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Sie war die treibende Kraft hinter der Scheidung Heinrichs von seiner ersten Frau Spätestens seit Ende war Heinrichs VIII. in Anne Boleyn verliebt. sie allerdings auch kaum gehabt haben, da sie bei Anne Boleyns Tod erst zwei Welche Version zutrifft, ist nicht geklärt. Möge er noch lange über euch herrschen.
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- Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel
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If the translator is aware of the objectives underlying the measure a more reliable restitution of the intended measurement can result, while translators who are unaware of these objectives may draw unexpected meanings from the original tool We used only qualified translators who translated into German as their mother tongue In a second step the resulting German target versions G1-G3 of the measure were back-translated into English to foreclose mistakes occurred by the translation and to verify the semantic equivalence between the source language SL version and the target language TL version back-translation versions B1, B2, B3.
As next step, we conducted a multidisciplinary Consensus Panel. The aim of this panel was to produce a preliminary final version of the German DAP-R FB , which would be equal in semantic, idiomatic, empirical and conceptual way, based on the diverse forward- and backward translations received as described before. The panel met on 28 th of March and 9 th of April in and a preliminary final version was produced on 9 th of April.
To determine empirically the face validity of the proposed five dimensions of the DAP-R, we asked an independent group of 32 medical students, to place each item into, what they believe is the most conceptually appropriate category. The main study took place at the Heinrich Heine University. Attendees provided informed consent for participation, by finally transferring their results to our database, via a button at the end of the survey.
As for the confirmatory factor analysis, we set a sample size above participants First, missing data on the DAP-R were evaluated.
Missing data were replaced with the Expectation-Maximization algorithm for each subscale. After conducting descriptive statistics means, standard deviations and ranges , normal distribution of each subscale was evaluated with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Then, subsamples were assessed for systematic differences concerning age, gender, semester, educational background and prior experience with death.
Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel
In order to conduct the confirmatory factor analysis, the covariance matrix was introduced to AMOS 22 After introducing the data, maximum likelihood estimation was used and various goodness-of-fit estimations were analyzed to assess the fit of the data: As for the factor loadings, 34 suggested the following cut-offs: Demographic data of the participants are presented in Table 1.
We had participants from all semesters see Table 1. A total of The majority had previous experience with dying or death, but was not personally involved in these topics in the last four weeks see Table 1. Means and standard deviations of the five factors were similar to the data obtained in the original study of 13 see Table 3.
Internal consistency of the five subscales were in line with the original measure 13 and ranged from a low of. Similarly to the original version, our data indicated that the factors are quite independent. Only the Fear of Death factor correlated positively with Death Acceptance and both of them were negatively associated with the Neutral Acceptance see Table 3.
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Because of the possibly problematic fit, the standardized residual covariance matrix was assessed. This connection makes sense between these two items, as they have very similar meaning. Also, a number of medium-low covariances MI between 10 and 15 were found in the factor of Approach Acceptance, showing that some of the items may be redundant in this factor. Figure 2 depicts the standardized solution of the five-factor model with the addition of the two error covariances.
The analysis of the factor loadings shown in Figure 2 suggest that Item 1 with a factor loading of. This data slightly diverges from the original scale, as in that study all items loaded.
Pilgrimage of Grace – Wikipedia
This study reported the translation process of the German version of the Death Attitude Profile- Revised DAP-R-GR , a multidimensional questionnaire to measure death attitudes, and its validation in German medical students. The subscales showed relatively high internal consistencies ranging from.
Similarly to the original version 13 , the factors were quite independent, only the Fear of Death factor correlated positively with Death Acceptance and both of them were negatively associated with the Neutral Acceptance. Scores on the subscales did not differ based on the age, gender, semester, educational background and prior experience with death.
Thus these variables seem to have no influence on attitudes towards dying and death. These data differ from the original study, in which 13 reported that older participants were less afraid and more accepting of death as a reality and as an escape than younger participants. In that study, females were also significantly more accepting of life after death and more accepting of death as an escape than males.
These findings may surprise since other studies show, that for example gender or prior experience with death have an influence on attitudes towards dying and death 43, For instance, woman have a more positive attitude towards death In our German sample, the confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of the data to the original factor structure with minor adjustments allowing item covariations among Items 2 and 18 due to linguistic similarities. Although the fit was perfectly acceptable, Item 1 did not load highly in any of the factors, thus our results may suggest to rethink the elimination of this item.
Besides the significant results, there are some limitations we ought to mention.
The measurement only offers a quantitative approach to the field of attitudes towards death. For more in-depth results, qualitative studies e. Sometimes, qualitative studies may not only help to deepen the understanding of the field in study, but also validate existing quantitative results 53, With regards to the aim to validate this measurement for the use in Palliative Care settings it could be noted that the investigation of the test goodness criteria has not been established with Palliative-Care patients.
On the one hand, it is difficult to recruit a comparable sample of Palliative-Care patients in the same time frame, on the other hand the researchers picked medical students, since UPCE became mandatory in Germany during the last years. Furthermore, medical students are particularly interesting, since they are in a unique transition state between being part of the general public and becoming medical professionals Due to the very limited and complex existing measurements in German language that might be related to death attitude, the construct validity analysis was ruled out for the objectives of this study.
This project is ongoing and data from the survey will be reported separately in the future. In summary, the limitation and absence of existing measures to capture attitudes towards dying and death in German language has led to the translation and adaption of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised DAP-R Participants consented to participate in the study and consented that results are published according to the ethical approval. JJ and CS designed the study, supervised the translation progress and the consensus panel, supervised data collection, analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. NE and DC analysed the data and performed statistical analysis.
AS designed the study, and participated in the consensus panel. RF participated in the translation process, participated in the consensus panel and performed language editing. MF and PW supervised the study.
KF designed the study, supervised data analysis, analysed the data, performed statistical analyses and wrote the manuscript. All authors were involved in drafting the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content; all authors gave final approval of the final version to be published. Each author is taking public responsibility and accepts accountability for those portions of the content they have been substantially involved in as described above.
The authors thank all the students for their participation in the evaluation. We also thank Margit van de Snepscheut and Eva Zilkens for their help to realize the survey. Abstract Background In Germany, only limited data is available on death attitudes and existing measurements are not easily applicable. Results As for the face validity, all items showed fair to good W-values ranging from. Sample A total of medical students of the Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, at least 18 years of age or older and sufficiently fluid in German Language participated in this study.
The five dimensions are as following: Fear of Death Todesfurcht. This dimension captures the fear of dying and death. Issues related to dying and death are complex and result from different reasons. This dimension measures the avoidance of thoughts and feelings towards dying and death. It is important not to see Death Avoidance as absence of Fear of Death.
This dimension captures a neutral attitude towards dying and death. Death here is considered as an integral part of life. This dimension implies a belief in a happy afterlife. Escape Acceptance Akzeptanz von Tod als Ausweg. This dimension captures positive attitudes towards death in the light of suffering. When life is full of pain and distress, death may occur as welcomed alternative e. Flowchart Translation process Procedure To determine empirically the face validity of the proposed five dimensions of the DAP-R, we asked an independent group of 32 medical students, to place each item into, what they believe is the most conceptually appropriate category.
Scale characteristics and reliability Means and standard deviations of the five factors were similar to the data obtained in the original study of 13 see Table 3. Limitations Besides the significant results, there are some limitations we ought to mention. Conclusion In summary, the limitation and absence of existing measures to capture attitudes towards dying and death in German language has led to the translation and adaption of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised DAP-R Consent for publication Not applicable Availability of data and materials Data and material of this study will be made available on the public platform researchgate.
Acknowledgments The authors thank all the students for their participation in the evaluation. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References Charta zur Betreung schwertskranker und sterbender Menschen in Deutschland [press release].
Schnell MW, Schulz C. Verlag Hans Huber; Defining a Good Death Successful Dying: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: Macleod S, Schulz, Christian, editor. Psychiatrie in der Palliativmedizin- Behandlung psychiatrischer und psychosomatischer Probleme am Lebensende. Hans Huber Verlag; Nyatanga B, de Vocht Towards a definition of death anxiety. International Journal of Palliative Nursing. Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology. Schnell MW, Schulz, Christian, editor. Springer Medizin Verlag; Meaning Management Theory and Death Acceptance.
Existential and Spiritual Issues in Death Attitudes Transformation of grief through meaning: Meaning-centered counseling for bereavement. A man who accused a catholic bishop of abusing him when he was a child dies in the Austrian city Salzburg. Everyone except his widow and the eccentrical detective Simon Brenner keeps silent and believes that the man killed himself. Stefan and Kai have good going business, self-grown cannabis screened as pizza delivering service.
For now they only have to deal with aphids. One day, he learns that his mother died on his birthday, which makes him believe he was to blame for her death.
List of compositions by Heinrich Schütz
Dreaming of purgatory, Sebastian sees only two ways to avoid this divine punishment: Full 10 points, would have loved to give Not only the most enjoyable German movie of the year, but in general the most enjoyable movie I have seen in a long time. Take a child's fantasy, take Bavarian Catholicism, and watch a series of hilarious events unfold from this combination. I am sure you don't have to be German in order to like this movie, because religion - and all those strange blossoms which it may spread - are truly international. Last but not least: Start your free trial.
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Learn more More Like This. Pappa ante Portas Schweinskopf al dente The Dumpling Affair Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Graudinger as Johann Schuler Sepp Schauer Toni as Klausi Steinbacher Johanna Bittenbinder