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Table of contents

Macbeth in Qubcois and Scots. Itzulpen eta Terminologi-azko Aldizkaria, Dveloppement de la traduction en languebasque. Itzulpen eta Terminologiazko Aldizkaria, 24, Literary Translation as a Vehicle of Assimilation inQuebec. Canadian Literature, , Translation, Normalisation and Identity in Galicia n. Identificacin dual y autonoma poltica: Revista Espaola de Investigaciones Sociolgicas, 42, History, Post-Structuralism and the ColonialContext. Media Translation and Lesser-Used Languages: Implicationsof Subtitling for Irish Language Broadcasting. In Federico Eguluz Ed. Universidad del Pas Vasco.

Choices and Constraints in Screen Translation. Current Trends in Translation Studies. Minority Language Dubbing for Children. Screen Translation fromGerman into Irish. The Power of Translation: A Survey of Translation inOrissa. Dictionary of Translation Studies. Le Trafic des langues.

Traduction et culture dans la littraturequbecoise. Translating in thePostcolonial Era. A Bibliography of Bibliographies andStudies. Linguistic Transcoding or Cultural Transfer? A Critiqueof Translation Theory in Germany. Communicating in the Global Village: On Language,Translation and Cultural Identity. In Christina Schffner Ed.

Machine Translation and Minority Languages. From Cultural Transferenceto Metonymic Displacement. La traduccin literaria de lenguas minoritarias a lenguas de mayordifusin. Itzulpen eta Terminologiazko Aldizkaria, 7 23 , Multilingua, 4 1 , Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond.

Culture Planning and Translation. Estudios de Traduccin e Interpretacin pp. Servicio de Publicacins da Universidade de Vigo. Translation as a Means of Planning and the Planning of Translation: A Theoretical Framework and an Exemplary Case. In Saliha Parker et al. Re shaping of Literature and Culture. Translation in a Postcolonial Context. A History of Translation. The Translation Studies Reader. London and New York: Translation as a Process of Power: Aspects of Cultural Anthropologyin Translation. Translation and the Promotion of National Identity.

Target,8 2 , La traduccin como instrumento de normalizacin lingstica. Itzulpen eta Terminologiazko Aldizkaria, 19, Itzulpena eta hizkuntz normalkuntza. Itzulpeneta Terminologiazko Aldizkaria, 3, Hedadura txiki eta ertalneko hizkuntzetako itzulpenaaztertzeko zenbait aldagai bakantzeko saloa.

Itzulpen eta TerminologiazkoAldizkaria, 12, Itzulpeneta Terminologiazko Aldizkaria, 24, Globalisation, Tribalisation and the Translator: A Response to MarySnell-Hornby. IntroductionArguments about the effects of hegemonic globalisation on cultural diversity havebeen used to suggest that translation can liberate us from the domination of justone international language, namely English.

More specifically, some claim thereshould be fewer translations from English and more translations into English. However there is some empirical evidence that the percentages of translationfrom and to international languages cannot tell us how open or hegemonic aculture is, nor whether there should be more or fewer translations into or froman international language.. The debateOne consequence of globalisation, by whatever definition, would seem to be thattranslations account for only 2 to 4 percent of books published in the UnitedStates or the United Kingdom.

This general proportion is much lower than thepercentages often cited for other countries: Nor can one really doubtthat translations from English account for a good deal of the movements intoother languages. UNESCO figures indicate that English was the source languagefor an average of 41 percent of all translations in the years that willinterest us here and this proportion may have been as high as 49 percent in Venuti We must accept that the disparity between what is translatedinto English not much and what is rendered from it a lot is great.

But whatdoes this disparity actually mean? This general observation thenproduces some kind of binary opposition: The growthof one option international English must thus mean a decline in the other translation , which is why there are apparently so few translations into English. In this view, globalisation would have very negative results, not only for the lotof translators and the diversity of the worlds languages and cultures, but also forEnglish-language cultures themselves.

The latter would be using globalisation topromote an inward-looking cultural autarky, oblivious to the damage they arecausing to the rest of the world. This kind of argument is common enough amongwriters on translation. But can it be backed up by strong statistics? Or better, some pernicious exploitation no doubt exists, butthe available data show the process to be rather more complicated than many ofthe arguments would have it.

In what follows, we shall try to explain our doubts intwo ways: Two simple mind games and some algebraThe first warm-up exercise is just common sense. Imagine, if you will, that thereis a language with a huge number of books in it, and another with just a fewbooks. Now, which of these languages is going to have the greater number of bookstranslated from it? All else being equal, the bigger one, of course. So we mightimagine that there are many translations from English just because there are manybooks published in English.

And this need not imply any global conspiracy on thepart of publishing companies or any other pernicious agent. Let us suggest, as a general idea, that a language in which manybooks are published will have a lower translation percentage i. Here we are talking about any language whatsoever. All we haveto picture is the same scene as the one we have just thought about: Language A, withmany books, has more things that could be translated than does Language B, whichhas fewer books.

For example, Language A has books, and Language B has Now, let us imagine an ideal world where translation percentages apply toall books independently of their origin. Let us say 10 percent of all books in thisimaginary world are worth translating and are translated. That means 10 percent ofJB[v. But look at what happens: Language A gets just one book fromB and finishes up with a translation rate of 0. From this game we must conclude that a low translation percentage in alanguage may be due to no more than a relatively high number of books publishedin that language.

This seems as obvious as the idea that the more books thereare in a language, the more translations there are likely to be from that language the finding of our first game. It would thus be normal for international English,which has numerous books published in it, to have a relatively low percentageof translations into it.

The percentages would be a result of sheer size, andnothing else. Let us try to formalize this simple model and see whether our intuitions andfinger-counting games lead to valid generalizations. In order to this we need toswitch from arithmetic to algebra and derive the appropriate equation describingthe relations we are interested in. As before, we will assume a constant rate oftranslation from a language, so that if this rate were 10 percent 0. But we want our model to be valid for all possible translationrates and for any number of languages. The pi, the total of publications in language i, is the number of originals wiplus the above Ti.

So, for n languages we get: However, it would be more convenient to havea single variable that would combine S and wi. The non-linearity of the function makes our original point even stronger. Notonly do translation rates decrease as languages become bigger, they decrease fasterthan a simple linear relation would suggest. What are the possible objections to this simple model? First, our basic assumption of a constant rate of translation from everylanguage is probably not very realistic.

That may be so, but the assumption is anacceptable first approximation. By simplifying matters it allows us to construct amanageable model in order to demonstrate the influence of the size of a languageon its translation rate. Second, some might object, the ideal world should have a 10 percent propor-tion or whatever going into each language, such that Language A with bookswould be obliged to translate all the 10 books from Language B, and Language Bwith just 10 books would be obliged to translate no more than one book from Lan-guage A.

That is a possible scenario. However, if each language takes its translationsin accordance with the distribution of books available to be translated, the biggestJB[v. Hypothetical relation between translation rate and market shareone will still have the most books translated from it. So even this does not entirelysolve the problem of global asymmetry, because the rates are equal but the abso-lute numbers are far from equal. Further, few cultural theorists would be entirelyhappy with a command economy that were really so indifferent to the relative qual-ities of books.

Would we really want to judge and translate texts solely in terms oftheir origin?. To test them we need data on thetranslations and nontranslations published in a fairly wide range of languages. Thenumbers most readily available are those in the UNESCO yearbooks, although theyearbooks become less complete and appear less trustworthy from thanks inno small measure to the withdrawal of the United States. We have thus decided tolook at the data published in , which actually includes figures for Some notes on these numbers are necessary before proceeding: This database is rather less than ideal: This is also a precarious database because different countries have differentdefinitions of the basic categories e.

Caremust thus be taken to ensure that the raw data for each country are comparedonly with other raw data for the same country e. In search of the least perilous path we have lookedat the numbers of first-edition titles in all categories of books by whateverdefinition for 21 languages which were actually all the languages availablefor comparison with any degree of certitude.

This is an intriguing database because it gives information on books publishedin non-national languages e. Thisenables us to estimate the total number of books published in English withoutbeing limited to national categories such as the United States or the UnitedKingdom. It also gives us some kind of measure as to how non-nationalistcertain countries are about their publishing on which, more below. The database gives figures for several years, so some anomalies can be ironedout by taking the means. It also covers a fair range of languages, both bigand small.

The period concerned was one of relative stability in political terms, perhapsfree of the high volatility that marks the translational development of lan-guages with few books. For example, we find from another source Vallverd that translation percentages into Catalan were 55 percent in , 8. Our test numbers should try toavoid such rapid shifts, which are due more to local developmental factorsthan to the general principles we are interested in testing.

Perhaps because of the above reasons, the percentages of translations foundin the UNESCO data are generally lower than those given in other sources formore recent dates. We find only 13 percent instead of 25 percent for Spanish;only 11 percent for German and French apiece. However, since the rate forEnglish is just over 2 percent both here and in other sources, the fundamentaldifference we are interested in is not quite obscured by the uncertaintiesof UNESCO..

Two principles testedOur first mind game suggested that the more books were published in a language,the more translations there would be from that language. When we test thisprinciple on our data, we get the results in Figure 2. English is clearly in an anomalous position.

And about twelve languages arehuddled together in the bottom left corner, with not many books published andJB[v. Books translated from language, by books published in language. But the regression line hereaverages all of that out and tells us that the general hypothesis holds. In factthe correlation is quite good p chanteur [singer].

Do we have to force thetarget language to adapt its view of the world to the requirements of a systematictranslation of affixes?. The conceptual traits of the termA name is a label. It is often limited to the expression of asingle trait or, quite simply, to the fact of giving a proper name, that of the creatorJB[v. In this case, the concept remainscompletely opaque. To do asystematic translation of the affixes would amount to a selection of the sameconceptual traits in the two languages. However, it is not compulsory for the targetlanguage to select the same traits selected by the source language, an idea that isclosely akin to the one developed in the previous paragraph.

Thus, the translation of prefixes and suffixes is not inevitably a relevantchoice contributing to the transparency of the term. To illustrate, in autoroute motorway , two traits are selected: However, autoroute is not a simple route for auto, but a broadroad with double carriageway reserved for motor vehicles, protected, withoutcrossroads or level crossings Le Robert daujourdhui. Thus, many traits are nottaken into account in the term. Obviously, the creation of an Arabic term mustaim to designate a definite concept and not to translate the traits selected by theFrench term.

The prefix r- is often translated tniyat-an a second time in works of theArabic Academy of Cairo. He gives as an examplethe use of the term radd restitution to translate the prefix r- in rhabilitationtranslated by radd al-ictibr restitution de la considration.

However, the traitselected by the Arabic term radd restitution in the translation of rhabilitationdoes not indicate a repetition, a second time, but it refers to an esteem whichwas withdrawn and then restored. This trait comes close to the meaning ofrhabilitation given by le Petit Larousse: The choice of radd restitution, retour can also be a bad choice as shownin this beautiful example given by al-Kat. The term raction, in thefield of mechanics, is translated radd ficl. This type of translation exists for well-established terms muttafaq calay hi , according to al-Kat.

But what can we sayabout new ones? Traditional terminologyAn additional problem arises: Indeed, the fact of insisting on a systematic and automatic trans-lation of affixes and Greco-Latin formants implies a prerequisite: This way of proceed-ing, which may possibly apply to young sciences like genetics and computing, willcertainly come up against problems in fields in which Arabic scientific or techni-cal terminology already existed, like grammar or medicine. Old Arabic terms wereelaborated quite a long time ago and some of these terms are still in use in fieldsinvaded by a considerable number of new terms.

Thus, the word pair dtermin vsindtermin definite vs. Indeed, the prefix in- in indtermin has no equivalent in the term naki-rat. Should we give up using this term just to meet the requirements of systematictranslation? The same problem is likely to arise with regard to the reapplication of old termsin order to denote new concepts more or less close to their old meanings.

One of the meanings of s. The diversity of source languagesThe translation of a term is not the search for its linguistic equivalent in the targetlanguage but the selection of a signifiant which matches its signifi. To attemptto render the same traits in the target language means to translate the signifiant. However, the translation of signifiants is always trapped by the diversity of sourcelanguages.

Alexandria, amb Jesús Moncada

The traits selected by a given source language are not always the same traitsselected by the others. The diversity of source languages, French and Englishin this case, is one of the reasons for the anarchy in modern Arabic linguisticterminology. It is said that the affixes are the same in the scientific fields and that theresa set of international terminology to translate. This thesis of internationalityis true to a certain extent, perhaps even to a large extent in some fields, but itJB[v.

This international terminologyreminds us of international opinion, which is reduced, broadly-speaking, tothe United States and some Western Europe countries. All the rest of the world,thousands of millions of people in China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan tomention only the largest countries is considered as a negligible quantity..

The ignorance of linguistic differencesThe fourth theoretical presupposition of the aforementioned approach ignores thedifferences between linguistic systems and recommends, perhaps without realisingit, the transposition of terms from one system to another. The recommended sys-tematic translation of affixes in international terminology poses an acute problemfor languages with morphology that is different from that of source languages. In French, the derivation is done from a radical, a unit made up of a sequenceof consonants and vowels to which we can possibly stick prefixes and suffixes.

Thisis the type of derivation which seems to be taken into account in the definitionof derivation given by the Dictionnaire de linguistique Dubois , and it isbasically the concept of agglutination: Derivation consists of the agglutination of lexical elements, at least one ofwhich is not likely to be used independently, in a single form [. Theelements of a derivative are: The radical, consisting of an independent term faire in refaire or depen-dent one -fec in refection.

The affixes, elements attached to a word, called prefixes if they precedethe radical [. It is worth noting,however, that prefixes can correspond to forms having lexical autonomy[. Dubois , emphasis added On the contrary, derivation in Arabic is done via interior inflection19 from a conso-nantal root.

Unlike French, the syllabic system of Arabic establishes a fundamentaldisjunction between the subgroup of consonants and the subgroup of vowels. The Semitic languages have set up their sous-systme de nomination [thesubsystem of denomination] on the basis of consonantal roots. The organization of derivatives by means of interior inflection can be schematisedas follows Capital letters have been used to distinguish the radical consonants. Ti B the one who writes, writer 6 Ku Tta: Ta B -ta you exchanged pieces of writing withsomeone 11 Ku: In all these examples, the process of denomination is ensured by the triconsonantalroot K.

The right margin of nouns remainsfree to receive the case endings, pieces of the systme de communication; the rightmargin of the prefixed forms of the verb receives modal endings, the suffixed formindicates always the real mode called indicative by the Arabic tradition. As onecan see, these case and modal endings are placed outside the root. Inside the root,vowels constitute modalities or simple syntagmatic vowels. In KaTaBa he wrote ,for instance, the concept of writing is ensured by the root K. The table clearly shows the vocalic alternation inside the root, but it also showsa consonantal affixation: It is worth repeating that the right marginJB[v.

In his Trait de philologie arabe Nonetheless, it would be proper to give some pieces of information regarding thisArabic affixation and what distinguishes it from the system of affixation in theIndo-European languages. Arabic affixes are extremely limited in number. In contrast to more than affixes and Greco-Latin formants listed in al-Kat. These consonantswere, as A. Recruited in three series of consonants chosen because of their demarcatingcapacity, i.

The three series are: Prefixes and suffixes have, thus, a vocalisation determined by the form takenas a whole. This characteristic limits not only the form ofthe term, but its length too: The first examples given by H. These nouns seemto form non-decomposable blocks. In a rebuilding of the old Arabic system, A. Roman mentions the consonantswith demarcating capacity used as monoconsonantal roots and modalities, in thepro-forms: These consonants, limited in number, were reused for several signifis.

Nevertheless, even within the formes augmentes forms added to the root andthe dverbaux nominal forms having certain verbal features , the value of affixedconsonants seems like a value linked to form: The value of a prefix or a suffix in languages like French is assessed as opposedto another form without affix. The value of the prefix re-, for instance, can bedrawn by comparing re-vivre to live again to vivre to live.

However, this is veryoften not the case of what is called an affix in Arabic. It is an affix insofar as theconsonant in question does not form a part of the radical consonants of the root,and not because there is an opposition between two words, the first with affix, thesecond without.

The three chapters in as-Suyt. But these are very rare examples. Thus, we are far from the formation of affixes in the Indo-European languages. Because of the reduced number of Arabic affixes and the absence of equivalentFrench ones, the translation of affixes and formants is done via words. The searchfor systematic and automatic translation means giving one Arabic equivalent,and only one, to each affix in the source language. In that way, the translationof a French term composed of a radical, a prefix and a suffix will be done bygiving an Arabic equivalent to these three elements, i.

Thus,we should either have recourse to the systme de communication system ofcommunication in order to form the different equivalents of the term within asyntagm, or to adopt a mode of derivation similar to the French one for Arabic,JB[v. The first process, totally in conformity with the Arabic system of derivation,may appear a little bit heavy since it inevitably produces long syntagms, at leastthree words which will be formed according to the communication system rulesand constitute annexational, qualifier and prepositional syntagms.

The second process, apparently lighter than the first one, is outside the system. We can retort that compounding which Dubois defines as the for-mation of a semantic unit from lexical elements which can have autonomy bythemselves in the language exists in the old Arabic texts; which is true.

In addition to this very rare type of formation, Arabic books describe anothertype of compounding: Nevertheless, this type of formation remains very limited on one hand, veryirregular on the other hand. Words are not linked together according to Arabicsyntactic rules in order to form a syntagm, nor are they stuck together to form acompound word. All the attempts made to set up rules for this type of formation have beendoomed to failure al-H. Indeed, no rule fixes the dropping ofan element or the keeping of another, except perhaps the obligation to select thefirst element of the first word and the tendency to use quadriconsonantal verbalformation.

This second process, in spite of being in nonconformity with the rules ofArabic derivation, is adopted by many translators, either out of need because thenumber of affixes and formants to be translated is very high or out of snobbery some authors are fascinated by innovations, not being very conscious of the majordifferences between the two morphological systems. They consider it an obligationto translate each compound term with an equivalent Arabic compound term. However, the simple fact of sticking together two Arabic words which renderthe radical and the prefix or the radical and the suffix doesnt produce the desiredresults.

The final product, in addition to its nonconformity, is still heavy. To this end, the Arabic words already selected asequivalents of the components of French and English terms are being transformedto affixes by reducing their size. The final part of the word is often removed to keepit down to one syllable sometimes two or more that are added to the wordwhich renders the radical. Here is an example: In auto-biographie autobiography , the prefix auto- is translated by a quali-fier dtiyy, in the feminine: An interesting phe-nomenon occurs when trying to make only one compound word from French: To lighten the syntagm, thenoun tarjamat which is the head of the syntagm and which renders the radical,will be cut down and reduced to its first two syllables tarja.

Consequently, it willappear to be a prefix, whereas the prefix auto: Thus, we will obtain: Adifference between source languages French and English leads, inevitably, to twodifferent translations. Thus, we see another problem that an unrestrained searchfor similarity can lead to.. ConclusionThe search for a systematic and automatic translation of affixes and Greco-Latinformants means to abandon the fundamental characteristics of the Arabic systemof derivation.

The vocabulary of current Arabic, its scientific terminology inparticular, increasingly uses a mode of formation that is different from the initialJB[v. Moreand more new terms are formed by agglutination of a radical and many affixes. Roman says that Arabic vocabulary is, henceforth, structured around. It is driven by the great advance of sciences and bythe blind imitation of the strongest. This advance does not explain everything. Theres a sociocultural parameterwhich should not be overlooked.

The inferiority complex and the tendency totake the developed countries, the former colonizers, as a model have somethingto do with this change. The creation of Arabic terminology in the technical and scientific fields isvital. This process inevitably goes through the knowledge and the adaptation of theterminology elaborated in Indo-European languages.

The search for the values ofaffixes and Greco-Latin formants is certainly essential for the understanding of thisterminology. On the other hand, the search for Arabic equivalents of affixes andformants is more than debatable within terminological work aimed at examiningthe concepts and the traits of substance. The search for a systematic and automatictranslation of affixes and formants is not only illusive but also suicidal. Are thosewho call to find, at all costs, an Arabic equivalent, and only one, for each affix,really aware of the consequences? As for me, I do not believe it.

Translated by Andre Affeich Notes.

Camí de sirga | Grup62 | Foreign Rights

See the problems arising from the translation of affixes and numerous discussionsconcerning this subject in the Arabic academies and elsewhere in M. See, for example, A. Eachone of these two tables gathers more than affixes and formants with their Arabicequivalents.. There is no difference. Dubois-Charlier said in La drivation suffixale en franais: This term may be given as an example of synonymy.

Jakobson named thesender addresser Dubois The dictionary defines hypo- as a prefix which means under, below, below normal,insufficiently, and hyper- as a prefix which expresses the exaggeration, the excess and thehighest degree Le Robert daujourdhui.. Indeed, he saysthat this formant has sometimes been translated naqs. In dictionaries on linguistics, the relation between hyperonym and hyponym is definedas a relation of inclusion starting from the most specific to the most general G. Mseddi was quite right to avoid translating the prefixes hyper- and hypo- in thesetwo terms.

In fact, he translates hyperonym as muh. This second term is also translated asmundarij in Baalbakis dictionary and as nawc kind or fard al-jins species unit inthe dictionary of Alecso The term superordinate is translated successively as kalimatmuh. In the Littr, the prefix anti- is given two meanings: On the other hand, the prefix anti- is presented as a unit that expresses 1 opposition as in antiscorbutique [antiscorbutic]; in this case, it comes from. Currently, we tend to remove the hyphen when the second word does not start with avowel..

We can see, for example, in al-Kat. Its the same forsuffixes.. Humour, culture et traduction, la traduction des textes humoristiquesentre le franais et larabe, in: Interaction entre culture et traduction, Actes du symposiuminternational organis par lEcole Suprieure Roi Fahd de Traduction, Tangier, According to ancient Arabic scholars, the name is a mark that applies to the namedpersons or things see, for example, Ibn al-Anbr: Concerning the conditions of the reapplication of old terms in order to denote newmeanings, see H.

Branchadell, Albert & West, Lovell Margaret (2005) Less Translated Languages, Amsterdam - Philade

Odehs doctoral dissertation, University of Lyon 2 La traduction de laterminologie linguistique du franais en arabe, larabisation du Cours de linguistique gnralede F. Term used by H. The brackets are used to indicate an element that is omitted when the word appears inthe middle of a sentence.. Fortunately, the sous-marin which is a warship was previously translated by gawwas. Dictionary of Linguistic Terms: Linguistique gnrale et linguistique franaise 4th ed. De Saussure, Ferdinand Cours de linguistique gnrale.

Tullio de Mauro Ed. Dubois, Jean et al. Trait de philologie arabe. Larabe classique, esquisse dune structure linguistique. Translated intoArabic by cAbd as. Les thories grammaticales daz-Zajjj. Thse de doctorat dEtat. La traduction de la terminologie grammaticale arabe vers leFranais. Humour, culture et traduction, la traduction des texteshumoristiques entre le franais et larabe.

In Interaction entre culture et traduction pp. Ecole Suprieure Roi Fahd de Traduction. Dictionnaire de la langue franaise. Dictionnaire de la linguistique. Maison arabe du livre. La traduction et la terminologie linguistique du franais en arabe,larabisation du Cours de linguistique gnrale de F. Le Robert dictionnaire daujourdhui. La cration lexicale en arabe.

Presses Universitaires de Lyon. Pour une thorie de la traduction: The experience of translating the Kitb-i-Aqdas into Spanish fromthe English version using the Arabic original as a referenceIn , the centenary of the death of Bahullh , the Kitb-i-Aqdas,the Most Holy Book of the Bah Faith, written originally in Arabic, waspublished in English, containing several parts published for the first time together,four of which had never been in book form at all: The Preface, Introduction,collection of Questions and Answers, and the notes. Since then, this versionwith all its parts has been used as a basis for translation into other languages; inmany cases these translations have been done from the English with the help of theArabic original.

Its first mandate was to produce one Spanish translation of the Kitb-i-Aqdasfor all Spanish-speaking countries. The working document for all purposes wasthe English publication of , although wide use of the Arabic original was tobe necessary, apart from many other books by the same author in their originallanguage and their authorised canonical English translation. In due course, thePanel was to approve other translations of Bah scripture.

A similar process beganwith French nearly at the same time.. Some features, background and implicationsAlthough it is increasingly being discovered that a large number of literaturetranslations in circulation nowadays are either partially or totally the result ofindirect translation, this is generally not admitted explicitly in the publication. Concealing that a translation was indirect can be comparable toplagiarism, and therefore despised by the scientific community.

The author would like to argue in favour of indirect translation for somespecific cases, without at all implying that this practice should always be regardedas advantageous. First of all, from the point of view of simplicity and economy,expenses involved in the number of translators required increase geometrically asthe number of languages present at a conference grows: Number of interpreters required in cross-language settingsFor two languages, one interpreter is enough. For three languages, three translatorsare needed; for 4 languages, 6 interpreters; for 5, If we arranged directtranslation among 50 representatives from linguistic communities spoken by morethan 50 million inhabitants, interpreters would be necessary!

In conclusion,indirect translation seems the only way out 50 interpreters would suffice using onelanguage as intermediary for multilateral cultural interaction. As early as , UNESCO itself mentioned that this practice should only beused where absolutely necessary, and sanctioned it in its Recommendations onthe legal protection of translators and translations, and on means to improve thestatus of translators, in its point V. These recommendations are expressed in very general terms and do not take intoaccount such specific situations as the one presented in this paper corporate teamtranslation, with participation of specialists from more than two languages, apartfrom specialists in the subject matter.

In a similar vein, and in the same year, Anton Popovic also referred to thissort of translation as second hand Around that time, Even-Zohar wasspeaking about polysystems and he later presented a view of translation asan instance of interference Beyond Even-Zohars reference to interference, TheoHermans prefers to use the concept of contact in which cultural goods migrateJB[v.

A valuable insight into the translation of translationscomes from Gideon Toury who, in Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond,includes a chapter called A Lesson from Indirect Translation. He remarks that,excluding individual instances in which a translator may turn to already existingtranslations as an immediate source possibly due to inability, indirect translationcan appear recurrently, and in this case Such an approach only reflects a fallaciousprojection of a currently prevalent norm, ascribing uppermost value to theultimate original, onto the plane of theoretical premises.

By contrast, mediatedtranslation should be taken as a syndromic basis for descriptive-explanatorystudies [. A clarifying approach to indirect translation, originally within the context ofBible translation, comes from Ernst Gutt , according to whom success intranslation will depend on the purpose the translator intends to fulfil and on thefact that this same purpose is shared by the final reader, who will normally infer theintention of what is read by applying what Sperber and Wilson called theprinciple of relevance.

Shuttleworth and Cowies Dictionary of Translation Studiesput it in the following terms Indirect translation is defined as the strategy used by the translator when thedilemma between the need to give the receptor language audience accessto the authentic meaning of the original, unaffected by the translators owninterpretation effort Gutt Anindirect translation will typically expand upon and elucidate ST so thatimplicit information which it contains and which is easily retrievable by theSL audience in the original context envisaged by the ST writer will be equallyavailable to the TL audience.

Consequently an indirect translation created fora communicative context which differs significantly from the original contextis likely to include large amounts of additional interpolated explanatoryinformation; such a translation is, however, considered FAITHFUL inasmuchas it resembles the original in relevant respects Gutt A strategyof indirect translation is frequently employed when translating the Bible intolanguages which are rooted in cultures and world-views radically differentfrom those presupposed by the original, or from the translators own.

The Spanish publication El Kitb-i-Aqdas is not merely a translation of a transla-tion. To be precise, it should be said that the English publication of containsJB[v. The introduction, the preface, a chapter describing theKitb-i-Aqdas written by Shoghi Effendi, Head of the Bah Faith from to and himself appointed Interpreter by its authoritative Scripture , the notes,and a large and elaborate page index.

The clarifying chapter called Ques-tions and Answers originally written by Bahullh had not been publishedin English. Therefore, it is particularly in this chapter and in the chapter of theKitb-i-Aqdas itself where the debate about the features and effects of mediatedtranslations may have greatest interest. It should be noted, however, that there is nointerpolation to use Shuttleworth and Cowies terms from the definition above but additional explanatory information and supplementary material intended tohelp the readers from distant cultures understand the content and purpose of theoriginal text.

There certainly seems to be little doubt about the fact that we are speaking ofa recurrent phenomenon, in the light of the above and to use Tourys terms. It wasShoghi Effendi who decided that all translations of Bah scripture into Westernlanguages were to be done through English, informed by the original Arabic orPersian. Consequences of indirect translation through the English version include: The same preface, introduction, Questions and Answers, notes and glossaryas appeared in the English edition are used.

There is a visible uniformity of format and external presentation. Paragraph division and numbering introduced in the English edition ismaintained. The large English index has served as a model for many other languageeditions. The same transliteration criteria have been maintained in most languageswhenever possible. Translation is available much earlier that it might otherwise be possible if itwere done directly from the Arabic version, which itself was only published inits extended version in There are serious financial implications in indirect translation.

Shoghi Effendi had already developed his own criteria in translation of scripture. The following are some of its most salient features: Clear rules for the use ofcapital letters introduced in , his use of King James style sentence structureswhen dealing with scripture, his methods of elevation of language style includingsuperlatives in references to the divine, and particularly his transliteration systemfor adaptation of Persian and Arabic words into Western languages.

He translatedapproximately one third of the whole book into English apart from a large andJB[v. For the present project, advantage wastaken of a computer program that enabled us to make use of the knowledgeand interpretation of Shoghi Effendi and his criteria for translation, by crossidentification of original and English terms in context.. Phases of translationThe draft version was initiated by one of the members of the Panel a specialistin Arabic, English and Spanish , followed by revision by the other two mem-bers.

Other titles of the author

The result of approximately the first third of the whole book was distributedto collaborators in all Spanish-speaking territories: They were partic-ularly requested to offer impressions, proposals for modification, comments, andso forth, from their linguistic and cultural standpoint. The result of this collaboration was classified and prepared for analysis anddecisions to be taken by the Panel, which met for the first time in atthe University of Almera, Spain. Translation criteria and working method weredeveloped during the subsequent annual meetings.

A first complete translation was sent to the Universal House of Justice, whichreturned a wide range of comments to be studied by the Panel. During a meetingheld in Mexico July , decisions were taken on all proposals received andon translation criteria to be included in a Compendium for future reference. Teamwork in regional groups was explored, and an extensive glossary of languageproblems continued growing. At a meeting held in Chile December the translation work was nearlyfinished, and contact was established with the Publishing Trust for the first edition. The first proofs were available in May , and by the end of the same year thegeneral index was ready.

The book reached final publication in May after 23revisions. A second revised edition appeared in Apart from the chronological list of stages, mention should be made of revisionbeing done also by non-contaminated readers revisers who only read Spanishlanguage , consultation with university specialists in Spanish language, linguisticsand translation, and also consultation with a number of translators who hadworked on the original version from Arabic into English, among them Dr.

During the project some of the members of the Panel visited the placeJB[v. A very useful phase was the uninterruptedsolemn recital of the draft Spanish translation to check the flow of the text andthe reaction of the public an audience of over 15 most collaborative people fromdiverse backgrounds. A special letter font was designed to solve some of thetransliteration problems of compatibility with the computer facilities being usedby the Panel.. Use of toolsOne of the most valuable tools was a computer program called Holy WritingsTranslation Tool, or CAT computer aided translation specially designed fortranslation of Bah texts.

It has processed all English translations done byShoghi Effendi. An extensive amount of translation background was availablewith examples, which were useful for diversification of terminology, richness ofalternatives and clarification of meaning. The program was developed by means of international collaboration betweenMr.

Hooper Dunbar, a member of the Universal House of Justice and specialist intranslation of Bah texts, and a team of translators and computer engineers. After selecting all or part of the corpus for reference by author and titles , it ispossible to introduce a selection of words in English for the program to search andpresent all occasions in which this selection of terms appears in translations. Theresult appears side by side with the original, highlighting the original terms used.

Each result can be explored extensively by moving backward and forward inside thetext both in English and in Arabic or Persian. It is possible to select any part of theresult for new searches, for example in the opposite direction. It is also possible tocheck whether one English term is an exclusive translation of a single Arabic term,or if not, it allows the identification of other English alternatives used to translatethe Arabic term.

Exploration can also be initiated from Arabic or Persian.

  • The Prodigal (The Callan Chronicles Book 1);
  • Maggie & Oliver or A Bone of Ones Own.
  • International editions?
  • Other titles of the author;

The program can develop two types of reports. One offers the list of resultsordered by frequency, and the other presents all cases with three lines of context. Development of other documents in support of translationDuring the six years this project lasted, two other documents were developed basedon the decisions taken by the Panel.

International editions

One is a glossary of terms and expressions,useful for other translations of the same type. Another is a compendium containingthe reasoning and background related to the phases of translation, transliteration,criteria for use of superlatives, names of God, and so forth. This whole project wasthe basis for the development of a doctoral dissertation published at the Universityof Almera.. Conclusions related to indirect and group translationAlthough a large amount of world literature is translated indirectly, this practice isoften despised as second hand work unworthy of attention; therefore its indirectnature is often concealed so there is not much published on mediated translation.

This is a wide field for research, experimentation and growth. Apart from the now classical work by Nida and Taber More collaborative and interdisciplinary efforts between different transla-tion teams will no doubt be useful. The author is especially interested in followingup the effect participation in team translation on this project may have on fu-ture translations of Bah literature. The developing recurrent pattern of mediatedtranslation through English, particularly in translation of Bah literature, is anattractive field of research, as is also the accumulation of expertise at the BahWorld Centre Haifa through the coordination and supervision of the translationof this title into an increasing number of languages every year.

Editorial Bah de Espaa. The Style of the Kitb-i-Aqdas: Aspects of the Sublime. University Press of Maryland. Papers in Historical Poetics. Porter Institute for Poeticsand Semiotics. Poetics Today, 11 1 special issue. Descriptive and System-oriented ApproachesExplained. The Theory and Practice of Translation. La relevancia de la pragmtica en la traduccin de textos interculturales: Servicio de Publicaciones de laUniversidad de Almera. Dictionary for the Analysis of Literary Translation. Recommendations on the legal protection of translators and translations,and on means to improve the status of translators.

IntroductionLeaving aside some purely linguistic conceptions, it seems quite clear that everytext, and especially an audio-visual text, makes no sense and has no raison dtre ifit is not included in a specific context, attached to the heart of a particular societyand a particular culture.

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