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Also, the French film industry is closer to being entirely self-sufficient than any country in Europe. In , France was the 2nd largest exporter of films in the world after the United States, a study made in April shows the excellent image which French cinema maintains around the world, being the most appreciated cinema after American cinema. After World War I, the French film industry suffered because of a lack of capital, when film studios in Europe began to fail, many European countries began to set import barriers.
Cinema of the United States — The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. Since the s, the American film industry has grossed more money every year than that of any other country, in , Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In , the worlds first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City, the United States was in the forefront of sound film development in the following decades.
Since the early 20th century, the U. Griffith was central to the development of film grammar. Orson Welless Citizen Kane is frequently cited in critics polls as the greatest film of all time. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, muybridges accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices that would capture such motion. In the United States, Thomas Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee, New Jersey was the motion picture capital of America.
The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edisons Black Maria, in , a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. They were quickly followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee, such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. Chelsea, Manhattan was also frequently used, other major centers of film production also included Chicago, Florida, Texas, California, and Cuba. The film patents wars of the early 20th century led to the spread of film companies across the U.
S and they started filming on a vacant lot near Georgia Street in downtown Los Angeles. While there, the decided to explore new territories, traveling several miles north to Hollywood. Griffith then filmed the first movie shot in Hollywood, In Old California, a Biograph melodrama about California in the 19th century.
Griffith stayed there for months and made several films before returning to New York, after hearing about Griffiths success in Hollywood, in , many movie-makers headed west to avoid the fees imposed by Thomas Edison, who owned patents on the movie-making process. Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in Hollywood in , Californias more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the eventual shift of virtually all filmmaking to the West Coast by the s. Slasher film — Slasher films are a subgenre of horror films, typically involving a violent psychopath stalking and murdering several people, usually with bladed tools.
Cinema da Boca do Lixo | Revolvy
Some critics cite Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho as an early influential slasher film, Wes Cravens satirical film Scream renewed public interest in the genre, and several of the original slasher franchises were revived or rebooted in the years following the release of Scream. Many films in the genre continue to attract cult followings. Often the victim survives, but is damaged in some way by his or her experience with the killer, dika also believes that the genres appeal is rooted in the audiences feelings of catharsis, recreation, and displacement, which is related to sexual pleasure.
A common tropes featured in films is the final girl character. This trope is often discussed in introductory film courses, the character often cited as the genres first prototypical final girl is Laurie Strode in Halloween. Final girls, who escape the killers advances by a films end, are often virgins and have at least one female friend who is portrayed as sexually active. Another trope is the anti-heroic characterization of the films villain, most slasher franchises follow the continued efforts of a specific villain, rather than the killers victims, who do not often reappear in sequels.
Some critics cite horror plays produced at the Grand Guignol in the late 19th century as having influenced the contemporary slasher genre, others reference the visceral images of violence in films such as Maurice Tourneurs The Lunatics, a silent film adaptation of a Grand Guignol play.
Under the Hays Code, even references to sexuality and brutality were deemed unacceptable. Crime writer Mary Roberts Rinehart was an influence on the emerging horror genre. Her novel The Circular Staircase, later adapted into film as The Bat, both films employed the theme of town dwellers pitted against strange country folk, a recurring theme in later horror films. George Archainbauds Thirteen Women tells the story of a college sorority whose former members are set against one another by a vengeful peer, as they die, the culprit crosses out their yearbook photo, a device used in subsequent slasher films such as Prom Night and Graduation Day.
The movies climax takes place on a train, something echoed in Terror Train, other early examples of the maniac seeking revenge trope include The Terror, based on the play by Edgar Wallace. Val Lewton produced Jacques Tourneurs The Leopard Man, a film about a murderer covering up his crimes against women in a town by framing an escaped show leopard. Robert Siodmaks The Spiral Staircase, based on Ethel Whites novel Some Must Watch, the helpless but sympathetic heroine became commonplace in later horror films, along with black-gloved killers, point of view shots, and jump scares.
Exploitation film — An exploitation film is a film that attempts to succeed financially by exploiting current trends, niche genres, or lurid content.
Cinema da Boca do Lixo
Exploitation films are generally low-quality B movies, even so, they sometimes attract critical attention and cult followings. Some of these films, such as Night of the Living Dead, set trends, Exploitation films may feature suggestive or explicit sex, sensational violence, drug use, nudity, freaks, gore, the bizarre, destruction, rebellion, and mayhem. Such films were first seen in their form in the early s. Their producers used sensational elements to attract audiences lost to television, since the s, this genre has also received attention in academic circles, where it is sometimes called paracinema.
Exploitation is very defined, and has more to do with the viewers perception of the film than with the films actual content. Titillating material and artistic content often coexist, as demonstrated by the fact that art films that failed to pass the Hays Code were often shown in the same grindhouses as exploitation films. The audiences of art and exploitation film are considered to have tastes that reject the mainstream Hollywood offerings. Exploitation films have often exploited news events in the public consciousness that a major film studio may avoid because of the time required to produce a major film.
Child Bride, for example, tackled the issue of older men marrying very young women in the Ozarks, other issues, such as drug use in films like Reefer Madness, attracted audiences that major film studios would usually avoid in order to keep their respectable, mainstream reputations. With enough incentive, however, major studios might become involved, as Warner Bros. Mom and Dad, a film about pregnancy and childbirth, was promoted in lurid terms and she Shoulda Said No. Their rapid production schedule allows them to advantage of publicity attached to major studio films.
For example, Edward L. Ulmers film Beyond the Time Barrier, as a result, many major studios, producers, and stars keep their projects secret.
Grindhouse is an American term for a theater that mainly showed exploitation films and it is thought to stem from the defunct burlesque theaters on 42nd Street, New York, where bump n grind dancing and striptease used to be on the bill. As the drive-in movie theater began to decline in the s and s, One solution was to book exploitation films.
B movie — A B movie is a low-budget commercial movie, but one that is not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, although the U. In either usage, most B movies represent a particular genre—the Western was a Golden Age B movie staple, while low-budget science-fiction, early B movies were often part of series in which the star repeatedly played the same character. Almost always shorter than the films they were paired with. The term connoted a general perception that B movies were inferior to the more handsomely budgeted headliners, latter-day B movies still sometimes inspire multiple sequels, but series are less common.
As the average running time of top-of-the-line films increased, so did that of B pictures, the term is also now used loosely to refer to some higher-budgeted, mainstream films with exploitation-style content, usually in genres traditionally associated with the B movie. From their beginnings to the present day, B movies have provided both for those coming up in the profession and others whose careers are waning. Celebrated filmmakers such as Anthony Mann and Jonathan Demme learned their craft in B movies and they are where actors such as John Wayne and Jack Nicholson first became established, and they have provided work for former A movie actors, such as Vincent Price and Karen Black.
Some actors, such as Bela Lugosi, Eddie Constantine and Pam Grier, the term B actor is sometimes used to refer to a performer who finds work primarily or exclusively in B pictures. These cheaper films allowed the studios to derive value from facilities. Their movies, with short running times, targeted theaters that had to economize on rental and operating costs, particularly small-town and urban neighborhood venues.
The second feature, which screened before the main event. The majors clearance rules favoring their affiliated theaters prevented the independents timely access to top-quality films, the low-budget picture of the s thus evolved into the second feature, the B movie, of Hollywoods Golden Age. The major studios, at first resistant to the double feature, all established B units to provide films for the expanding second-feature market.
Wiki as never seen before with video and photo galleries, discover something new today. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from " https: Cinema of Brazil Exploitation films Film genres Movements in cinema. Films that are difficult to categorize into a genre are often less successful, as such, film genres are also useful in the areas of marketing, film criticism and the analysis of consumption 2. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama 3. After World War I, the French film industry suffered because of a lack of capital, when film studios in Europe began to fail, many European countries began to set import barriers 4.
Robert Siodmaks The Spiral Staircase, based on Ethel Whites novel Some Must Watch, the helpless but sympathetic heroine became commonplace in later horror films, along with black-gloved killers, point of view shots, and jump scares 6. As the drive-in movie theater began to decline in the s and s, One solution was to book exploitation films 7. Domingos Jorge Velho , a notable bandeirante. At this location, the city was founded in The current building is a reconstruction made in the late 20th century, based on the Jesuit college and church that were erected at the site in Brazil listen ; Portuguese: Painting showing the arrest of Tiradentes ; he was sentenced to death for his involvement in the best known movement for independence in Colonial Brazil.
Cinema of France refers to the film industry based in France. Gaumont palace in Paris, c. Alain Delon was known as much for his beauty as for his acting career and holds an enduring status as a leading man in French cinema. Brigitte Bardot was one of the most famous French actresses in the s. The clock scene from Safety Last! Hollywood Walk of Fame. A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial movie, but not an arthouse film. Vincent Price headlines a cast of veteran character actor s along with a young Jack Nicholson. Republic Pictures ' Pals of the Saddle lasts just 55 minutes, average for a Three Mesquiteers adventure.
Motorpsycho was not hard to market. It had director Russ Meyer 's reputation for eroticism; the biker theme "MURDERcycles" that would soon prove its popularity in historic fashion; and that trendy title word—psycho. Often called "the worst film ever made", Ed Wood 's ultra-low-budget Plan 9 from Outer Space has become the most famous of all Z movie s.
Monument to the victims of torture in Recife.
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