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Deutsche Lufthansa AG (or JSC) (FWB: LHA) commonly known as Lufthansa is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during The name of the company is derived from the German word, Luft 'air' and .. On 4 December , Lufthansa became the first European airline to.
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- Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa Group fleet 2013-2017, by airline
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The fleet of Austrian Airlines numbered 83 aircraft that year. Full access to 1. Datalabels Default None Custom.
Share on Social Media. Download started Please be patient - this may take a moment. Description Source More information. Show sources information Show publisher information Release date March Germanwings from to Some figures have been taken from previous publications. Leading airlines in the U.
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Need help with using Statista for your research? Tutorials and first steps. Statistics Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa Group fleet , by airline. Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa Group fleet Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa Group fleet , by type. Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa German Airlines fleet Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa German Airlines fleet in , by type. Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa Cargo fleet , by type.
Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa Cargo fleet Number of aircraft and helicopters in the fleet of Atlantic Airways There is, however, no sectoral agreement in France for technical and commercial cabin crew, despite a recent attempt to conclude such an accord. In Sweden, bargaining in the airline sector follows the pattern set by the rest of the country, which is characterised by two levels.
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The first takes place at national sectoral level SEN and the second takes place at the company level. Bargaining at the national carrier SAS is particularly complicated, with the company negotiating with a range of trade unions, representing different employee categories, although the airline has now been split along national lines Sweden, Denmark and Norway , which may serve to clarify bargaining arrangements. Bargaining takes place predominantly at company level in many countries, reflecting the fact that national carriers dominate the industry, or have done until recently, in most countries.
This is the case in Germany, where Lufthansa bargains directly with ver. The result is a range of general framework collective agreements for Lufthansa ground staff, flight staff and apprentices DEN. The same is true in the case of Austria, where company-specific agreements exist only, in contrast to the practice of concluding multi-employer accords in other sectors. However, since October , a single collective agreement for the AUA group has been in place.
The conclusion of this accord was preceded by industrial conflict ATF. In Poland, LOT employees are covered by a single company-level collective agreement, whereas in the Netherlands, KLM employees are covered by three separate company-level accords, covering ground staff, cabin crew and pilots - though these agreements are concluded by the same bargaining parties simultaneously.
In Spain also, employees of Iberia are covered by three different company-level agreements - for pilots, cabin crew and ground staff. Bargaining is also highly decentralised in the Danish airline sector, with all negotiations of any importance taking place at company level. Although there is a sectoral agreement, the overall industry sector agreement, which covers ground staff members of trade unions operating in this sector if they are employed by SAS, Maersk Air and Cimber Air which are all members of the DI , issues such as pay and working conditions are determined by direct negotiations between unions and airline managements.
In Italy, there is also no industry-wide agreement - the national-level contract for reference has always been the one applying to Alitalia employees, which is technically a company-level agreement. In France, cabin crew employees of Air France are presently covered by five-year agreements governing working time, working conditions for flights and other activities, rest periods and tours. The agreements run until Other countries where bargaining takes place at the company level for employees of the national carrier include Greece, Hungary, Ireland within the framework of national-level social partnership agreements and the UK, where bargaining is conducted by five national sectional panels, representing pilots, cabin crew, ground and support services, clerical grades and management.
In Slovenia, an agreement covers the largest airline, Adria, while the collective agreement for the commercial sector applies to employees of other airlines operating in Slovenia, which are foreign-owned. However, the most important level of bargaining in Slovenia is deemed to be the company level. Special mention should be made of collective bargaining for pilots, who often have their own trade union. VC argued that Lufthansa pilots were lagging behind those of other airlines in terms of pay, despite the fact that they are performing an international job with commonly-recognised qualifications and regulations.
In addition to collective bargaining over pay and working conditions, formalised social dialogue structures exist in the airline industry in some countries, predominantly the new EU Member States. For example, in Slovakia, tripartite negotiations take place, focusing on changes in legislation related to the airline industry. The predominant issues in terms of bargaining tend to be pay, holiday pay, working time and the organisation of working time including rostering , pensions, sick pay, and severance and redundancy rights.
The issue of 'block hours' the time employees spend on board the aircraft is also a subject for bargaining, as are flexible working time schedules. The topic of restructuring has been a very specific focus of debate in recent years, as many airlines have embarked upon large-scale restructuring exercises. For trade unions, the aim has been to secure employment and this has led to some concessions in the areas of pay and working time.
For example, in the UK, there is a strong emphasis in the sector on linking pay to changes in working practices, in the context of ongoing restructuring. Many countries have seen the restructuring of their national carriers in recent years. In Italy, a new agreement signed by management and unions in ITF envisages the reorganisation and eventual privatisation of the national carrier Alitalia, concluding, it is hoped, a long series of negotiations and restructuring exercises dating from ITF , ITF , ITF and ITN.
Number of passengers of the Lufthansa Group 2007-2017
The company will be split into two organisations - AZ Fly and AZ Services - and the restructuring will be accompanied by considerable job losses. In total, it is envisaged that 3, employees will be made redundant. The company also negotiated agreements with trade unions changing the employment conditions of pilots, flight attendants and ground staff. All measures were negotiated with trade unions. In February , a further agreement was reached for flight attendants, reducing redundancy levels among this group of workers to zero, using methods such as incentives for early retirement, the introduction of a new remuneration system and a 'contribution of solidarity' on behalf of all workers ITN.
The October agreement had originally envisaged redundancies among flight attendants. Despite the job losses at Alitalia, it is hoped that this restructuring and cost-cutting plan will ensure the long-term financial viability of the airline. In the Netherlands, the national carrier KLM has achieved significant job reductions of 4, over two years, largely by not filling vacancies and by not renewing fixed-term and temporary contracts. National carrier Air France recruited many workers made redundant from Air Lib.
It guarantees, until July , no compulsory redundancies and the maintenance of individual accrued entitlements and working conditions, pay and collective accrued entitlements as set out in collective agreements. Similarly, in Belgium, where the job losses resulting from the bankruptcy of the national carrier Sabena BEN , BEF and BEF totalled at least 8, and may have been as high as 14, depending on the source, the government and trade unions agreed on a plan to help people find alternative employment. Measures offered included outplacement and the establishment of a new company that hired almost 2, ex-Sabena workers.
In Sweden, Norway and Denmark, SAS has experienced a high level of restructuring in recent years in an attempt to alleviate a financial crisis. The company has negotiated pay freezes and working time amendments for staff in all three countries and in embarked upon a large-scale restructuring exercise involving 4, redundancies and pay freezes for all groups of employees DKF and SEN.
It also negotiated increases in working time with the various trade unions representing all employee groups. Trade unions were involved in the process of restructuring, but from a 'concession bargaining' position, with negotiations held in the shadow of plans for significant cost savings and threats of redundancy. Restructuring has been the source of inevitable controversy in many countries. In Ireland, Aer Lingus rejected a Labour Court recommendation in August , complaining that management arguments in the context of a case concerning the transfer of cabin crew were not given appropriate weight by the Court IEN.
The Court had found in its recommendation that the airline has no absolute right to transfer cabin crew on a permanent basis against their will. Aer Lingus had argued that a current agreement gave it the right to move cabin crew from Shannon to Dublin airports. The airline industry has experienced arguably more than its fair share of industrial conflict over the past two decades, due largely to the high volume of restructuring undertaken and continuing waves of change.
In addition, high levels of trade union density and the complexity of the industrial relations structures in this sector increase the likelihood of industrial conflict and strikes. The sector is by no means stable in terms of industrial peace: In the UK, a significant dispute took place in at BA over the introduction of automated clocking for work start and finish times. The strike, which was unofficial, caused the diversion of around flights and affected some , passengers UKF. In France, the redundancies caused by the bankruptcy of three small airlines in provoked serious labour conflicts, which were supported by trade unions.
In addition, a series of legal disputes were lodged, some of which are still being heard. Legislation on strikes in essential public services, including air transport, which guarantees a minimum level of service, exist in countries such as Italy ITN.
The French government was considering the preparation of legislation requiring minimum service during public transport strikes, but this has been shelved following the conclusion of an agreement designed to prevent industrial disputes at SNCF, in October FRN. Low-cost airlines have had an impact on industrial relations in the airline sector in the majority of countries examined in this survey, albeit to varying degrees. In some countries, this is a relatively recent phenomenon, while in others it is a more long-standing issue.
The construction of new airports or extension of existing airports, usually in regional locations or at some distance from major towns, has increased the opportunity for low-cost airlines to operate in many countries. Its current membership comprises:. Its mission statement is as follows: The Irish-headquartered low-cost airline Ryanair has enjoyed phenomenal success over the past 20 years. It was set up in by the Ryan family, flying one route between Ireland and the UK.
As at the end of , it employed 2, staff and carried 24,, passengers over the year. It bills itself as a 'no-frills' airline, offering cheap tickets to passengers and often using regional rather than main airports, where landing fees are cheaper. Other cost-cutting measures include quick turnaround times for aircraft, no free in-flight meals and the use of the internet for booking tickets - customers are sent confirmation emails rather than mailed paper tickets. In industrial relations terms, the main impact of Ryanair has been the constant disputes it has had with trade unions in various countries across Europe over its non-union policy EUN.
The IMPACT trade union has taken a case to court for recognition and representation rights for pilots, the outcome of which is awaited with interest by industrial relations commentators. Ryanair is also at the centre of a recognition dispute in Sweden, with its management resisting pressure to conclude collective agreements for its workforce in that country, maintaining that its staff are all employed on Irish contracts of employment.
A recent case in Belgium may be of significance in this regard.
• Germany: number of aircraft in the Lufthansa Group fleet, by airline | Statistic
The case was taken to court, with Ryanair arguing that the workers were covered by Irish legislation as they had been hired in Ireland and were employed on Irish contracts of employment. However, the Belgian court in Charleroi stated that even if Ryanair workers are employed on Irish contracts, in this case Belgian laws take precedence, because it considered Charleroi airport to be the place of employment. In France also, air transport unions are demanding that both Ryanair and easyJet accept that their employees in France are covered by French labour law, and are lobbying the government to intervene.
The other major low-cost carrier in Europe in terms of staff and passenger numbers is easyJet, which employed 3, staff as at November It has grown rapidly and in carried 24,, passengers. However, unlike Ryanair, easyJet recognises trade unions. According to the study , employees at Ryanair were worst off. The market share of low-cost airlines is growing in many countries.
For example, in Germany, according to a report by the national air traffic control organisation, the share of flights in Germany that are operated by low-cost airlines rose from 4. However, it should also be remembered that this is a fast-moving sector, characterised by the creation of many new airlines, a number of which file for bankruptcy after a relatively short life.
In Greece alone, for example, it is estimated that between and over 10 airlines suspended operations. One of the main impacts of low-cost airlines has been on the price of air fares this in turn exerts a downward pressure on pay - see below. Their presence has forced national carriers and other airlines in the sector to reduce their ticket prices in order to compete with the low-cost carriers.
For example, in Norway, the low-cost airline Colour Air , which was created in , forced SAS and Braathens to reduce their fares substantially. As a result, all three airlines were operating at a loss for a period. Conversely, the end result of this was the reinforcement of monopoly rather than the creation of sustained competition - Colour Air went into liquidation and Braathens was bought by SAS.
In Ireland, where the low-cost carrier Ryanair is headquartered, the national carrier, Aer Lingus, has been obliged to move to a lower-cost model in order to survive in what has become an intensely competitive environment. One other major result of the presence of low-cost airlines has been the setting up of low-cost subsidiaries by national carriers, in an effort to compete.
Although many of these operate the same terms and conditions for staff as their parent companies, there is often pressure on trade unions to accept wage cuts and less favourable terms and conditions, particularly in the case of new recruits. There has been a considerable amount of concession bargaining in the sector in recent years, largely in the context of restructuring exercises as national carriers try to cut costs in the face of increased competition from low-cost carriers and aim to increase their operational flexibility.
For example, in the UK, BA has tried to obtain greater flexibility from its workers. In Denmark, Sweden and Norway, trade unions have been engaged in concession bargaining with SAS management for a number of years as the airline attempts to restructure and regain financial viability. For more details, see above under 'Restructuring'.
Elsewhere, the existence of low-cost airlines has contributed directly to restructuring and job losses in national carriers. This is the case in the UK, where national carrier BA has shed a substantial number of staff in recent years in the context of a cost-cutting exercise, partly in response to increased competition from easyJet and bmibaby. In industrial relations terms, low-cost airlines are a challenge for trade unions, as, in order to achieve lower costs, these airlines often employ fewer staff on terms and conditions that are less favourable than elsewhere in the sector.
Unions have therefore been monitoring the situation in low-cost airlines closely, focusing on trying to ensure union recognition and terms and conditions in line with national carriers and longer-established airlines. They have achieved this with varying degrees of success. In some countries, the presence of low-cost airlines does not appear to have been particularly detrimental in industrial relations terms.
For example, in Norway, low-cost airlines recognise trade unions. In Austria, the low-cost airline, Niki Fluggesellschaft, recognises trade unions, but membership numbers are low, there is no collective agreement and no works council. However, pay for pilots and flight attendants is comparable to other airlines in Austria. In Belgium, a trade union delegation was set up in the low-cost carrier Virgin Express in , regulations on a works council were signed in and a collective agreement was concluded in Trade unions believe that terms and conditions for employees at Virgin Express in Belgium are identical to those in other airlines operating in the country.
In Denmark, the sector appears to have avoided significant industrial relations consequences so far. In Hungary, low-cost airlines are reported to offer higher wages than the national carrier, although employees are obliged to work longer hours and undertake additional duties, such as cleaning cabins in the case of flight attendants.
Low-cost airlines reportedly tend to poach staff from the Hungarian national carrier.
In the UK, trade unions have a presence in low-cost airlines and attempts to remove them appear to be limited. The report expects the growth of low-cost carriers to continue in the medium term, and certainly up until However, it also notes that in some cases, recognition is limited to one country or location or covers only some categories of employees. In half of the cases surveyed, more than one union represents employees, usually separated by job category. In Europe, it found that Ryanair was the only consistently non-union company - see table 7 below. In terms of employment and working conditions at low-cost airlines, the survey finds that most carriers employ equal numbers of workers on open-ended contracts and workers on fixed-term contracts.
Differences in terms and conditions include areas such as monthly basic pay, hourly premia, holiday entitlement, days off per month, overtime limits, monthly or weekly working time and monthly block hours hours spent on board the aircraft - see table 8 below. One feature of the culture of low-cost carriers that is highlighted by the report is the creation of a 'company atmosphere' by staging company picnics and barbeques and other 'paternalistic' methods in order to create a sense of company culture and a 'them and us' mentality.
It is clear that the European airline sector has experienced immense changes over the past two decades and is still subject to constant restructuring and change. The emergence of many low-cost airlines, following liberalisation of the sector, poses a significant challenge to the more established national carriers in terms of competition on the basis of cost. Employment in the national carriers has been reduced significantly in many countries, as they shed staff in an attempt to cut costs and increase competitiveness.
Conversely, the emergence of new airlines has been a new source of employment for many. In industrial relations terms, there has been significant and ongoing upheaval in many countries, as the established airlines try to cut costs and many of the newer low-cost airlines offer reduced pay and terms and conditions to their employees. Trade unions are also engaged in battles over recognition and representation in the newer airlines, and are concentrating on upholding existing terms and conditions and saving jobs in the more established airlines.
In terms of collective bargaining, the sector is characterised by the fact that company-level agreements predominate, reflecting the dominance of national carriers. Dedicated employers' organisations for the sector do not exist in several countries. Even in Germany and Austria, where sectoral bargaining generally predominates, there is no sector-wide collective agreement for the airline sector. As to the future, restructuring and change in the sector is likely to continue in the medium term, as liberalisation and privatisation of national carriers has not been fully completed in many countries.
Further, the consequences of certain developments, such as the merger of the Dutch national carrier KLM with the French national carrier Air France, will, according to observers, not become clear for a number of years. In the new EU Member States, the sector is likely to grow in the coming years, reflecting the demand for increased air traffic associated with EU membership.
For example, in Slovakia, the number of air passengers doubled between and The issue of how to manage restructuring and change will therefore be a key topic for the future. For trade unions, the focus will continue to be on issues such as how to ensure that the staff of national carriers maintain their employment terms and conditions and enjoy employment guarantees, how to increase trade union membership and recognition in the new airlines and how to ensure that the presence of new, low-cost airlines does not have a detrimental impact on overall terms and conditions in the sector.
Eurofound is an agency of the European Union. Skip to main content. You are here Home Report Industrial relations in the airline sector. Industrial relations in the airline sector. Background The European airline sector has growth fast over the past 20 years. The civil aviation sector can be divided into three sections: The airline sector has also undergone a significant upheaval over the past two decades, due to factors such as: Liberalisation Over the past two decades, the EU has been working to liberalise the European airline sector.
There have been three main stages of liberalisation: This gradually introduced the freedom to provide services within the Union and by airlines from one Member State had the right to operate a route within another Member State 'cabotage'. Since April , all airlines in the EU have unconditional access to all domestic markets. Controls on state aid The airline industry suffered particularly badly from the economic downturn at the beginning of the s, which forced many airlines to restructure.
Under the guidelines, state aid may be approved by the Commission, subject to a number of conditions, as follows: The aid may be granted only once; the programme must include capacity reductions, if necessary in order to restore the company to financial and commercial viability; the programme must not lead to any increase in the number of aircraft or seats; and governments must not interfere in the management of the company, which must be run according to commercial principles.
Results of liberalisation Overall, the Commission believes that the liberalisation process has achieved the desired result.
Number of aircraft in the Lufthansa Group fleet 2013-2017, by airline
Overview of employment and industrial relations implications In terms of employment, the airline sector has seen a considerable amount of restructuring and change over the past 15 years. The European airline industry in detail In terms of sectoral classification, for the the purposes of this study the airline industry corresponds to NACE code 62 air transport and Main airlines operating in 18 European countries Country Main airlines operating nationally no.
NIKI Luftfahrt employees. Air Alps employees. Virgin Express formerly EuroBelgianAirlines employees. Thomas Cook Airlines Belgium employees. VLM Airlines employees. TUI Airlines Belgium employees. TNT Airways employees. Denmark SAS Denmark 2, employees. Maersk Air 1, employees. Cimber Air employees. Sun Air employees. Finland Finnair 9, employees. Air Finland employees. Finnish Commuter Airlines Finncomm employees.
Munich aiming to enter ‘European Champions League’ of airports
France Air France 57, employees. Regional Airlines 1, employees. Air Littoral employees. CCM Airlines employees. Dassault Falcon Service employees. Star Airlines employees. Europe Airposte employees. Euralair Horizons employees. Heli Union employees. Occitania Air Atlantique 89 employees. Germany Deutsche Lufthansa AG 90, employees. Air Berlin 2, employees.
Condor Flugdienst GmbH 2, employees. Hapag Lloyd Flug 2, employees. Eurowings Luftverkehrs AG 1, employees. Greece Olympic Airlines 7, employees. Aegean Airlines 1, employees. Italy Alitalia 20, employees. Air One 1, employees. Netherlands KLM 25, employees. Dutch Bird employees. Norway SAS Braathens 2, employees.
Norwegian Air Shuttle employees. Slovakia Slovak Airlines employees. Air Slovakia BWJ 91 employees. Sky Europe Airlines employees. Slovenia Adria Airways employees. Spain Iberia 26, employees. Spanair controlled by SAS 2, employees. Air Europa 2, employees. Air Nostrum 1, employees. Sweden SAS Sweden 2, employees. UK British Airways 52, employees. British Midland 4, employees. Situation of national carriers The national carriers of individual countries have fared differently over the past two decades, with some managing to retain their grip on the market, despite the emergence of competition, while others have floundered.
Global strategic alliances Strategic alliances are now a feature of the airline industry worldwide. European Commission, own research. Employment in the airline sector Employment status of the workforce There are a range of approaches to the employment of staff in the airline sector. Employment levels Employment levels have been falling in some areas of the industry, while rising in others, reflecting the transformations affecting the sector.
EIRO Type of employment contract It would appear that the majority of employees in the airline sector work full time. Gender balance Statistics on the gender balance of the workforce are not available for all countries. Social partners Trade unions Most countries have a range of different trade unions representing staff in the airline industry, due to the diversity of functions in this sector. Employers' organisations A number of countries examined do not have a dedicated sectoral employers' organisation for the airline industry.
General Aviation GA is a union for staff of small airline companies. Technical cabin crew, including pilots, are represented by independent unions: Vereinigung Cockpit VC is a specialist union for pilots. A small breakaway group from UFO formed a new organisation for flight attendants - KabineKlar - in There is no employers' association in the airline sector. When Lufthansa was a publicly owned company, the Employers' Association of the Public Service in Hamburg Arbeitsrechtliche Vereinigung Hamburg , AVH represented its interests in collective bargaining for some ground staff, and some such collective agreements still exist.
There is no employers' association for Greek airlines. Hungary The main unions in the airline sector are: Ryanair is a non-union company, although an unknown number of employees are union members. Aer Lingus and Ryanair conduct their own negotiations and representations. Italy The sectoral federations of the three largest union confederations - the Italian Federation of Transport Federazione italiana trasporti , Fit , the Italian Federation of Transport Workers Federazione italiana lavoratori trasporti , Filt and the Union of Italian Transport Workers Unione italiana lavoratori trasporti , Uiltrasporti - represent the majority of workers in the sector.
There are also a number of autonomous unions operating in the sector. The United Transport Workers Union Sindacato unitario lavoratori dei trasporti , Sult is the leading occupational union and others include: Netherlands Employees in the airlines sector are generally represented by: There are also four occupational unions: Tekna affiliated to Akademikerne organises engineers. There are three employers' organisations operating in the airline sector: FL is a member of NHO and is party to a large majority of agreements in all airline companies, though in some cases NHO is directly party to the agreements.
Poland The main unions in the sector are: LOT negotiates directly with trade unions. Employees in flight operational services are represented by three independent unions, representing air traffic controllers, technical staff and administrative staff.
Slovenia The main representative trade unions in the sector are: Eight airlines operating scheduled flights and 29 airlines operating unscheduled flights are members of GZS, while ZDS has only one member in the sector Ljubljana airport. UK The main trade unions in this sector are: There are no sectoral employers' organisations. Collective bargaining European-level social dialogue A European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation sector was created in Joint texts concluded within the framework of this sectoral social dialogue include: The agreement applies to mobile staff in civil aviation and regulates annual leave, maximum annual working time, maximum annual 'block flight time', minimum monthly rest and minimum annual rest days.
Structure of bargaining in individual countries Collective bargaining structures in the airline industry are complex, due to the different types of employee groups working in this sector.