Habsburg realms as the Habsburgs were the Kings of Spain as well as Holy Roman Emperors. Cardinal Richelieu played a major role in Louis XIII's reign from , determining France's direction over the course of the next eighteen years.

Under Louis and Richelieu, the crown successfully intervened in the Thirty Years' War against the Habsburgs, managed to keep the French nobility in line, and retracted the political and military privileges granted to the Huguenots by Henry IV while maintaining their religious freedoms. In addition, Louis had the port of Le Havre modernised, and he built a powerful navy.


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Louis also worked to reverse the trend of promising French artists leaving for Italy to work and study. In foreign matters, Louis organised the development and administration of New France , expanding its settlements westward along the Saint Lawrence River from Quebec City to Montreal.

In , Razilly was able to negotiate the purchase of French slaves from the Moroccans. He visited Morocco again in , and helped negotiate the Franco-Moroccan Treaty Indians, converted to Catholicism, were considered as "natural Frenchmen" by the Ordonnance of In , Isaac de Razilly became involved, at the request of Cardinal Richelieu, in the colonization of Acadia, by taking possession of the Habitation at Port-Royal now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia and developing it into a French colony.

The King gave Razilly the official title of lieutenant-general for New France. He took on military tasks such as taking control of Fort Pentagouet at Majabigwaduce on the Penobscot Bay , which had been given to France in an earlier Treaty, and to inform the English they were to vacate all lands North of Pemaquid.

This resulted in all the French interests in Acadia being restored. In Brazil , the colony of Equinoctial France was established in , but only lasted 4 years until it was eliminated by the Portuguese. Also in , Marie de' Medici incorporated the merchants of Dieppe and other harbours to found the Company of the Moluccas. In , an armed expedition composed of three ships crew, cannon and called the "Fleet of Montmorency" under General Augustin de Beaulieu was sent from Honfleur, to fight the Dutch in the Far East.

After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc , he took refuge in Flanders. This marriage followed a tradition of cementing military and political alliances between the Catholic powers of France and Spain with royal marriages. The marriage was only briefly happy, and the King's duties often kept them apart. After twenty-three years of marriage and four stillbirths, Anne finally gave birth to a son on 5 September , the future Louis XIV.

As another sign of gratitude, according to several interpretations, seven months before his birth, France was dedicated by Louis XIII to the Virgin Mary , who, many believed, had interceded for the perceived miracle. Also, Louis XIII himself is said to have expressed his scepticism with regard to the miracle after his son's birth. There is no evidence that Louis kept mistresses a distinction that earned him the title "Louis the Chaste " , but persistent rumours insinuated that he may have been homosexual or at least bisexual.

His interests as a teenager increasingly focused on his male courtiers, and he quickly developed an intense emotional attachment to his favourite, Charles d'Albert , although there is no clear evidence of a physical sexual relationship. It is currently being written by Yves Sente and Youri Jigounov. The storyline of the first five volumes was adapted into a video game in , also titled XIII , which was released on several platforms. The Conspiracy , was released in The series begins with a man awakening to find himself washed ashore in the eastern United States and suffering from amnesia.

The only links to his past are a tattoo of the Roman numerals "XIII" on his collarbone and a photo of himself with a woman, who is identified as Kim Rowland, widow of U. Army captain Steve Rowland. Volumes 1 through 5 deal with "XIII" searching for his identity and past. XIII is arrested by the police, and Kim disappears. XIII is found guilty for the murder of the Rowlands and sent to a maximum security prison. The third volume finds XIII in a facility for the criminally insane. Carrington provides the papers of about twenty people. One named Ross Tanner has been missing for two years.

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Amos decides to leave XIII in prison to have his amnesia treated. Volume four begins with Amos finding that Carrington had invented the Tanner identity and suspecting him of being part of the conspiracy to kill the President. Amos continues to delve into the files and learns that Steve Rowland was murdered shortly after the assassination.

Amos now assumes that Rowland was the real assassin, and is confused about XIII's real role, but he exposes Judge Allenby, the head of the investigation, as one of the conspirators. Amos interrogates Allenby, who is killed by Mongoose's assassin; Amos himself is rescued by Kim Rowland. Kim Rowland takes Amos to intelligence chief Carl Heideger and General Carrington, who reveal that, after faking his death in the helicopter crash, Steve Rowland contacted his wife, Kim, and forced her to be a member of the conspiracy. Kim, not sharing the conspiracy's ideology, and herself a former secret agent, secretly alerted her former boss, Heideger.

Despite having this information, however, Heideger was unable to prevent the assassination of President Sheridan. Steve Rowland was shot by the Mongoose, but he escaped, mortally wounded, and died shortly after telling Kim what had happened. Heideger and Carrington then came up with a plan to make the XX organization believe that Steve Rowland had survived, hoping to attract the Mongoose's killers, arrest them, and follow their trail to the conspirators.

They sourced a man named Jason Fly who was transformed into a Steve Rowland double, but soon after, Fly disappeared, when he was shot and lost his memory, just before the story began. Kim Rowland is also revealed to be Carrington's daughter. Meanwhile, Carrington and Heideger have been arrested by the conspirators as they prepare to take over the country during a large-scale military exercise. If he frees Lantenac, the nobleman will resume his war against the Revolution and many more people will die.

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The devastated Cimourdain casts the decisive vote at the military tribunal that condemns Gauvain to death. Gauvain expresses himself as content with the verdict — the only possible outcome for his betrayal of his duty. He is moved by retribution, hatred and for him understandable —but ultimately self-destructive— desire for revenge.

Civil war is all about that. Yet has there ever been a greater madness? Can you contrive to let one person perish on the scaffold without creating ten more enemies for you from his family or friends? Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Main menu Skip to primary content.

Skip to secondary content. Cimourdain and Gauvain source: Carroll and Graf, I read the book in the following edition, in a translation made just months after the book was first published: The page references are to this edition. Reynald Secher, A French Genocide: Camille Desmoulins, Le Vieux Cordelier , ed.

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