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Editorial Reviews. From School Library Journal. Grade While the geography and history Kazakhstan (Modern World Nations) by [Pavlovic, Zoran].
Table of contents
- History of Kazakhstan
- Welcome to Astana, Kazakhstan: one of the strangest capital cities on Earth | Cities | The Guardian
- Works (81)
Since at least the 17th century, Kazakh bards could be divided in two main categories: Initially created around 9th century CE, they were passed on through generations in oral form. The legendary tales were recorded by Turkish authors in 14—16th centuries C. The preeminent role in the development of modern literary Kazakh belongs to Abai Qunanbaiuly Kazakh: Abai's major work is The Book of Words Kazakh: The literary magazines Ay Qap published between and in Arabic script and Qazaq published between and played an important role in the development of the intellectual and political life among early 20th-century Kazakhs.
The folk instrument orchestra was named after Kurmangazy Sagyrbayuly , a famous composer and dombra player from the 19th century. The Musical-Dramatic Training College, founded in , was the first institute of higher education for music. The Foundation Asyl Mura is archivating and publishing historical recordings of great samples of Kazakh music both traditional and classical.
The leading Conservatoire is in Almaty, the Qurmanghazy Conservatoire. It currently competes with the national conservatoire in Astana, Kazakhstans capital. When referring to traditional Kazakh music, authentic folklore must be separated from "folklorism". The latter denotes music executed by academically trained performers who aim at preserving the traditional music for coming generations.
As far as can be reconstructed, the music of Kazakhstan from the period before a strong Russian influence consists of Instrumental music and Vocal music. Vocal music, either as part of a ceremony such as a wedding mainly performed by women , or as part of a feast.
Here we might divide into subgenres: The Russian influence on the music life in Kazakhstan can be seen in two spheres: Controlled first by the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union , Kazakhstan's folk and classical traditions became connected with ethnic Russian music and Western European music. Prior to the 20th century, Kazakh folk music was collected and studied by ethnographic research teams including composers , music critics and musicologists. In the first part of the 19th century, Kazakh music was transcribed in linear notation. Some composers of this era set Kazakh folk songs to Russian-style European classical music.
The Kazakhs themselves, however, did not write their own music in notation until Later, as part of the Soviet Union, Kazakh folk culture was encouraged in a sanitized manner designed to avoid political and social unrest. The result was a bland derivative of real Kazakh folk music. In , Aleksandr Zatayevich , a Russian official, created major works of art music with melodies and other elements of Kazakh folk music.
Beginning in and accelerating in the s, he also adapted traditional Kazakh instruments for use in Russian-style ensembles, such as by increasing the number of frets and strings. Soon, these styles of modern orchestral playing became the only way for musicians to officially play; Kazakh folk was turned into patriotic, professional and socialist endeavors . The current situation could be described as the effort to rediscover the traditional music as it had been practised before the heavy influence of European musical styles. Although the quality of the performances and the striving for authenticity cannot be ignored, it is for methodological reasons important to remember that the contemporary musicians performing among traditional folk music are all well trained professionals Rauchan Orazbaeva, Ramazan Stamgazi.
Another very challenging aspect arises from the young composers generation, and the rock and jazz musicians, as they aim to incorporate their traditional heritage into the music they learned from the western cultures, thus forming a new stage of "ethnic contemporary classics", respectively ethnic rock or jazz music that sounds distinctly Kazakh. For the classical sector outstanding: Aqtoty Raimkulova, Turan ensemble ; for jazz: Roksonaki, Urker , Ulytau , Alda span.
In the national cuisine, livestock meat can be cooked in a variety of ways and is usually served with a wide assortment of traditional bread products. Refreshments often include black tea and traditional milk-derived drinks such as ayran , shubat and kymyz. A traditional Kazakh dinner involves a multitude of appetisers on the table, followed by a soup and one or two main courses such as pilaf and beshbarmak.
They also drink their national beverage, which consists of fermented mare's milk. Kazakhstan consistently performs in Olympic competitions. It is especially successful in boxing. This has brought some attention to the Central Asian nation and increased world awareness of its athletes. Dmitry Karpov and Olga Rypakova are among the most notable kazakhstani athletics. Dmitry Karpov is a distinguished decathlete, taking bronze in both the Summer Olympics , and the and World Athletics Championships.
Olga Rypakova is an athlete, specialized in triple jump women's , taking silver in the World Championships in Athletics and Gold in the Summer Olympics. Kazakhstan's city of Almaty submitted twice bid for the Winter Olympics: Astana and Almaty hosted the Asian Winter Games. Football is the most popular sport in Kazakhstan. The Football Federation of Kazakhstan is the sport's national governing body. The FFK organises the men's , women's , and futsal national teams. Kazakhstan's most famous basketball player was Alzhan Zharmukhamedov , who played for CSKA Moscow and the Soviet Union's national basketball team in the s and s.
Throughout his career, he won multiple titles and medals at some of the world's most prestigious basketball competitions, including the Summer Olympics , the Basketball World Cup , the EuroBasket the European Basketball Championship , and the EuroLeague. Kazakhstan's national basketball team was established in , after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Since its foundation, it has been competitive at the continental level. Its greatest accomplishment was at the Asian Games , where it defeated the Philippines in its last game to win the bronze medal. The Kazakhstan national bandy team is among the best in the world, and has many times won the bronze medal at the Bandy World Championship , including the edition when Kazakhstan hosted the tournament on home ice.
In , they were even closer when they took it to a penalty shootout. The team won the first bandy tournament at the Asian Winter Games. Bandy is developed in 10 of the country's 17 administrative divisions 8 of the 14 regions and 2 of the 3 cities which are situated inside of but are not part of regions. The Kazakh national ice hockey team have competed in ice hockey in the and Winter Olympics , as well as in the Men's World Ice Hockey Championships. The Kazakhstan Hockey Championship is held since Barys Astana is the main domestic Kazakhstani ice hockey professional team, and having played in the Kazakhstani national league until the —09 season, when they were transferred to play in the Kontinental Hockey League.
Kazakh boxers are generally well known in the world. In the last three Olympic Games, their performance was assessed as one of the best and they had more medals than any country in the world, except Cuba and Russia in all three games. In and , three Kazakhstani boxers Vassiliy Jirov in , Bakhtiyar Artayev in and Serik Sapiyev in were recognized as the best boxers for their techniques with the Val Barker Trophy , awarded to the best boxer of the tournament.
Two boxers, Bekzat Sattarkhanov and Yermakhan Ibraimov , earned gold medals. Another two boxers, Bulat Zhumadilov and Mukhtarkhan Dildabekov , earned silver medals. Natascha Ragosina , representing Russia, but from Karaganda held seven versions of the women's super middleweight title, and two heavyweight titles during her boxing career. She holds the record as the longest-reigning WBA female super middleweight champion, and the longest-reigning WBC female super middleweight champion.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Kazakh television station of the same name, see Qazaqstan channel. World's largest landlocked country. Kazakh official state language Russian used as official . This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. Geography of Kazakhstan and List of cities in Kazakhstan. Energy policy of Kazakhstan.
Regions of Kazakhstan and Districts of Kazakhstan. Largest cities or towns in Kazakhstan http: Government of Kazakhstan and Politics of Kazakhstan. Foreign relations of Kazakhstan. Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Human rights in Kazakhstan. Transport in Kazakhstan and Telecommunications in Kazakhstan. Science and technology in Kazakhstan.
Kazakhs , Turkic peoples , and Eurasian nomads. Ethnic demography of Kazakhstan. Religion in Kazakhstan,   Islam. Culture of Kazakhstan , Kazakh clothing , and Kazakh wedding ceremony. Public holidays in Kazakhstan.
History of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan portal Central Asia portal. Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 24 May Advances in International Psychology: Kassel university press GmbH. Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 29 October Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 21 November United Nations Development Programme. Archived PDF from the original on 19 March Retrieved 15 September Introduction Archived 17 June at the Wayback Machine.. Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 13 December Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 12 October Kazakhstan Archived 28 October at the Wayback Machine.
Census for the Republic of Kazakhstan Republic of Kazakhstan Statistical Agency. Archived from the original PDF on 12 December Retrieved 10 December Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 21 January A Region in Transition. Archived from the original on 16 December The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be the Kazakh language. In state institutions and local self-administrative bodies the Russian language shall be officially used on equal grounds along with the Kazakh language.
The Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2 October Identity Politics in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan". Early Paleolithic in South and East Asia. Archived from the original on 11 August Archived from the original on 8 December A Historical Overview ". Allworth, Edward Allworth Archived from the original on 26 May Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 9 September Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia.
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Archived PDF from the original on 6 December Retrieved 24 July Archived from the original on 20 February Archived from the original on 5 September Archived from the original on 4 November For a few centuries, events in the future Kazakhstan are unclear and frequently the subject of speculation based on mythic or apocryphal folk tales, popular among various peoples that migrated westward through the steppes.
From the middle of the 2nd Century, the Yueban — an offshoot of the Xiongnu and therefore possibly connected to the Huns — established a state in far eastern Kazakhstan. Over the next few centuries, peoples such as the Akatziri , Avars known later as the Pannonian Avars; not to be confused with the Avars of the Caucasus , Sabirs and Bulgars migrated through the area and into the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. By the beginning of the 6th Century, the proto-Mongolian Rouran Khaganate had annexed areas that were later part of the east Kazakhstan.
Towards the end of the 7th Century, the two states were reunited in the Second Turkic Khaganate. However, the khaganate began to fragment only a few generations later. In , the Oghuz Yabgu State Oguz il was founded, with its capital in Jankent , and came to occupy most of the later Kazakhstan. It was founded by the Oguz Turks refugees from the neighbouring Turgesh Kaganate. In the eighth and ninth centuries, portions of southern Kazakhstan were conquered by Arabs who introduced Islam.
The Oghuz Turks controlled western Kazakhstan from the ninth through the 11th centuries; the Kimak and Kipchak peoples, also of Turkic origin, controlled the east at roughly the same time. In turn the Cumans controlled western Kazakhstan from around the 12th century until the s. During the ninth century the Qarluq confederation formed the Qarakhanid state , which conquered Transoxiana the area north and east of the Oxus River , the present-day Amu Darya.
Beginning in the early 11th century, the Qarakhanids fought constantly among themselves and with the Seljuk Turks to the south.
Welcome to Astana, Kazakhstan: one of the strangest capital cities on Earth | Cities | The Guardian
The Qarakhanids, who had converted to Islam, were conquered in the s by the Kara-Khitan a Mongol people who moved west from North China. In the midth century an independent state of Khorazm along the Oxus River broke away from the weakening Karakitai, but the bulk of the Kara-Khitan lasted until the Mongol invasion of Genghis Khan from to After the Mongol capture of the Kara-Khitan, Kazakhstan fell under the control of a succession of rulers of the Golden Horde the western branch of the Mongol Empire.
By the early 15th century the ruling structure had split into several large groups known as khanates , which included the Nogai Horde and the Kazakh Khanate. During the reign of Kasym Khan — , the khanate expanded considerably. At its height, the khanate ruled portions of Central Asia and Cumania.
Kazakh nomads raided Russian territories for slaves until the Russians conquered Kazakhstan. The Kazakh Khanate did not always have a unified government.
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The Kazakhs were traditionally divided into three groups, or zhuzes: The zhuzes had to agree to have a common khan. In , there was no strong Kazakh leadership; the three zhuzes were incorporated one by one into the Russian Empire , and the khanate ceased to exist. Russian traders and soldiers began to appear on the northwestern edge of Kazakh territory in the 17th century, when Cossacks established forts which later became the cities of Yaitsk modern Oral and Guryev modern Atyrau.
The Russians were able to seize Kazakh territory because the khanates were preoccupied by the Zunghar Oirats , who began to move into the region from the east in the late 16th century. Forced westward, the Kazakhs were caught between the Kalmyks and the Russians. Two Kazakh hordes depended on the Oirat Huntaiji. Although Khayr's intent was to form a temporary alliance against the stronger Kalmyks, the Russians gained control of the Lesser Horde. They conquered the Middle Horde by , but the Great Horde remained independent until the s when the expanding Kokand khanate to the south forced the Great Horde khans to accept Russian protection, which seemed to them the lesser of two evils.
The Russian Empire started to integrate the Kazakh steppe. Russians built many forts to control the conquered territories. Moreover, Russian settlers were provided with land, whereas nomadic tribes had less area available to drive their herds and flocks. Many of the nomadic tribes were forced to adopt sedentary lifestyles. Because of the Russian Empire policy, between 5 and 15 per cent of the population of Kazakh Steppe were immigrants. Nineteenth-century colonization of Kazakhstan by Russia was slowed by rebellions and wars, such as uprisings led by Isatay Taymanuly and Makhambet Utemisuly from to and the war led by Eset Kotibaruli from to In , the Russian Empire announced a new policy asserting the right to annex troublesome areas on its borders.
This led immediately to the conquest of the remainder of Central Asia and the creation of two administrative districts: Most of present-day Kazakhstan, including Almaty Verny , was in the latter district. In the first part of the century, Kazakhs were even more numerate than Russians were. However, in that century, Russia conquered many countries and experienced a human capital revolution, which led to a higher numeracy afterwards.
Nevertheless, the numeracy of Kazakhs was still higher than other Central Asian nations, which are nowadays referred to as Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. There could be several reasons for this striking early numeracy level. First and foremost, the settler share could explain part of this, albeit Russians were a minority in the Kazakh steppe.
Secondly, the relatively good nutritional situation in Kazakhstan. Protein malnutrition that plagued many other populations of Central Asian nations was absent in Kazakhstan. Moreover, Russian settlers of the s and s might have simulated so-called contact learning.
Kazakhs started to invest more in human capital because they observed that Russians were successful in that area. During the early 19th century, the Russian forts began to limit the area over which the nomadic tribes could drive their herds and flocks. The final disruption of nomadism began in the s, when many Russian settlers were introduced into the fertile lands of northern and eastern Kazakhstan. In the Trans-Aral Railway between Orenburg and Tashkent was completed, facilitating Russian colonisation of the fertile lands of Zhetysu.
Between and , more than a half-million Russian farms were established as part of reforms by Russian Minister of the Interior Petr Stolypin ; the farms pressured the traditional Kazakh way of life, occupying grazing land and using scarce water resources. The administrator for Turkestan current Kazakhstan , Vasile Balabanov, was responsible for Russian resettlement at this time. Starving and displaced, many Kazakhs joined in the Basmachi movement against conscription into the Russian imperial army ordered by the tsar in July as part of the war effort against Germany in World War I.
In late , Russian forces suppressed the widespread armed resistance to the taking of land and conscription of Central Asians. Thousands of Kazakhs were killed, and thousands more fled to China and Mongolia. Our website is secured by bit SSL encryption issued by Verisign Inc , making your shopping at Sapnaonline as secure as possible.
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