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I had a dream two nights ago that I was in some kind of prison that I couldn't escape from, let alone order anything from Amazon or something.
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The average person has three to five dreams per night, and some may have up to seven; [4] however, most dreams are immediately or quickly forgotten.

During a full eight-hour night sleep, most dreams occur in the typical two hours of REM. Opinions about the meaning of dreams have varied and shifted through time and culture. Many endorse the Freudian theory of dreams — that dreams reveal insight into hidden desires and emotions. Other prominent theories include those suggesting that dreams assist in memory formation, problem solving, or simply are a product of random brain activation.

Sigmund Freud , who developed the psychological discipline of psychoanalysis , wrote extensively about dream theories and their interpretations in the early s. Furthermore, he believed that virtually every dream topic, regardless of its content, represented the release of sexual tension. In modern times, dreams have been seen as a connection to the unconscious mind. They range from normal and ordinary to overly surreal and bizarre. Dreams can have varying natures, such as being frightening , exciting, magical , melancholic , adventurous, or sexual. The events in dreams are generally outside the control of the dreamer, with the exception of lucid dreaming , where the dreamer is self-aware.

The Dreaming is a common term within the animist creation narrative of indigenous Australians for a personal, or group, creation and for what may be understood as the "timeless time" of formative creation and perpetual creating. The ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia have left evidence of dream interpretation dating back to at least BC. In ancient Egypt , as far back as BC, the Egyptians wrote down their dreams on papyrus. People with vivid and significant dreams were thought blessed and were considered special.

They thought that the best way to receive divine revelation was through dreaming and thus they would induce or "incubate" dreams. Egyptians would go to sanctuaries and sleep on special "dream beds" in hope of receiving advice, comfort, or healing from the gods. In Chinese history, people wrote of two vital aspects of the soul of which one is freed from the body during slumber to journey in a dream realm, while the other remained in the body, [21] although this belief and dream interpretation had been questioned since early times, such as by the philosopher Wang Chong 27—97 AD.

The first says that dreams are merely expressions of inner desires. The second is the belief of the soul leaving the body and being guided until awakened. The Greeks shared their beliefs with the Egyptians on how to interpret good and bad dreams, and the idea of incubating dreams. Morpheus , the Greek god of dreams, also sent warnings and prophecies to those who slept at shrines and temples. The earliest Greek beliefs about dreams were that their gods physically visited the dreamers, where they entered through a keyhole, exiting the same way after the divine message was given.

Antiphon wrote the first known Greek book on dreams in the 5th century BC. In that century, other cultures influenced Greeks to develop the belief that souls left the sleeping body. Greek philosopher Aristotle — BC believed dreams caused physiological activity. He thought dreams could analyze illness and predict diseases.

Marcus Tullius Cicero , for his part, believed that all dreams are produced by thoughts and conversations a dreamer had during the preceding days. Herodotus in his The Histories , writes "The visions that occur to us in dreams are, more often than not, the things we have been concerned about during the day.

Breuddwyd Rhonabwy is a Middle Welsh prose tale. Set during the reign of Madog ap Maredudd , prince of Powys died , it is dated to the late 12th or 13th century. It survives in only one manuscript, the Red Book of Hergest , and has been associated with the Mabinogion since its publication by Lady Charlotte Guest in the 19th century. The bulk of the narrative describes a dream vision experienced by its central character, Rhonabwy , a retainer of Madog, in which he visits the time of King Arthur.

Born in Hispania , he became a legionary commander in Britain, assembled a Celtic army and assumed the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire in He was defeated in battle in and beheaded at the direction of the Eastern Roman emperor. In Judaism, dreams are considered part of the experience of the world that can be interpreted and from which lessons can be garnered. It is discussed in the Talmud, Tractate Berachot 55— The ancient Hebrews connected their dreams heavily with their religion, though the Hebrews were monotheistic and believed that dreams were the voice of one God alone.

Hebrews also differentiated between good dreams from God and bad dreams from evil spirits. The Hebrews, like many other ancient cultures, incubated dreams in order to receive divine revelation. For example, the Hebrew prophet Samuel would "lie down and sleep in the temple at Shiloh before the Ark and receive the word of the Lord.

Christians mostly shared the beliefs of the Hebrews and thought that dreams were of a supernatural character because the Old Testament includes frequent stories of dreams with divine inspiration. The most famous of these dream stories was Jacob's dream of a ladder that stretches from Earth to Heaven. Many Christians preach that God can speak to people through their dreams. Edgar has researched the role of dreams in Islam. In the Mandukya Upanishad , part of the Veda scriptures of Indian Hinduism , a dream is one of three states that the soul experiences during its lifetime, the other two states being the waking state and the sleep state.

In Buddhism, ideas about dreams are similar to the classical and folk traditions in South Asia. The same dream is sometimes experienced by multiple people, as in the case of the Buddha-to-be leaving his home. Some dreams are also seen to transcend time: In Buddhist literature, dreams often function as a "signpost" motif to mark certain stages in the life of the main character.

Some philosophers have concluded that what we think of as the "real world" could be or is an illusion an idea known as the skeptical hypothesis about ontology. The first recorded mention of the idea was by Zhuangzi , and it is also discussed in Hinduism , which makes extensive use of the argument in its writings.

Stimulus, usually an auditory one, becomes a part of a dream, eventually then awakening the dreamer. Some Indigenous American tribes and Mexican civilizations believe that dreams are a way of visiting and having contact with their ancestors. The Middle Ages brought a harsh interpretation of dreams. Many believed that during sleep, the devil could fill the human mind with corrupting and harmful thoughts. Martin Luther , founder of Protestantism , believed dreams were the work of the Devil.

However, Catholics such as St. Jerome claimed that the direction of their lives was heavily influenced by their dreams. The depiction of dreams in Renaissance and Baroque art is often related to Biblical narrative.

Dreams and dark imaginings are the theme of several notable works of the Romantic era , such as Goya 's etching The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters c. Henri Rousseau 's last painting was The Dream. Dream frames were frequently used in medieval allegory to justify the narrative; The Book of the Duchess [36] and The Vision Concerning Piers Plowman [37] are two such dream visions. Even before them, in antiquity, the same device had been used by Cicero and Lucian of Samosata. They have also featured in fantasy and speculative fiction since the 19th century.

Unlike many dream worlds, Carroll's logic is like that of actual dreams, with transitions and flexible causality. Other fictional dream worlds include the Dreamlands of H. Dreamworlds, shared hallucinations and other alternate realities feature in a number of works by Philip K. Modern popular culture often conceives of dreams, like Freud, as expressions of the dreamer's deepest fears and desires. In films such as Spellbound , The Manchurian Candidate , Field of Dreams , and Inception , the protagonists must extract vital clues from surreal dreams. Most dreams in popular culture are, however, not symbolic, but straightforward and realistic depictions of their dreamer's fears and desires.

In speculative fiction , the line between dreams and reality may be blurred even more in the service of the story. Le Guin's book, The Lathe of Heaven , the protagonist finds that his "effective" dreams can retroactively change reality. Peter Weir 's Australian film The Last Wave makes a simple and straightforward postulate about the premonitory nature of dreams from one of his Aboriginal characters that " In Kyell Gold 's novel Green Fairy from the Dangerous Spirits series, the protagonist, Sol, experiences the memories of a dancer who died years before through Absinthe induced dreams and after each dream something from it materializes into his reality.

Such stories play to audiences' experiences with their own dreams, which feel as real to them. In the late 19th century, psychotherapist Sigmund Freud developed a theory that the content of dreams is driven by unconscious wish fulfillment. Freud called dreams the " royal road to the unconscious. He argued that important unconscious desires often relate to early childhood memories and experiences. Freud's theory describes dreams as having both manifest and latent content. Latent content relates to deep unconscious wishes or fantasies while manifest content is superficial and meaningless.

In his early work, Freud argued that the vast majority of latent dream content is sexual in nature, but he later moved away from this categorical position. In Beyond the Pleasure Principle he considered how trauma or aggression could influence dream content. He also discussed supernatural origins in Dreams and Occultism , a lecture published in New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Late in life Freud acknowledged that "It is impossible to classify as wish fulfillments" the repetitive nightmares associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Modern experimental studies weigh against many of Freud's theories regarding dreams.

Freud's "dream-work" interpretation strategies have not been found to have empirical validity. His theory that dreams were the "guardians" of sleep, repressing and disguising bodily urges to ensure sleep continues, seems unlikely given studies of individuals who can sleep without dreaming. His assertions that repressed memory in infants re-surface decades later in adult dreams conflicts with modern research on memory. Freud's theory has difficulty explaining why young children have static and bland dreams, or why the emotions in most dreams are negative.

On the plus side, modern researchers agree with Freud that dreams do have coherence, and that dream content connects to other psychological variables and often connect to recent waking thoughts though not as often as Freud supposed. Carl Jung rejected many of Freud's theories. Jung expanded on Freud's idea that dream content relates to the dreamer's unconscious desires.

He described dreams as messages to the dreamer and argued that dreamers should pay attention for their own good. He came to believe that dreams present the dreamer with revelations that can uncover and help to resolve emotional or religious problems and fears. Jung wrote that recurring dreams show up repeatedly to demand attention, suggesting that the dreamer is neglecting an issue related to the dream.

He called this "compensation. Jung did not believe that the conscious attitude was wrong and that the dream provided the true belief. He argued that good work with dreams takes both into account and comes up with a balanced viewpoint. He believed that many of the symbols or images from these dreams return with each dream.

Jung believed that memories formed throughout the day also play a role in dreaming. These memories leave impressions for the unconscious to deal with when the ego is at rest. The unconscious mind re-enacts these glimpses of the past in the form of a dream. Jung called this a day residue. Fritz Perls presented his theory of dreams as part of the holistic nature of Gestalt therapy. Dreams are seen as projections of parts of the self that have been ignored, rejected, or suppressed. Perls expanded this point of view to say that even inanimate objects in the dream may represent aspects of the dreamer.

The dreamer may, therefore, be asked to imagine being an object in the dream and to describe it, in order to bring into awareness the characteristics of the object that correspond with the dreamer's personality. Accumulated observation has shown that dreams are strongly associated with REM rapid eye movement sleep , during which an electroencephalogram EEG shows brain activity that, among sleep states, is most like wakefulness.

Participant-remembered dreams during NREM sleep are normally more mundane in comparison. During REM sleep, the release of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine , serotonin and histamine is completely suppressed. During most dreams, the person dreaming is not aware that they are dreaming, no matter how absurd or eccentric the dream is.

The reason for this may be that the prefrontal cortex , the region of the brain responsible for logic and planning, exhibits decreased activity during dreams. This allows the dreamer to more actively interact with the dream without thinking about what might happen, since things that would normally stand out in reality blend in with the dream scenery.

When REM sleep episodes were timed for their duration and subjects were awakened to make reports before major editing or forgetting of their dreams could take place, subjects accurately reported the length of time they had been dreaming in an REM sleep state. Some researchers have speculated that " time dilation " effects only seem to be taking place upon reflection and do not truly occur within dreams. REM sleep episodes and the dreams that accompany them lengthen progressively through the night, with the first episode being shortest, of approximately 10—12 minutes duration, and the second and third episodes increasing to 15—20 minutes.

Dreams at the end of the night may last as long as 15 minutes, although these may be experienced as several distinct episodes due to momentary arousals interrupting sleep as the night ends. The increase in the ability to recall dreams appears related to intensification across the night in the vividness of dream imagery, colors, and emotions. REM sleep and the ability to dream seem to be embedded in the biology of many animals in addition to humans. Scientific research suggests that all mammals experience REM. Studies have observed signs of dreaming in all mammals studied, including monkeys, dogs, cats, rats, elephants, and shrews.

There have also been signs of dreaming in birds and reptiles. Scientific research results regarding the function of dreaming in animals remain disputable; however, the function of sleeping in living organisms is increasingly clear. For example, sleep deprivation experiments conducted on rats and other animals have resulted in the deterioration of physiological functioning and actual tissue damage. Some scientists argue that humans dream for the same reason other amniotes do. From a Darwinian perspective dreams would have to fulfill some kind of biological requirement, provide some benefit for natural selection to take place, or at least have no negative impact on fitness.

In Antti Revonsuo, a professor at the University of Turku in Finland, claimed that centuries ago dreams would prepare humans for recognizing and avoiding danger by presenting a simulation of threatening events. The theory has therefore been called the threat-simulation theory. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley proposed a new theory that changed dream research, challenging the previously held Freudian view of dreams as unconscious wishes to be interpreted.

They assume that the same structures that induce REM sleep also generate sensory information. Hobson's research suggested that the signals interpreted as dreams originate in the brainstem during REM sleep. According to Hobson and other researchers, circuits in the brainstem are activated during REM sleep. Once these circuits are activated, areas of the limbic system involved in emotions, sensations, and memories, including the amygdala and hippocampus, become active.

The brain synthesizes and interprets these activities; for example, changes in the physical environment such as temperature and humidity, or physical stimuli such as ejaculation, and attempts to create meaning from these signals, result in dreaming. However, research by Mark Solms suggests that dreams are generated in the forebrain , and that REM sleep and dreaming are not directly related. He began to question patients about their dreams and confirmed that patients with damage to the parietal lobe stopped dreaming; this finding was in line with Hobson's theory.

However, Solms did not encounter cases of loss of dreaming with patients having brainstem damage. This observation forced him to question Hobson's prevailing theory, which marked the brainstem as the source of the signals interpreted as dreams. Combining Hobson's activation synthesis hypothesis with Solms' findings, the continual-activation theory of dreaming presented by Jie Zhang proposes that dreaming is a result of brain activation and synthesis; at the same time, dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms.

Zhang hypothesizes that the function of sleep is to process, encode, and transfer the data from the temporary memory store to the long-term memory store. During NREM sleep the conscious-related memory declarative memory is processed, and during REM sleep the unconscious related memory procedural memory is processed.

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Zhang assumes that during REM sleep the unconscious part of a brain is busy processing the procedural memory; meanwhile, the level of activation in the conscious part of the brain descends to a very low level as the inputs from the sensory systems are basically disconnected. This triggers the "continual-activation" mechanism to generate a data stream from the memory stores to flow through the conscious part of the brain.

Zhang suggests that this pulse-like brain activation is the inducer of each dream. He proposes that, with the involvement of the brain associative thinking system, dreaming is, thereafter, self-maintained with the dreamer's own thinking until the next pulse of memory insertion. This explains why dreams have both characteristics of continuity within a dream and sudden changes between two dreams. According to Tsoukalas REM sleep is an evolutionary transformation of a well-known defensive mechanism, the tonic immobility reflex. This reflex, also known as animal hypnosis or death feigning, functions as the last line of defense against an attacking predator and consists of the total immobilization of the animal: Tsoukalas claims that the neurophysiology and phenomenology of this reaction shows striking similarities to REM sleep, a fact that suggests a deep evolutionary kinship.

For example, both reactions exhibit brainstem control, paralysis, hippocampal theta and thermoregulatory changes. Tsoukalas claims that this theory integrates many earlier findings into a unified framework. Eugen Tarnow suggests that dreams are ever-present excitations of long-term memory , even during waking life. During waking life an executive function interprets long-term memory consistent with reality checking.

Tarnow's theory is a reworking of Freud's theory of dreams in which Freud's unconscious is replaced with the long-term memory system and Freud's "Dream Work" describes the structure of long-term memory. A study showed evidence that illogical locations, characters, and dream flow may help the brain strengthen the linking and consolidation of semantic memories. Increasing levels of the stress hormone cortisol late in sleep often during REM sleep causes this decreased communication.

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One stage of memory consolidation is the linking of distant but related memories. Payne and Nadal hypothesize these memories are then consolidated into a smooth narrative, similar to a process that happens when memories are created under stress. By the dream work, incomplete material is either removed suppressed or deepened and included into memory.

Robert's ideas were cited repeatedly by Freud in his Die Traumdeutung. Hughlings Jackson viewed that sleep serves to sweep away unnecessary memories and connections from the day. This was revised in by Crick and Mitchison's " reverse learning " theory, which states that dreams are like the cleaning-up operations of computers when they are off-line, removing suppressing parasitic nodes and other "junk" from the mind during sleep.

Coutts [77] describes dreams as playing a central role in a two-phase sleep process that improves the mind's ability to meet human needs during wakefulness. During the accommodation phase, mental schemas self-modify by incorporating dream themes. During the emotional selection phase, dreams test prior schema accommodations. Those that appear adaptive are retained, while those that appear maladaptive are culled. The cycle maps to the sleep cycle, repeating several times during a typical night's sleep.

Awake like sleep: 2 Dreams is the first video game from the designer of Attika | Pocket Tactics

Alfred Adler suggested that dreams are often emotional preparations for solving problems, intoxicating an individual away from common sense toward private logic. The residual dream feelings may either reinforce or inhibit contemplated action. Numerous theories state that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural purpose.

He believes that the substance of dreams have no significant influence on waking actions, and most people go about their daily lives perfectly well without remembering their dreams. In , however, Hobson published a book, Thirteen Dreams that Freud Never Had , [81] in which he analyzed his own dreams after having a stroke in The book illustrates how dreams show our most compelling concerns and how they can be used to make sense of the most difficult life situations.

Hobson proposed the activation-synthesis theory, which states that "there is a randomness of dream imagery and the randomness synthesizes dream-generated images to fit the patterns of internally generated stimulations". The activation-synthesis theory hypothesizes that the peculiar nature of dreams is attributed to certain parts of the brain trying to piece together a story out of what is essentially bizarre information. However, evolutionary psychologists believe dreams serve some adaptive function for survival.

Deirdre Barrett describes dreaming as simply "thinking in different biochemical state" and believes people continue to work on all the same problems—personal and objective—in that state. Finnish psychologist Antti Revonsuo posits that dreams have evolved for "threat simulation" exclusively. According to the Threat Simulation Theory he proposes, during much of human evolution physical and interpersonal threats were serious, giving reproductive advantage to those who survived them. Therefore, dreaming evolved to replicate these threats and continually practice dealing with them.

In support of this theory, Revonsuo shows that contemporary dreams comprise much more threatening events than people meet in daily non-dream life, and the dreamer usually engages appropriately with them. According to Tsoukalas the biology of dreaming is related to the reactive patterns elicited by predatorial encounters especially the tonic immobility reflex , a fact that lends support to evolutionary theories claiming that dreams specialize in threat avoidance or emotional processing.

There are many other hypotheses about the function of dreams, including: From the s to , Calvin S. Hall collected more than 50, dream reports at Western Reserve University. In Hall and Van De Castle published The Content Analysis of Dreams , in which they outlined a coding system to study 1, dream reports from college students. The visual nature of dreams is generally highly phantasmagoric; that is, different locations and objects continuously blend into each other. Some dreams may even tell elaborate stories wherein the dreamer enters entirely new, complex worlds and awakes with ideas, thoughts and feelings never experienced prior to the dream.

People who are blind from birth do not have visual dreams. Their dream contents are related to other senses like auditory , touch , smell and taste , whichever are present since birth. In the Hall study, the most common emotion experienced in dreams was anxiety. Other emotions included abandonment , anger , fear , joy , and happiness. Negative emotions were much more common than positive ones. These are colloquially known as wet dreams.

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A small minority of people say that they dream only in black and white. There is evidence that certain medical conditions normally only neurological conditions can impact dreams. For instance, some people with synesthesia have never reported entirely black-and-white dreaming, and often have a difficult time imagining the idea of dreaming in only black and white. I have written books of poetry and 18 novels. I have published poems, short stories and pieces of art in over periodicals, anthologies and books as well as in 11 radio broadcasts.

I love to write and nothing thrills me more than seeing my work in print. The creative process is a thrill for me as is influencing the reader in a positive way, in a thought provoking way. One of my primary goals involves touching the reader and giving them a gift, the gift of a long forgotten memory or perhaps a special insight that may not have been apparent. I usually find myself in some sort of creative process, some form of self expression.

I love to play guitar and keyboards in my spare time; music is another creative drive in my life and I enjoy playing whenever I get the chance. I also do pencil sketches, I have about three or four hundred drawings; perhaps I'll illustrate a book someday. My art is viewable on face book under will bellsouth. I live in Florida and I love the ocean, we live about ten miles away from some of the most beautiful beaches in the world, long walks on the beach and hunting for souvenirs in the sand, sharks teeth and sand dollars, are some of my favorite pastimes. I hope you enjoy my work.

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These are the dreams of countless dramas, of horizons and shadows and of the lost generation in islands of confusion. The art is revelation and secret dreams, subconscious flow Come experience the secrets of ghosts, rebirth, drama and revelation with Surreal Dreams Two the second in a series of art by Ron Koppelberger Jr.

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