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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Jesús Miguel Donoso Arévalo es Ingeniero Informático por la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (UPV). Impartió docencia .
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- Spain will not accept NGO ship ‘Aquarius,’ which is carrying 141 rescued migrants
- Venezuela - Wikipedia
- Al Diablo Con La Crisis (Spanish, Paperback)
Authorities in Malta refused and Italian authorities did not answer. The Aquarius is now the only rescue ship supervising the area off the coast of Libya where migrant ships pass en route to Europe and are known to capsize. It took over a few days ago from the Catalan ship Open Arms , which performed three rescue operations in July and August. The migrants rescued in these operations were brought to Spain. The Spanish government is the only one in Europe which has unconditionally accepted migrants rescued at sea.
With Italy closing its doors to rescue ships, Spain has become the main route for migrants into Europe. In June, Spanish ministers made clear that accepting the migrant ship was an exceptional move, and that Spain would not become a refuge for all the vessels rejected by Italy. After the Aquarius was turned back by Italy and Malta in June, Spain welcomed the migrants on board and since then, it has received more migrants rescued by Open Arms — 60 in July, 87 who arrived last Thursday, plus as a shipwrecked woman from Cameroon who was found next to the bodies of a woman and a child.
The northern mountains are the extreme northeastern extensions of South America's Andes mountain range. To the south, the dissected Guiana Highlands contain the northern fringes of the Amazon Basin and Angel Falls , the world's highest waterfall, as well as tepuis , large table-like mountains.
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The country's center is characterized by the llanos , which are extensive plains that stretch from the Colombian border in the far west to the Orinoco River delta in the east. The Orinoco, with its rich alluvial soils , binds the largest and most important river system of the country; it originates in one of the largest watersheds in Latin America.
Venezuela borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south. Venezuela has territorial disputes with Guyana, formerly United Kingdom, largely concerning the Essequibo area and with Colombia concerning the Gulf of Venezuela. In , after years of diplomatic attempts to solve the border dispute, the dispute over the Essequibo River border flared up.
It was submitted to a "neutral" commission composed of British, American, and Russian representatives and without a direct Venezuelan representative , which in decided mostly against Venezuela's claim. Venezuela's most significant natural resources are petroleum and natural gas , iron ore , gold , and other minerals. It also has large areas of arable land and water.
The precipitation level is lower in the period from August through April. These periods are referred to as hot-humid and cold-dry seasons. Another characteristic of the climate is this variation throughout the country by the existence of a mountain range called "Cordillera de la Costa" which crosses the country from east to west. The majority of the population lives in these mountains. The country falls into four horizontal temperature zones based primarily on elevation, having tropical, dry, temperate with dry winters, and polar alpine tundra climates, amongst others.
Venezuela lies within the Neotropic ecozone ; large portions of the country were originally covered by moist broadleaf forests. One of 17 megadiverse countries,  Venezuela's habitats range from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the south, via extensive llanos plains and Caribbean coast in the center and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.
They include xeric scrublands in the extreme northwest and coastal mangrove forests in the northeast. Animals of Venezuela are diverse and include manatees , three-toed sloth , two-toed sloth , Amazon river dolphins , and Orinoco crocodiles , which have been reported to reach up to 6. Venezuela hosts a total of 1, bird species, 48 of which are endemic. Notable mammals include the giant anteater , jaguar , and the capybara , the world's largest rodent. More than half of Venezuelan avian and mammalian species are found in the Amazonian forests south of the Orinoco. For the fungi, an account was provided by R.
Dennis  which has been digitized and the records made available on-line as part of the Cybertruffle Robigalia database. Among plants of Venezuela, over 25, species of orchids are found in the country's cloud forest and lowland rainforest ecosystems. The tops of the tepuis are also home to several carnivorous plants including the marsh pitcher plant, Heliamphora , and the insectivorous bromeliad, Brocchinia reducta.
Venezuela is among the top 20 countries in terms of endemism.
Venezuela is one of the 10 most biodiverse countries on the planet, yet it is one of the leaders of deforestation due to economic and political factors. Each year, roughly , hectares of forest are permanently destroyed and other areas are degraded by mining, oil extraction, and logging. Between and , Venezuela officially lost 8. In the far south is a reserve for the country's Yanomami tribes. Covering 32, square miles 82, square kilometres , the area is off-limits to farmers, miners, and all non-Yanomami settlers.
Two major blocs of political parties are in Venezuela: The Venezuelan president is elected by a vote, with direct and universal suffrage , and is both head of state and head of government. The term of office is six years, and as of 15 February a president may be re-elected an unlimited number of times. The president appoints the vice president and decides the size and composition of the cabinet and makes appointments to it with the involvement of the legislature.
The president can ask the legislature to reconsider portions of laws he finds objectionable, but a simple parliamentary majority can override these objections. The president may ask the National Assembly to pass an enabling act granting the ability to rule by decree in specified policy areas; this requires a two-thirds majority in the Assembly. Since , six Venezuelan presidents have been granted such powers. The number of members is variable — each state and the Capital district elect three representatives plus the result of dividing the state population by 1.
For the — period the number of seats is The voting age in Venezuela is 18 and older. Voting is not compulsory. The legal system of Venezuela belongs to the Continental Law tradition. The highest judicial body is the Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia , whose magistrates are elected by parliament for a single two-year term. Supreme Court president Luisa Estela Morales said in December that Venezuela had moved away from "a rigid division of powers" toward a system characterized by "intense coordination" between the branches of government.
Morales clarified that each power must be independent adding that "one thing is separation of powers and another one is division". Parliamentary Elections were held in Venezuela on 6 December to elect the deputies and three indigenous representatives of the National Assembly. In , a series of protest and demonstrations began in Venezuela, attributed to inflation, violence and shortages in Venezuela.
The government has accused the protest of being motivated by fascists , opposition leaders, capitalism and foreign influence,  despite being largely peaceful. President Maduro acknowledged PSUV defeat, but attributed the opposition's victory to an intensification of an economic war. Despite this, Maduro said "I will stop by hook or by crook the opposition coming to power, whatever the costs, in any way".
The first steps taken by PSUV and government were the substitution of the entire Supreme Court a day after the Parliamentary Elections  contrary to the Constitution of Venezuela, acclaimed as a fraud by the majority of the Venezuelan and international press. Maduro said that "the Amnesty law approved by the Parliament will not be executed" and asked the Supreme Court to declare it unconstitutional before the law was known.
On 16 January , Maduro approved an unconstitutional economic emergency decree,  relegating to his own figure the legislative and executive powers, while also holding judiciary power through the fraudulent designation of judges the day after the election on 6 December On 14 May , constitutional guarantees were in fact suspended when Maduro decreed the extension of the economic emergency decree for another 60 days and declared a State of Emergency,  which is a clear violation of the Constitution of Venezuela  in the Article th: On 14 May , the Organization of American States was considering the application of the Inter-American Democratic Charter  sanctions for non-compliance to its own constitution.
In March , the Venezuelan Supreme Court took over law making powers from the National Assembly  but reversed its decision the following day. Throughout most of the 20th century, Venezuela maintained friendly relations with most Latin American and Western nations. In , Venezuela was declared a national security threat by U. For example, Palestinian foreign minister Riyad al-Maliki declared in that Venezuela was his country's "most important ally".
Venezuela seeks alternative hemispheric integration via such proposals as the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas trade proposal and the newly launched pan-Latin American television network teleSUR. Venezuela is one of five nations in the world—along with Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, and Syria —to have recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Venezuela was a proponent of OAS 's decision to adopt its Anti-Corruption Convention  and is actively working in the Mercosur trade bloc to push increased trade and energy integration.
Spain will not accept NGO ship ‘Aquarius,’ which is carrying 141 rescued migrants
Globally, it seeks a " multi-polar " world based on strengthened ties among undeveloped countries. It will take two years for the country to formally leave. During this period, the country does not plan on participating in the OAS. Venezuela is involved in a long-standing disagreement about the control of the Guayana Esequiba area.
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It includes over , men and women, under Article of the Constitution, in 5 components of Ground, Sea and Air. The components of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces are: As of [update] , a further , soldiers were incorporated into a new branch, known as the Armed Reserve. The President of Venezuela is the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces. The main roles of the armed forces are to defend the sovereign national territory of Venezuela, airspace, and islands, fight against drug trafficking, to search and rescue and, in the case of a natural disaster, civil protection.
All male citizens of Venezuela have a constitutional duty to register for the military service at the age of 18, which is the age of majority in Venezuela. According to some sources, Venezuela was the most murderous place on Earth in , but researchers like Dorothy Kronick have shown that NGOs have manipulated unofficial statistics. The number of homicides in Venezuela has been inflated, which has even been recognized by opposition intellectuals. Venezuela is especially dangerous toward foreign travelers and investors who are visiting.
The United States Department of State and the Government of Canada have warned foreign visitors that they may be subjected to robbery, kidnapping for a ransom or sale to terrorist organizations  and murder, and that their own diplomatic travelers are required to travel in armored vehicles. There are approximately 33 prisons holding about 50, inmates.
Venezuela's prison system is heavily overcrowded; its facilities have capacity for only 14, prisoners. Corruption in Venezuela is high by world standards and was so for much of the 20th century. The ranking placed Venezuela at number , out of ranked countries in government transparency. This corruption is shown with Venezuela's significant involvement in drug trafficking , with Colombian cocaine and other drugs transiting Venezuela towards the United States and Europe.
Venezuela ranks fourth in the world for cocaine seizures, behind Colombia, the United States, and Panama. However, many major government and military officials have been known for their involvement with drug trafficking; especially with the October incident of men from the Venezuelan National Guard placing 1. Venezuela is divided into 23 states estados , a capital district distrito capital corresponding to the city of Caracas, and the Federal Dependencies Dependencias Federales , a special territory.
Venezuela - Wikipedia
Venezuela is further subdivided into municipalities municipios ; these are subdivided into over one thousand parishes parroquias. The states are grouped into nine administrative regions regiones administrativas , which were established in by presidential decree.
The country can be further divided into ten geographical areas, some corresponding to climatic and biogeographical regions. In the north are the Venezuelan Andes and the Coro region , a mountainous tract in the northwest, holds several sierras and valleys. East of it are lowlands abutting Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of Venezuela. The Central Range runs parallel to the coast and includes the hills surrounding Caracas; the Eastern Range, separated from the Central Range by the Gulf of Cariaco , covers all of Sucre and northern Monagas.
The Insular Region includes all of Venezuela's island possessions: Nueva Esparta and the various Federal Dependencies. Most of Venezuela's gold held abroad was located in London. Venezuela manufactures and exports heavy industry products such as steel , aluminium and cement , with production concentrated around Ciudad Guayana , near the Guri Dam , one of the largest in the world and the provider of about three-quarters of Venezuela's electricity.
Other notable manufacturing includes electronics and automobiles , as well as beverages , and foodstuffs. The country is not self-sufficient in most areas of agriculture. In , total food consumption was over 26 million metric tonnes, a Since the discovery of oil in the early 20th century, Venezuela has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil, and it is a founding member of OPEC. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The recovery of oil prices after boosted the Venezuelan economy and facilitated social spending.
With social programs such as the Bolivarian Missions , Venezuela initially made progress in social development in the s, particularly in areas such as health, education, and poverty. This led to the development of a parallel market of dollars in the subsequent years. The fallout of the global financial crisis saw a renewed economic downturn.
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Despite controversial data shared by the Venezuelan government showing that the country had halved malnutrition following one of the UN's Millennium Development Goals,   shortages of staple goods began to occur in Venezuela and malnutrition began to increase. One of his decisions was to force stores and their warehouses to sell all of their products, which led to even more shortages in the future. Tourism has been developed considerably in recent decades, particularly because of its favorable geographical position, the variety of landscapes, the richness of plant and wildlife , the artistic expressions and the privileged tropical climate of the country, which affords each region especially the beaches throughout the year.
Margarita Island is one of the top tourist destinations for enjoyment and relaxation. It is an island with a modern infrastructure, bordered by beautiful beaches suitable for extreme sports, and features castles, fortresses and churches of great cultural value. Shortages occur in regulated products, such as milk, various types of meat, coffee, rice, oil, flour, butter, and other goods including basic necessities like toilet paper, personal hygiene products, and even medicine. A drought, combined with a lack of planning and maintenance, has caused a hydroelectricity shortage.
To deal with lack of power supply, in April the Maduro government announced rolling blackouts  and reduced the government workweek to only Monday and Tuesday. By late and into , Venezuelans had to search for food on a daily basis, occasionally resorting to eating wild fruit or garbage , wait in lines for hours and sometimes settle without having certain products. Venezuela has the largest oil reserves, and the eighth largest natural gas reserves in the world, and consistently ranks among the top ten world crude oil producers.
Besides the largest conventional oil reserves and the second-largest natural gas reserves in the Western Hemisphere,  Venezuela has non-conventional oil deposits extra-heavy crude oil , bitumen and tar sands approximately equal to the world's reserves of conventional oil. In the first half of the 20th century, US oil companies were heavily involved in Venezuela, initially interested only in purchasing concessions.
Managers and skilled highly paid technicians of PDVSA shut down the plants and left their posts, and by some reports sabotaged equipment, and petroleum production and refining by PDVSA almost ceased. Activities eventually were slowly restarted by returning and substitute oil workers. Venezuela has a limited national railway system , which has no active rail connections to other countries.
The Maracaibo Metro and Valencia Metro were opened more recently. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America;   the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital Caracas, which is also the largest city.
The largest and most important city south of the Orinoco is Ciudad Guayana , which is the sixth most populous conurbation. According to a study by sociologists of the Central University of Venezuela , over 1. The people of Venezuela come from a variety of ancestries. It is estimated that the majority of the population is of mestizo , or mixed, ethnic ancestry.
Nevertheless, in the census, which Venezuelans were asked to identify themselves according to their customs and ancestry, the term mestizo was excluded from the answers. The majority claimed to be mestizo or white— Ethnic minorities in Venezuela consist of groups that descend mainly from African or indigenous peoples; 2. During the colonial period and until after the Second World War, many of the European immigrants to Venezuela came from the Canary Islands ,  which had a significant cultural impact on the cuisine and customs of Venezuela.
Later, during and after the war, new waves of immigrants from other parts of Europe, the Middle East, and China began; many were encouraged by government-established immigration programs and lenient immigration policies. According to the World Refugee Survey , published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Venezuela hosted a population of refugee and asylum seekers from Colombia numbering , in , and 10, new asylum seekers entered Venezuela in The total indigenous population of the country is estimated at about thousand people 2.
Most indigenous peoples are concentrated in eight states along Venezuela's borders with Brazil, Guyana, and Colombia, and the majority groups are the Wayuu west , the Warao east , the Yanomami south , and the Pemon southeast. Although the country is mostly monolingual Spanish, many languages are spoken in Venezuela. Wayuu is the most spoken indigenous language with , speakers.
Immigrants, in addition to Spanish, speak their own languages. Chinese , , Portuguese ,  and Italian , ,  are the most spoken languages in Venezuela after the official language of Spanish. English is the most widely used foreign language in demand and is spoken by many professionals, academics, and members of the upper and middle classes as a result of oil exploration by foreign companies, in addition to its acceptance as a lingua franca.
Culturally, English is common in southern towns like El Callao , for the English-speaking native influence evident in folk songs and calypso Venezuelan and French with English voices. English was brought by Trinidadian and other British West Indies immigrants. Other languages spoken by large communities in the country are Basque and Galician , among others. Religion in Venezuela according to the census.
There are small but influential Muslim , Buddhist , and Jewish communities. Buddhism in Venezuela is practiced by over 52, people. The Buddhist community is made up mainly of Chinese , Japanese , and Koreans. The Jewish community has shrunk in recent years due to rising antisemitism in Venezuela ,      with the population declining from 22, in  to less than 7, in The culture of Venezuela is a melting pot, which includes mainly three different families: The indigenous, African, and Spanish.
The first two cultures were in turn differentiated according to the tribes. Acculturation and assimilation, typical of a cultural syncretism, caused an arrival at the current Venezuelan culture, similar in many respects to the rest of Latin America, although the natural environment means that there are important differences. The indigenous influence is limited to a few words of vocabulary and gastronomy and many place names. The African influence in the same way, in addition to musical instruments like the drum.
The Spanish influence was predominant due to the colonization process and the socioeconomic structure it created and in particular came from the regions of Andalusia and Extremadura, the places of origin of most settlers in the Caribbean during the colonial era. An example of this includes buildings, music, the Catholic religion, and language.
Spanish influences are evident in bullfights and certain features of gastronomy.
Al Diablo Con La Crisis (Spanish, Paperback)
Venezuela was also enriched by other streams of Indian and European origin in the 19th century, especially from France. In the latest stage in the major cities and regions oil of U. For example, from United States comes the influence of taste for baseball, US-style fast food, and current architectural constructions. Venezuelan art was initially dominated by religious motifs. However, in the late 19th century, artists began emphasizing historical and heroic representations of the country's struggle for independence. Venezuelan literature originated soon after the Spanish conquest of the mostly pre-literate indigenous societies.
The national musical instrument is the cuatro. The Zulian gaita is also a very popular style, generally performed during Christmas. The national dance is the joropo. In the last years, Classical Music has had great performances. The orchestra is the pinnacle of El Sistema , a publicly financed voluntary sector music education program now being emulated in other countries.
Afro-Venezuelan musical traditions are most intimately related to the festivals of the "black folk saints" San Juan and St. Specific songs are related to the different stages of the festival and of the procession, when the saints start their yearly paseo — stroll — through the community to dance with their people. The origins of baseball in Venezuela is unclear, although it is known that the sport was being played in the nation by the late 19th century.
The immense popularity of baseball in the country makes Venezuela a rarity among its South American neighbors— association football is the dominant sport in the continent. Although not as popular in Venezuela as the rest of South America, football, spearheaded by the Venezuela national football team is gaining popularity as well. The sport is also noted for having an increased focus during the World Cup.
Venezuela is also home to former Formula 1 driver, Pastor Maldonado. The Venezuelan cuisine, one of the most varied in the region, reflects the climatic contrasts and cultures coexisting in Venezuela. The literacy rate for the adult population was already Currently, large numbers of Venezuelan graduates seek for a future elsewhere due to the country's troubled economy and heavy crime rate.
In a study titled Venezolana Community Abroad. Venezuela has a national universal health care system. Infant mortality in Venezuela was 19 deaths per 1, births for , lower than the South American average by comparison, the U. Venezuela had a total of plants for sewage treatment. During the economic crisis observed under President Maduro's presidency, medical professionals were forced to perform outdated treatments on patients. Retrieved 17 January From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the period when it was known as the "Republic of Venezuela" from to , see Republic of Venezuela.
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Venezuela disambiguation. Gloria al Bravo Pueblo English: Area controlled by Venezuela shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green. Cult image sculpted in ceramic, Los Roques Archipelago. Petroglyph in the Waraira Repano National Park.
Spanish colonization of the Americas and Colonial Venezuela. Venezuelan War of Independence. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela. View of the tepuis, Kukenan and Roraima , in the Gran Sabana.
Tepuis are among the attractions of the park, these mountains are among the oldest exposed formations on the planet. Environmental issues in Venezuela. Government of Venezuela and Politics of Venezuela. Foreign relations of Venezuela. National Bolivarian Armed Forces of Venezuela. Law of Venezuela and Crime in Venezuela. Murder rate murder per , citizens from to