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Table of contents
Our comments will be developed upon their analytical actions related to the problem that this article proposes to examine. The frameworks for textual meaning construction— genre, register, tenor of interaction, field of knowledge, and modality. Ravid and Tolchinsky , p.
Rather, they need to vary their production to mark three situationally defined varieties: However, besides those three variables proposed by Ravid and Tolchinsky, if we interrelate the plurality of linguistic experiences to the possibilities of marking them lexical-grammatically, we will attest that the relative position of the people engaged in a communication event — the tenor of the communication — and the amount of common and not common knowledge to the interactants — the field of the communication - are contextual conditions which go beyond linguistic materiality.
For this reason, they are central elements in this article, given that we intend to observe the didactic perspective of language discursive dimension. Furthermore, the action of combining these five frameworks is justified by the fact that, although they are not found together in other conceptual prescriptions, we can treat them similarly because they represent linguistic marks of the variable enunciations produced by people, and for this reason, we can see them as playing a very important and constitutive capillary role in communication.
We can enumerate two advantages in assuming the frameworks for linguistic meaning construction as part of teaching-learning didactics of writing and reading texts of all genres:. Their employment as a didactic instrument allows us to handle the stable facet of texts as discursive actions without losing track of their local facet. However, in order to accomplish this task, we need to change the focus given to language teaching-learning: This could help students understand the frameworks that we are discussing, in this paper, as related to their knowledge about language.
It means that the frameworks are not things that exist in texts; they are forms of insertion, in language, of the meanings that people wish to construct. The concept of frameworks does not neglect writing as a social practice, but it allows us to deal with the fact that the linguistic materiality is an important object for us to detect, in the texts produced by our students, the quality of their knowledge about language, and the consistency of their reflections concerning the discursive practices they are engaged in. This makes them recognize themselves as discursive actors in the school institution, and observe the meanings they produce as social and situated actions GERHARDT, In fact, the mere act of understanding linguistic meaning, without any appropriate verification of how it is grammatically structured, is not satisfactory for a good linguistic comprehension BOWEY, In the lines below, we will define properly the frameworks presented in this article.
What we are going to say about them will be useful for the evaluation of a dissertative-argumentative written text sent to the website uol , in order to fulfill the proposal made by the website examination board. After that, we will present and comment what the students wrote about it. In the amount of textual studies performed by Brazilian scholars, the contemporary view of genres has been able to comprise, without any serious theoretical problem, several perspectives about language and discourse, besides the traditional school understanding of genres BRAIT, ; ROJO, Despite their differences of focus, these perspectives keep among themselves the premise of the constitutive relationships between language and discourse.
Our proposal of thinking about genres lines up with these studies.
Following a slightly different path, Tolchinsky and Ravid and Tolchinsky have chosen the focus assumed in this paper, discussing genre as a linguistic experience defined through a microssocial approach, i. In other words, these authors understand genres by focusing on how the situation in which they were produced and their communicative purposes are expressed in texts. Tolchinsky , p. If we understand genres in the light of the situated perspective of Cognitive Science, which has considered the goals of cognitive actions as one of the structuring factors of meaning construction GERHARDT, , we can say that the idea of purpose attached to the generic dimension of texts grants to genre the prevalence over other frameworks.
In fact, learners, as they engage in the task of understanding texts, can easily define tenor, field, modality and register from the establishment of genre.
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Therefore, if we take the fact that there is no didactic consideration about this issue in Portuguese teaching-learning research, the comprehension of the genres studied in school turns out to result very precarious, as we will see in this paper. According to Eggins , register is the consideration of the microssocial level in the construction of textual coherence, besides the macrossocial level that defines its genre.
Eggins asserts that the constitutive relationship between text and context explores, in a great deal, the scarcity of linguistic materiality, and it permits register to define even the referential, explicit meaning of the enunciation.
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The author considers the frameworks tenor and field as taking part of the immediate context of the text, as composing the major discussion about register. However, as tenor and field participate in the lexical-grammatical outlines of texts, in this paper we treat them as two independent and different aspects. This idea has led the authors to connect the concept of register to its usual approach: It is in this sense that we are observing the term register in this paper; we will verify that, given the inclusion of register among the curricular contents for Portuguese teaching-learning, it is a component frequently taken into consideration by students when keeping contact with texts in school.
In this paper, we also relate tenor to these factors - not in an institutional sense, assigned here to register, but in a more materialistic and physical sense. We assume the concept of tenor taking into account the relative positions of people when they engage in a given form of communication. It implies a continuous interactional gradation: Depending on the tenor, the enunciations produced, as well as the interactants, assume different conditions: Having in mind such conditions is an important feature for metalinguistic research. In Systemic-functional Linguistics, the field concerns the theme and contents of text.
The PCNs for Portuguese language teaching-learning have paid attention to this framework in a similar way, naming it system of reference, and defining that Portuguese teaching-learning in Brazil should privilege language productions destined to communication among people who do not necessarily share the same systems of reference, in other words, not visualizing the same physical or conceptual objects BRASIL, We will see that, in fact, this framework not only defines the lexical-grammatical constitution of texts, but it relates closely to their tenor: Although we can identify other language modalities besides oral and written communication, such as gestural language, we are limiting our observations to the relationships involving experiences with language that admit lexical-grammatical comparisons among each other.
As to Portuguese teaching-learning, the discussion about the differences between oral and written communication is the groundwork for the understanding that all experiences with language vary in many ways. In other words, what applied linguists identify are metalinguistic problems, in the sense that we are pointing here. In addition, these students, unable to make systematic comparisons between oral and written communication, do not become experts neither in one experience, nor in the other. The claims we made about the frameworks for meaning construction in texts will be employed for the analysis of the text that we have chosen to discuss in this paper.
The website known as UOL Universo On Line in Portuguese is a Brazilian online service provider and internet service provider that keeps a board composed by teachers who correct dissertative-argumentative texts sent to them. It is a very useful tool for the students who are preparing themselves for examinations and public selections that include text evaluation. Once a month, the teachers elaborate text proposals, and the candidates can send their texts to be assessed.
The evaluation of the texts are displayed on the website one month after the submission. The great advantage of the UOL board for teachers and researchers on Portuguese teaching-learning is the fact that the materials produced and presented are not mandatory school tasks.
Therefore, they can be seen as a result of the voluntary effort of the candidates in writing an argumentative-dissertative text in standard written Portuguese that deserves to be included among those that are evaluated by the board and displayed on the website UOL. The text selected refers to the proposal presented in November , which requested that students write an argumentative-dissertative text in standard Portuguese discussing the following topic: Is it right to auction off virginity? This theme was based on the news that two young adults, a Russian man and a Brazilian woman, were auctioning off their virginity on a reality show.
The proposal called for students to discuss the ethical implications of that event. In relation to the the frameworks for meaning construction, we can say that the texts presented to the board should, in terms of genre , be dissertations; in terms of register , be formal texts; in terms of modality , be written texts; in terms of tenor , be offline interactions, with two types of interactants: We will employ these pieces of information as parameters for our analysis.
Chega de hipocrisia e perguntem se fosse comigo eu aceitaria?. I believe it would be much better. If the girl did that because she wanted it to, who are we to criticize her saying that what she did was right or wrong? There are especially here in Brazil thousands of wrong things that everyone knows, sees and no one protests against them or when someone does, they are so few that it is not enough to produce any effect.
These are problems that everyone knows that are out there and people overlook! Now, because of such a simple and normal thing, they make a big fuss on social networks, radio stations etc. Enough with hypocrisy and ask if it were about me would I accept it? We will evaluate the lexical-grammatical constitution of the text above by taking into account the five frameworks for meaning construction discussed in this paper.
In terms of genre , we can say that the candidate has presented a text whose characteristics remind us more an informal conversation than a dissertation. Although it is possible to argue that some aspects of the genre dissertation can be found in the text, given that its contents are dissertative, we still define it as a conversation due to the definition of genre proposed in this paper, and related to how its author has chosen to organize it, or, rather, to structure the linguistic event to address the issue proposed by the board.
We can visualize the conversational nature of the text above by observing the way the sentences are linked. The sentence combination typical to argumentative written texts should bring a thematic continuity facilitated and intersected through the progression of ideas COSTA VAL, However, the propositions of the text above are chained in such a way that, in many of its stretches, the idea at stake is related only to the idea previously mentioned, and not to the other ones preceding it.
For example, the first sentence has four propositions; the first three share a fragile thematic bond while the last one has no relationship at all with the others:.
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There are some formal standard words such as the verb Port. In terms of field , the characteristics of the genre conversation that define the text mentioned are very apparent, in at least one important grammatical aspect: Take, for example, the use of the word girl Port. The polysemous word page Port. This attitude is acceptable only in online and in presence interactions, in which interactants can solve misunderstanding problems that in written and offline communication would not be possible to do. The assumption of sharing systems of reference characterizes the text in terms of field, and this feature, together with the other frameworks already quoted above, keeps the text apart from the proposal of being a dissertation of the type expected by UOL.
At this point of our evaluation, given that what we can see in terms of the tenor of the text that it is interrelated to its field and its genre, it is possible to perceive the close relationship among the frameworks for meaning construction. If the author is pleading to be accepted in a university or public position, this is a risk too great to be taken.
In relation to the features of the text concerning modality, we can also associate this framework to the others and build an important hypothesis about the problems of construction in written texts: However, at the end of their school years, unfortunately, they do not seem to have broaden their knowledge about written texts. We believe that this problem persists because, among others, there is no didactic and systematic work to help learners develop some metalinguistic comprehension of some basic differences between oral and written communication, let alone the internal differences in oral experience, on one hand, and in written experience, on the other.
Not by chance, some researchers establish that modality, or, in other words, the written or the oral nature of a text, is the central parameter, through which the other dimensions are adjusted BERMAN; RAVID, The teaching-learning of Portuguese currently practiced in Brazil is based on taxonomies and categorizations, which does not allow students to reflect about these issues.
In fact, a proper metalinguistic discussion according to the perspective we are dealing with in this article has not been employed in schools either. The text chosen to be analysed in this paper was presented to 80 High School students of two private and two public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Our aim was to discuss their metalinguistic perception about the text they had read.
There was a supposition that students would consider themselves in the place of their teachers since they are responsible for framing all reflections and thoughts about language in classrooms through questions intended to motivate students to focus on every metalinguistic statement present in the text. Their metalinguistic capacities, which are pre-requisites for the identification of these frameworks.
This can be an evidence of the focus on linguistic variation in Portuguese teaching lessons; besides, some of the comments reproduced below take into account the type of vocabulary used in the text:. Thus, observing slang and coloquial uses of language, phenomena quite evident at the lexical level, will be very easy and accessible to students, since reflecting on words is not hard for them. Yet, they were not able to reach higher levels of analysis as argument structure and clause combination. Is it a text to be disclosed in what kind of media?
That would make some difference, because even though it is easy to understand, there are indeed some considerations, but, for example, if it is a text with the opinion of a common citizen on Facebook, the text could be more acceptable or partially. But, for a serious newspaper, it should have been produced more carefully. This single mention is a fact that receives our attention because it is very strange that students make silence in relation to genre, since the national curricular project of Portuguese teaching-language in which text genres are the focus of classroom teaching has been proposed for many years now, despite the conceptual perspective ascribed to them.
From this point of view, we can say that they were engaged not as text readers, but as its interlocutors, having in mind the ideas conveyed in the text while agreeing, disagreeing, and criticizing. They argued whether its opinions were ethically pertinent, excessively critical or not. Among 80 students, 44 fit this profile.
They are form errors such as punctuation, orthography etc. Interestingly, 14 students mentioned that punctuation, orthography and agreement problems in the text caused its coherence problems. Their action can reveal their attempt to connect the contents they have being studying in school, which is an intelligent action that teaching-learning didactics should acknowledge and take into careful consideration:. The students who observed semantic problems in the text described them as superficial errors. They might have detected other mistakes, but, because of the lack of conceptual resources and apparatus that should have been provided in their schooling, they could not verbalize their impressions.
From this supposition we can state that the students might have had some difficulty while reading the text, and handled it with the precarious tools their schools offer them. Despite the effort in offering a better quality Portuguese teaching-learning than the one that students received before the PCNs, these resources still constitute its conceptual basis and influence their traditional comments, without any mention to text genres.
Thus, they did not grant the text the necessary opacity for a metalinguistic observation, which is the specific cognitive action for a text analysis. Most students have shown not to know how to behave cognitively before a text, which requires them to relate its lexico-grammatical aspects to its intended enunciative insertion. When it comes to knowing the language, students do not know how to metalinguistically analyse the text they are observing. This recognition involves the aspects discussed by Rodrigues and quoted throughout this paper, and is part of what should be taught in school, so that students develop autonomy while reading or writing texts produced and interpreted in and out of school.
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