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- Information theory - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
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Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change a kind of Moore's law: Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analysed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: In an academic context, the Association for Computing Machinery defines IT as "undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations Companies in the information technology field are often discussed as a group as the "tech sector" or the "tech industry".
In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems ". The business value of information technology lies in the automation of business processes, provision of information for decision making, connecting businesses with their customers, and the provision of productivity tools to increase efficiency.
Employment distribution of computer systems design and related services, . Employment in the computer systems and design related services industry, in thousands, . Occupational growth and wages in computer systems design and related services, . Projected percent change in employment in selected occupations in computer systems design and related services, . Projected average annual percent change in output and employment in selected industries, .
The field of information ethics was established by mathematician Norbert Wiener in the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with Informatics. For other uses, see IT disambiguation. For the Indian company, see Infotech Enterprises. History of computing hardware. This useful conceptual term has since been converted to what purports to be concrete use, but without the reinforcement of definition Retrieved 9 February Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 12 January Scott , Optimizing and Assessing Information Technology: Bureau of Labor Statistics". Concepts and Techniques 3rd ed. Proceedings of HMM , Springer, pp. Data warehouse Geoportal Informatics engineering Information management Information processing Information systems Information technology Web portal.
Archival informatics Astroinformatics Biodiversity informatics Bioimage informatics Bioinformatics Business informatics Cheminformatics Community informatics Computational biology Computational informatics Consumer health informatics Development informatics Disease informatics Education informatics Energy informatics Engineering Informatics Environmental informatics Forest informatics Geoinformatics Health informatics Hydroinformatics Imaging informatics Irrigation informatics Laboratory informatics Legal informatics Materials informatics Medical informatics Music informatics Neuroinformatics Pervasive Informatics Public health informatics Social informatics Technical informatics Translational research informatics Urban informatics.
Retrieved from " https: Information technology Media technology Information-theoretically secure algorithms Computers. Pages containing links to subscription-only content Webarchive template wayback links Use dmy dates from September All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.
Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. This page was last edited on 19 September , at The quantum part of the course will commence with a discussion of open systems and of how they necessitate a generalization of the basic postulates of Quantum Mechanics. Topics will include quantum states, quantum channels, generalized measurements, the Kraus Representation Theorem, Schmidt decomposition and purification.
The concept of entanglement which has no classical analogue will be introduced and its usefulness as a resource in Quantum Information Theory will be briefly discussed. This will be followed by a study of the quantum analogue of the Shannon entropy, namely the von Neumann entropy.
Its properties and its interpretation as the data compression limit of a quantum information source will be discussed. Schumacher's theorem on data compression for memoryless quantum information sources will be discussed in detail. It will be shown how tools developed in Quantum Statistical Physics can be employed to find the data compression limit for a class of quantum information sources with memory.
Some examples of quantum channels will be given and the different capacities of a quantum channel will be discussed in brief. Finally, one of the leading open questions in Quantum Information Theory — namely, additivity of certain quantities characterizing a quantum channel, will be introduced and some recent work concerning it will be discussed. Naftali Tishby, in Les Houches , Information theory has a special place among theoretical approaches to neurobiology.
While it is the framework that can provide general model independent bounds on information processing in biological systems, it is also one of the most elusive, misunderstood and abused conceptual theories. Most introductory texts to the theory follow Shannon's historical bottom-up construction. For the non-mathematician most of the intuition is lost at that point. It takes much more efforts to reveal the real beautify and integrity of Shannon's theory, that emerge only with the introduction of lossy communication and general cost and distortion tradeoffs.
As a result many scientists treat applications of Information Theory with great suspicion. Those notes is an attempt to do it differently. In the first part I try to introduce Shannon's theory in a non-standard top-down perspective. I begin with a general discussion of optimal tradeoffs, such as cost versus distortion or complexity versus accuracy. I then argue that Shannon in fact showed us — within the context his point-to-point communication model — that optimal cost-distortion tradeoff can be decomposed into two fundamental and dual relationships, the Rate-Distortion and the Capacity-Cost functions.
In the second part such matched balance of information between compression and prediction is extended beyond the communication model to quantify optimal relevant representation of data. It also quantifies the efficiency of systems through their optimal complexity-accuracy tradeoff. The third part is a review of some of the application of IB to clustering, dimensionality reduction, and multivariate data analysis using the language of graphical models.
The style of the notes is informal and evokes technical arguments only when truly needed, to keep the flow and the intuitive nature of the exposition. Andrea Montanari, in Les Houches , Information theory and the very idea of random code ensembles were first formulated by Claude Shannon in [ 10 ]. Random code constructions were never taken seriously from a practical point of view until the invention of turbo codes by Claude Berrou and Alain Glavieux in [ 11 ].
This motivated a large amount of theoretical work on sparse graph codes and iterative decoding methods. For an introduction to the subject and a more comprhensive list of references see [ 13 ] as well as the upcoming book [ 14 ]. See also [ 15 ] for a more general introduction to belief propagation with particular attention to coding applications. The conditional entropy or mutual information for this systems was initially computed using non-rigorous statistical mechanics methods [ 17—19 ] using a correspondence first found by Nicolas Sourlas [ 20 ].
These results were later proved to provide a lower bound using Guerra's interpolation technique [ 21 ], cf. Finally, an independent rigorous approach based on the area theorem was developed in [ 9 , 23 ] and matching upper bounds were proved in particular cases in [ 22 ]. Shannon's information theory is one of the greatest technical achievements of the twentieth century. Shannon's theory defines the ultimate fidelity limits that communication and information processing systems can attain under a wide variety of situations.
Be that as it may, how relevant such an approach is to understanding how the brain processes information can certainly be questioned. Information theory provides few answers when it comes to analyzing a pre-existing system whose components and constraints are only vaguely known. In neuroscience applications, the simple act of applying a stochastic stimulus does little to respond to the issues. More basic and interesting would be how to assess how well a stimulus or its features are represented by a neural response and how well a neural group extracts features from its input.
The Kullback-Leibler distance is the information-theoretic suggestion, but estimating it for a population response can require much data: Producing accurate estimates even for small populations could demand more data than could be reasonably measured. They can cope with any communication and processing scenario, but this capability comes at an experimental price of demanding data to fill in the details.
Do note that we have followed in the footsteps of many other authors in ignoring the existence of feedback and its corollary adaptivity. Feedback is a notoriously difficult concept to handle with the traditional tools of information theory , but it would be foolish to discount the role of feedback connections when they are so prominent anatomically even in the most peripheral sensory pathways. Some recent work has sparked interest in feedback in the information theory community Massey, ; Venkataramanan and Pradhan, ; however, none of it has yet been translated to a neural setting. Furthermore, how can systems that adapt to their previous inputs learn from them fit into the rather static formulation of classic information theory?
If this could be accomplished, it would be interesting to determine the performance limits of adaptive systems. Information theorists are actively examining this topic. Results on this front would help define the backdrop for appreciating the brain's performance capabilities, but may not shed light on how well it actually works.
Zvi Israel, in Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience , Information theory studies reveal that the information encoded by the simultaneous activity of neurons can be independent, redundant or synergistic Schneidman et al. These activity modes are related to the level of pair-wise correlations between the neuronal elements of the network. Usually, we can assume that a correlated network is redundant. In that case, the information encoded by the neuronal population will be smaller than the sum of information encoded by its single elements.
Neuronal networks consist of millions of weakly coupled elements neurons , with a rich plethora of reciprocal, feed-forward and feedback connections. Any physical system with such an architecture faces a huge tendency to synchronize. It is therefore not surprising that synchrony of neural networks characterizes many disease states e. Indeed, our previous theoretical models have suggested that the computational goal of the basal ganglia networks is to maximize the representation of the cortical information by using decorrelation mechanisms controlled by dopamine reinforcement signals Bar-Gad et al.
We therefore suggest that the consequence of striatal dopamine depletion is the loss of basal ganglia-independent activity and the development of synchronization between neurons as well as synchronous oscillations. As in many physical systems the neuronal synchronization phenomenon can be the result of phase transition. Accordingly, the amount of synchronization in the network might not be a linear function of the striatal dopamine level, and at some critical point, the number of synchronous neurons in the basal ganglia network can increase exponentially. A growing amount of evidence suggests that there is no direct coupling between the basal ganglia synchronous oscillations and PD tremor, or other symptoms see also Chapter Several studies have reported that basal ganglia oscillations appear after the development of the PD symptoms Leblois et al.
Similarly, synchronous oscillations are not always detected in the basal ganglia of MPTP-treated monkeys. Finally, basal ganglia oscillations might be evoked by the peripheral tremor and the afferent information from the muscles to the central nervous system Rivlin-Etzion et al. Another confounding property is the difference in oscillation frequencies encountered at different parts of the system 5 Hz in the peripheral tremor, 5 and 10 Hz in the cortex and the GPi, and 5 and 15 Hz in the STN.
We therefore suggest that the PD symptoms and the basal ganglia oscillations reflect a complex, non-linear feed-forward, lateral and feed-back system. As shown in Figure This merging of the 10 and the 15 Hz oscillations may drive down-stream neural activity at their common mode — 5 Hz rhythm Fig.
The information theory approach forces the anthropologist to be explicit. Exactly that has to be made explicit which normally remains implicit. If the typical characteristics of a situation are grasped, hence the stereotypical, the standard-like is stressed but raised to a higher level of abstraction; we can talk about schemata and cultural models which partly replace the older term of the folk model. All the knowledge we acquire, remember, and communicate about this world is neither a simple reflection of this world nor does it consist of a series of categories as ethnoscience assumed , but it is organized into different situation-relevant, prototypical, simplified sequences of events.
Information theory - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
We basically think in simplified worlds: What is more, these models are probabilistic and partial; they are actual frames we can use to react to new situations as well. They are world-proposing yet cannot be directly observed, since they are not presented but merely represented by the behavior of the people. They are models of the mind and in the mind.