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Here is the latest buzz on some of Mother Nature's most perfect remedies! Bee products are nutritional and medicinal powerhouses having antiseptic.
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Immortality Alchemy, a company based in California, treat the bees ethically. Another plus is that the royal jelly is dried so you can easily add it to smoothies or yogurt. I mention this because one downside of royal jelly is that it tastes horrible. If you look at a honeybee in flight, she often is carrying two little orange balls of pollen on each side.

It takes a bee eight hours a day for one month to gather a teaspoon dose of pollen. And each pellet contain more than two million flower pollen grains. Pollen, used to feed their young, is one of the most nourishing foods on the planet. It contains all the essentials, such as amino acids, vitamins including B complex and folate acid , and protein.

It contains more amino acids than beef. It is extremely important to know where you're getting your bee pollen from. Because according to Greenpeace, one teeny grain has been found to contain up to 17 pesticides in it. Group 8 Created with Sketch. Group 7 Created with Sketch.

Email Created with Sketch. Group 9 Created with Sketch. Group 10 Created with Sketch. Group 11 Created with Sketch. Group 4 Created with Sketch. Raw Honey In her six-week life span, a honeybee will only produce a quarter of a teaspoon of honey. You'll learn all about these amazing gifts from the apiary in this fully revised guide to purchasing, storing, and using bee pollen, propolis, honey, and royal jelly. In addition to providing the latest medical research on the health benefits of bee products, this updated edition provides a wealth of suggestions and recipes for using bee products for health and healing.

The excellent tips on using bee products to prevent common infections are essential for every household, especially now that many bacteria are showing increased resistance to antibiotics. She is an expert in environmental remediation and trace elements in the environment and food supply. Infection with parasites usually occurs upon contact with an infected surface.

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The symptoms of parasitic infection of the GI tract include abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, and nausea. Propolis has been reported to have several biological efficacies including anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities Figure 3. There are a few studies that reported the clinical use of propolis in the treatment of viral infections. In one study, the in vitro effect of propolis ethanolic extract on the growth and adherence of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites was evaluated [ 91 ]. Propolis was shown to inhibit growth and adherence of the trophozoites.

It also promoted the detachment of these parasitic organisms. Another experimental study showed that propolis has antihistaminergic, anti-inflammatory, antiacid, and anti- H. Widespread causes of indicative vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis BV and vulvovaginal candidiasis VVC. The depletion of Lactobacillus spp.

The infection is accompanied by an overgrowth of vaginal pathogens such as yeast-like fungi and an elevated vaginal pH. Diabetes patients are more prone to having vaginal infections caused by Candida albicans. In addition to providing antibiotic and antimycotic actions, propolis provides early symptomatic relief due to its anesthetic properties.

Thus, propolis may be used for Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC and can be an alternative option for patients who are unable to take antibiotics due to a concurrent pharmacological treatment. The effectiveness of propolis against conventional antifungal nystatin has shown satisfactory results. Propolis extract solution PES also show low toxicity in human cells and can be an alternative treatment for chronic vaginitis. The oral cavity has an abundant bacterial microflora and excessive bacterial growth may lead to several conditions such as oral diseases. Studies have shown that propolis may restrict bacterial-plaque development and periodontitis-causing pathogens because of its antibacterial properties [ 95 ].


Propolis solutions exert a selectively lower cytotoxic action on human gum fibroblasts compared to chlorhexidine. In addition to that, mouthwash containing propolis have shown effectiveness in healing surgical wounds. This encourages the use of propolis in solutions used as mouthwash [ 96 ]. Propolis solution can also be used to disinfect toothbrushes [ 97 ].

Propolis extracts have also helped cure halitosis, a condition where an individual experiences unpleasant breath predominantly due to poor oral hygiene. Propolis toothpaste or mouthwash is used for their ability to reduce growth of bacterial plaque and pathogenic microflora that causes gingivitis and periodontitis.

Thus, propolis also plays a role as a therapeutic agent [ 95 ]. A study reported that propolis has potential towards human breast cancer treatment due to its antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis on human breast cancer cells. It also exhibits low or no toxicity towards normal cells due to its selectively toxic properties against tumor cells and is believed that propolis may become a prominent agent to treat breast cancer [ 99 ].

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Another study investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis on melanoma tumor growth has shown that galangin, a common flavonoid in propolis remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma cells in vitro [ ]. Turkish propolis has also been shown to exert a selective cytotoxic action on human lung cancer cells by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and caspase activity and by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential. This indicates that propolis is able to minimize the cancer cell proliferation [ ].

Propolis is widely used in dermatological products such as creams and ointments. Its use in skin care products is based on its antiallergy, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial properties, and promotive action on collagen synthesis. A recent study comparing the effect of propolis and the conventional drug silver sulfadiazine showed that propolis notably decreased free radical activity in healing the wound beds which supported the repair process. A clinical study on acne patients using ethanolic extract propolis showed its high efficacy in the treatment of acne vulgaris [ ].

Propolis also shows positive collagen metabolism in the wound during the healing process by increasing the collagen content of tissues [ ].

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A study demonstrated the use of propolis as an alternative therapy for wound healing to promote wound closure, especially under conditions such as human diabetic foot ulcer DFU [ ]. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the wound-healing activity of propolis is shown in Figure 4. Fibronectin FN is a multifunctional glycoprotein of high molecular weight, which influences the structural stability and functional properties of various organs and tissues Stoffels, The fibronectin matrix and its accumulation are essential for cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell adhesion, apoptosis, cellular signaling, angiogenesis, collagen biosynthesis, re-epithelialization, clot formation, and platelet activity.

Fibronectins are also important in the repair mechanisms for conditions such as glycoprotein intensified degradation, which leads to a defective cellular microenvironment and affliction in the structure of granulation tissues. This condition may prevent the wound from healing or inhibit the repair process. The accumulation of fibronectin in the extracellular space also modulates the secretion of other repairing components such as collagen type I and type III, tenascin, laminin, and fibrillin. Propolis has demonstrated favorable effects in the wound-healing process such as antifungal and antibacterial activities due to its components such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds, terpenes, and enzymes.

It also reduces the activity of free radicals ROS in the wound bed favoring the repair process. Propolis has also demonstrated great effects on collagen metabolism by increasing the amount of both type I and type III collagens in tissues. The reduction of ROS and accumulation of collagen aid in balancing the extracellular matrix and generating granulation tissues. Propolis is a potential apitherapeutic agent that is able to modify the metabolism of fibronectin by developing a fibrous network of extracellular matrix and inhibiting fibronectin disintegration.


Both the components play important roles in regulating the expression of fibronectins. Studies have also shown that mobility and migration of epithelial cells are dependent on reduced fibronectin content in the extracellular matrix. Reduced amounts of this glycoprotein in propolis effectively treated wounds and produced granulation tissues. Therefore, the influence of propolis on fibronectin metabolism may alter the mechanism of wound healing [ ].

Several health benefits of propolis related to gastrointestinal, gynecological care, oral health, skin care, and oncological treatments are tabulated in Table 2. Royal jelly is one of the honey bee products which have potential towards various human disease treatments. Figure 5 depicts the biological activities of royal jelly as an antioxidant, antitumor, antiaging, neurotropic, and anti-inflammatory agent.

A randomized clinical study has reported that royal jelly is effective in reducing premenstrual syndrome [ ]. A randomized clinical trial study reported the effectiveness of royal jelly in treatment of urinary problems and promotion of life quality in postmenopausal women [ ]. Royal jelly has protective effects against Oxymetholone-induced reproductive toxin OXM , which is an active steroid derived from testosterone as a defense mechanism. Recent studies have reported that royal jelly protects against the oxidative injuries in the mouse testes and that it contains spermatogenesis-stimulating compounds, which inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines [ ].

Another study on male rabbits has indicated its positive effects on fertility, semen quality and output, and concentration of testosterone, total proteins, and glucose in the blood. The number of dead and abnormal sperm decreased with the reduction of biomarkers of oxidative stress [ ]. Royal jelly has been traditionally used to treat menopause symptoms by rebalancing the hormonal concentration in the blood, decreasing follicle-stimulating hormones FSH and increasing the estrogen concentration in aged mice.

A study showed that the changes in hormone levels resulting from royal jelly increased the amount of ovulated oocytes and their quality in aged rats [ ]. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the antiaging activity of royal jelly are shown in Figure 6. The quality of oocytes decreases with age and the depleted follicle pool hastens hormonal dysregulation.

This hormonal dysfunction is responsible for the reduction in ovarian follicle size and oocyte quality.

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Oxidative stress is the main cause of aging. Increased oxidative stress and continuous ovulation causes loss of antioxidants such as SOD, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase GST. It also minimizes the size of the follicle pool and oocyte quality. Higher expression of Bax and lower expression of Bcl-2 also promote aging and reduces oocyte quality.

FSH and luteinizing hormone LH are the hormones involved in the aging process. Reduction of the follicle pool size results in an inadequate release of estrogen and inhibin, which results in a rise in FSH levels. This process then aids in the reduction of the follicle pool size and affects oocyte quality. This process promotes aging in the ovaries. This adaptation can be overcome by antiaging therapies such as supplemental consumption of royal jelly. The major active component present in royal jelly is hydroxyldecenoic acid. This compound enhances the synthesis of ovulation hormones, maintaining a lower expression of FSH and LH in young ovarian cells.

It is also efficient in preventing the depletion of follicle pool and in enhancing hormonal regulation. Thus, royal jelly helps in preventing the aging process and is an influential antiaging product [ ]. Poor mental state and performance such as in the case of Alzheimer's disease AD are mostly experienced by elderly individuals due to aging. Royal jelly stimulates physical and mental functions for the elderly and increases their appetite and weight. A study showed that royal jelly exerted neuroprotective effects in AD [ ].

The behavioral and neurochemical effect of royal jelly was chemically examined in aged rats. The study confirmed a better cognitive performance and increased the life span in the older animals that had been given royal jelly. Another study reported that royal jelly contains longevity-promoting factors and extends the lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans [ ]. Another study have also reported the improved mental health in human upon ingestion of royal jelly for six months [ ]. A few studies on the health benefits of royal jelly are given in Table 3.

Royal jelly enhances wound-healing activity. In both in vivo and in vitro wound-healing models, under the effect of royal jelly, human fibroblasts were able to migrate and increase levels of sphingolipids by decreasing the secretion and formation of collagen. Thus, royal jelly shortened the curing period of desquamated skin lesions [ ]. Another study on the use of royal jelly have also exhibited protective action on human skin against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging by promoting collagen production [ ].

Royal jelly dressing is also an effective way of treating diabetic foot ulcers besides standard treatments. This is due to its vasodilation effects around the affected wound, which can help to dilate the blood vessels to enhance blood flow. It also helps to prevents infections due to its antimicrobial activities [ ].

The present review focused on the potential health benefits of bee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly. These products are highly rich in active components such as flavonoids, phenolic acid, phenolic compounds, terpenes, and enzymes, which have biological functions in preventing some diseases and promoting good health. Honey, propolis, and royal jelly have distinct efficacies with significant nutritional properties and functional values. Thus, these bee products can be developed into potent apitherapeutic agents. However, some precautions need to be taken in case of allergens associated with bee products and in finding the right intake dosage.

Hence, it is necessary to conduct further studies to determine the critical mechanisms related to the pharmacological activities of these bee products and the appropriate amounts that can be taken in order to obtain promising health benefits.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Feb 17; Accepted Apr 9. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed.

Key Findings and Conclusions An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. Introduction Apiculture is the science and art of prolonging, sustaining, and retaining health by using products obtained from honeybee hives, such as honey, bee bread, bee venom, bee pollen, propolis, and royal jelly.

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Bioactive Compounds in Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly Honey, propolis, and royal jelly are highly rich in bioactive compounds Table 1. Table 1 Important bioactive compounds in honey, propolis, and royal jelly. Open in a separate window. Health Benefits of Honey 4. Wound Management Honey has traditionally been used to treat wounds, insect bites, burns, skin disorders, sores, and boils.

Pediatric Care Honey also controls skin damage near stomas, such as ileostomy and colostomy, by enhancing epithelialization of the afflicted skin surface [ 44 ]. Gastrointestinal GI Disorder Natural honey is composed of enzymes that facilitate the absorption of molecules, such as sugars and starch. Oral Health Honey is useful for the treatment of many oral diseases, including periodontal disease, stomatitis, and halitosis. Pharyngitis and Coughs Pharyngitis, commonly known as sore throat, is an acute infection induced by Streptococcus spp.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD is a mucosal infection caused by contents of abnormal gastric reflux into the esophagus and even the lungs. Dyspepsia, Gastritis, and Peptic Ulcer Dyspepsia is a chronic disease in which the GI organs, mainly the stomach and first part of the small intestine, function abnormally. Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis, known as stomach or gastric flu, causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Constipation and Diarrhea Chronic constipation is a common and multifarious illness characterized by intolerable defecation irregular stools and difficult stool passage.

Liver and Pancreatic Diseases Honey helps to soothe pain, balance liver systems, and neutralize toxins. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health Natural wild honey exerts cardioprotective and therapeutic impacts against epinephrine-induced cardiac disorders and vasomotor dysfunctions. Cancer and Oncogenesis 4. Breast Cancer Imbalance in estrogen signaling pathways and propagating levels of estrogens have important roles in breast cancer growth and propagation [ 83 ]. Colorectal Cancer Most colorectal cancers begin as a polyp, which generally starts on the inner lining of the colon or rectum and grows towards the center.

Health Benefits of Propolis 5. Gastrointestinal Disorder Infection with parasites usually occurs upon contact with an infected surface. Oral Health The oral cavity has an abundant bacterial microflora and excessive bacterial growth may lead to several conditions such as oral diseases. Oncological Treatment A study reported that propolis has potential towards human breast cancer treatment due to its antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis on human breast cancer cells.

Dermatological Care Propolis is widely used in dermatological products such as creams and ointments. Molecular mechanism targeting wound-healing activity of propolis. Table 2 Selected propolis activities according to the health benefits. Health Benefits of Royal Jelly Royal jelly is one of the honey bee products which have potential towards various human disease treatments. Reproductive Health A randomized clinical study has reported that royal jelly is effective in reducing premenstrual syndrome [ ]. Molecular mechanism responsible for the antiaging activity of royal jelly.

Neurodegenerative and Aging Diseases Poor mental state and performance such as in the case of Alzheimer's disease AD are mostly experienced by elderly individuals due to aging. Table 3 Reports on health benefits of royal jelly. Wound Healing Royal jelly enhances wound-healing activity. Conclusion and Future Prospects The present review focused on the potential health benefits of bee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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The role of honey in the management of wounds. Journal of Wound Care. Biological and therapeutic effects of honey produced by honey bees and stingless bees: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Apitherapy products for medicinal use. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine. Antifungal properties of Malaysian Tualang honey and stingless bee propolis against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. More than royal food-major royal jelly protein genes in sexuals and workers of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Royalactin induces queen differentiation in honeybees. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Advances in the analytical methods for determining the antioxidant properties of honey: Advances in the analysis of phenolic compounds in products derived from bees. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis.

Recent advances in the chemical composition of propolis. Separation of flavonoids and phenolic acids from propolis by capillary zone electrophoresis. Biological activity of bee propolis in health and disease. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Preparation and the functional properties of water extract and alkaline extract of royal jelly.

Royal jelly acid, hydroxy-transdecenoic acid, as a modulator of the innate immune responses. Bioactive compounds and health-promoting properties of royal jelly: Journal of Functional Foods. Changes in nutraceutical composition of lemon juices according to different industrial extraction systems. Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia. Functional properties of honey, propolis, and royal jelly. Journal of Food Science.