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Table of contents
- Sepoy Mutiny of 1857
- Pass it on: The Secret that Preceded the Indian Rebellion of | History | Smithsonian
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- First Crimean War: The Indian connection & parallels with current Crimea conflict
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And if they could gain that, then the whole eastern Mediterranean was in their grasp and so the approach to Arabia and India.
Sepoy Mutiny of 1857
The British knew this and worried about Russia much as we do about China today. When the Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce, which would become The Times of India, launched in November , among the first long articles it published was a multi-part series by a Dr McNeil describing Russia in detail, with particular emphasis on its persecution of religious minorities: Read more on Russia. Real Estate Investments Redefined: Fixed income meets real estate - see why NRIs invest here! Daily wager struggles to save baby girl from deadly disease.
Afraid of bears on D-St? You may just need Vitamin D3. The right financial assets to invest in for your grandkids. Why the code never gets old in Indian IT.
My Saved Articles Sign in Sign up. Find this comment offensive? This will alert our moderators to take action Name Reason for reporting: Foul language Slanderous Inciting hatred against a certain community Others. Your Reason has been Reported to the admin. To see your saved stories, click on link hightlighted in bold. The reports revealed that British officers were allowed an extended series of appeals if convicted or accused of brutality or crimes against Indians.
Concerning matters of extortion in collecting public revenue, the report indicates that officers had free rein of any methods at their disposal Marx Torture became a method for financial exploitation in colonial India, and was challenged by a petition from the Madras Native Association presented in January of In addition to torture, the Company levied extremely large taxes on the Indian people.
A man could not travel twenty miles without paying toll at a river ferry, farmed out by the Company to private speculators. The military history of the rebellion is straightforward. An incident occurred on February 25th of that year when the 19th regiment mutinied at Berhampore, and the 34th Regiment rebelled at Barrackpore on the 31st of March.
Pass it on: The Secret that Preceded the Indian Rebellion of | History | Smithsonian
At Berhampore, the regiment allowed one of its men to advance with a loaded musket upon the parade-ground in front of a line and open fire on his superior officer; a battle ensued. April saw fires at Allahabad, Agra, an Ambala, but the spark that lit the powder keg went off on May 9th in Meerut. Members of the 3rd regiment of light cavalry were awaiting sentencing and imprisonment for refusal to obey orders and to put the Lee-Enfield.
Once imprisoned, the 11th and 20th cavalry assembled and broke rank and turned on their commanding officers.
After liberating the 3rd regiment, chaos ensued in Meerut, and the rebels engaged the remaining British Troops. Meerut was the singlemost evenly balanced station in India in terms of the numbers of British and Indian soldiers. Both Collier and Marx indicate that the rebellion would have ended there had Major-General William Hewitt cut off the rebel army at the bridge between Meerut and Delhi, some 40 miles away, with added weapons Collier The 38th, 54th, and 74th regiments of infantry and native artillery under Bahkt Khan c.
June marked the battle of Kanpur Cawnpore. Nana Sahib sent word to Sir Hugh Wheeler, commander of the British forces at Cawnpore warning of the attack, guaranteeing him safe passage.
First Crimean War: The Indian connection & parallels with current Crimea conflict
On June 27, Nana Sahib broke the pact and trapped Wheeler in his palace. By July, when Nana Sahib had captured Gwalior, he was reinstated as prince.
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The siege of Lucknow lasted roughly from July 1st to August 31st. The commanding British officer, Sir Henry Lawrence, died early on during the siege. By July 25th two-thirds of the British forces had retreated across the river and Delhi had been taken by early September. Bahadur Shah, the last surviving Mogul ruler was installed as ruler and the devastating battle between rebel and British forces for control Delhi ensued.
As the siege wore on the Punjabi forces fighting for the British began to weary and there was talk of a retreat. Roberts, Coopland, Alexander Duff and many others regarded it as a long concocted Mohammedan conspiracy against the supremacy and rule of the English in India. John William Kaye and C B Malleson were of the view that the rebellion as a joint endeavour of the two great communities -- Hindus and Muslims. John Bruce Norton regarded the uprising as a rebellion of the people rather than merely a mutiny of the soldiers.
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Many English writers, such as Malleson and Kaye, subscribed to this view and considered the uprising of as an organised campaign to drive away the English from India. Benjamin Disraeli, the British prime minister, while speaking in the House of Commons, recognised the real character of the upheaval and declared the movement as a national revolt.
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Jawaharlal Nehru also wrote: However, R C Majumdar expressed a radically different view. He said that the 'so- called First National war of Independence in is neither First, nor National, nor a war of Independence'.
He holds the view that a general revolt or a war of Independence necessarily involves a definite plan and organisation, broad in perspective. The uprising of was however limited only to a greater part of UP and a narrow zone of its east, west and south. Historians remain divided on whether the rebellion can properly be considered a war of Indian independence. Arguments against this include the fact that a united India did not exist at the time in political terms or that the rebellion remained confined to the ranks of the Bengal army which nonetheless was the largest of the armies in India and in North-Central India.
Arguments in favour say that even though the rebellion had various causes sepoy grievances, British high-handedness, the Doctrine of Lapse, etc , most of the rebel sepoys set out to revive the old Mughal Empire, which signified a national symbol for them, instead of heading home or joining services of their regional principalities, which would not have been unreasonable if their revolt were only inspired by grievances.