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Chi scrive ritiene, invece, che le logiche di sistema in atto avviino, anche in questo caso, un processo di rielaborazione e risignificazione, nel senso che il processo, peraltro ambivalente, in atto non si risolve in una pura e semplice serie di imposizioni e di negoziazioni, segnate dalla rinuncia a qualcosa di proprio, ma comporti invece una loro continua riformulazio- ne, o riposizionamento significante, in base al contesto in cui questi ven- gono acquisiti.
Si tratta, allora, di un processo che propone inevitabili stimoli alla rifles- sione identitaria e, di conseguenza, al cambiamento. Innanzitutto, Devoto-Oli presenta il seguente spettro semantico per glo- bale: In epoca moderna e contemporanea i significati connessi ai derivati dal latino globus si arricchiscono e vengono ad indicare anche quello che diventa il corpo sferico o sferoidale per antonomasia: Tutte le pedagogie che si ispirano ad un pensiero olistico e globale stanno regi- strando una notevole diffusione e potremmo dire che ormai costituisco- no una tendenza culturale di questo tempo.
Quali sono, allora, i motivi di questa affermazione su scala mondiale? Oggi, come abbiamo detto, non assistiamo ad un fenomeno del tutto nuovo. E, contemporaneamente, sveliamo un ulteriore possi- bile rischio connesso alle visioni globali: Speziale-Bagliacca a cura di , Formazione e percezione psicoanalitica, Feltrinelli, Milano In Rivoluzione personalista e comunitaria, Mounier , pp. Il metodo globale di Decroly preve- de un iter didattico centrato su tre momenti: Gli individui si diffe- renziano per il diverso vigore di queste intelligenze presente in ciascuno.
E proprio queste differenze richiedono strategie formative complesse, dif- ferenziate e individualizzate. Santerini, Cittadini del mondo. Educazione alle relazioni inter- culturali, La Scuola, Brescia Nel corso degli anni Sessanta la situazione mondiale risulta decisamente cambiata. Laeng a cura di , Pedagogia. Enciclopedia peda- gogica, La Scuola, Brescia A essa sono, poi, accomunabili i World Studies britannici, che si originano, nel medesimo periodo, a partire da istanze analoghe, per poi sostanzial- mente confluire in essa.
Queste prime tre prospettive possiedono molti punti di contatto, per quanto riguarda istanze originarie, obiettivi, metodologie, linee di sviluppo. Anche il movimento per la global education si presenta come un tenta- tivo di risposta ai cambiamenti del mondo e alla crescente globalizzazio- ne, nella consapevolezza nuova che tutti i membri della specie umana, in quanto abitanti dello stesso pianeta, condividono lo stesso destino.
Esistono cambiamenti desiderabili, ma che difficilmente si sa come rea- lizzare, e contemporaneamente cambiamenti che si vorrebbe evitare, senza avere strumenti a disposizione per farlo effettivamente: Vengono, allora, identi- ficate tre categorie di apprendimenti relativi al cambiamento: Infine, risulta estremamente importante la consapevolezza delle scelte operate dagli uomini e dalle donne. Da queste premesse discendono i cinque seguenti macro-obiettivi: Viene introdotto un esempio particolarmente calzante: Vengono, inoltre, puntualmente specificati gli obiettivi che la scuola centrata sul mondo dovrebbe sforzarsi di perseguire: Si tratta di un elemento, che come vedremo, Holden , p.
Alcune di queste sono: Rifacendosi alle elaborazioni di Anderson , Becker propone le seguenti competenze di base: Can my pupils really cope with these ideas? What is the point anyway? Questa evoluzione del contesto mondiale comporta una serie di impli- cazioni immediate sul piano educativo. Gli elementi basilari della prospettiva degli studi mondiali consistono nel: I temi trat- tati che afferiscono a questa categoria sono: In questo caso, infatti, sembra emergere una scarsa elaborazione — anche in rapporto alle declinazioni approfondite operate su tutti gli altri temi, caratterizzata da indicazioni superficiali e poco contestualizzate.
Questi programmi promuovono una visione nazionalista e, in certo grado, inter- nazionalista, ma raramente una consapevolezza globale. In un mondo caratterizzato da una crescente globalizzazione si riscon- tra una situazione paradossale in cui viene a trovarsi la scuola. Infatti, passano in secondo piano sia la trattazione dei punti contro- versi delle questioni globali, sia la formulazione di giudizi etici su tendenze e condizioni del mondo; in classe, insomma, vengono evitati posiziona- menti fortemente critici e prevalgono valutazioni improntate al massimo equilibrio possibile.
A loro volta, le due culture in questione si costi- tuiscono nel tempo attraverso il concorso di diversi fattori: Neill e Leo Tolstoy, di porre il soggetto — e in particolare il soggetto in via di sviluppo — al cen- tro ivi. Nel corso degli anni Novanta le esperienze dei World Studies e della Global Education si evolvono gradualmente in ambito britannico in una nuova prospettiva: Ad esempio, Charlotte e Lee F. I temi sui quali sono stati sollecitati i partecipanti alla ricerca sono consistiti in: I dati raccolti hanno permesso di elaborare e sviluppare indicazioni di politica scolastica e strategie politiche di implementazione.
Una cittadinanza multidimensionale deve essere capace di dotare gli studenti di strumenti adeguati a rispondere alle sfide e alle domande che il nuovo secolo pro- spetta. Il modello multidimensionale di cittadinanza che viene elaborato da questi autori, prende corpo a partire da una fase investigativa che evi- denzia otto caratteristiche del cittadino del XXI secolo, che sono: Queste otto caratteristiche, innanzitutto, offrono importanti elementi di valutazione in merito al tipo di mondo che gli esperti intervistati imma- ginano come scenario in cui si muoveranno i cittadini del futuro.
Al fine, quindi, di rispondere alle complesse esigenze formative degli studenti, viene sviluppato un programma educativo, costruito attorno ad un modello multidimensionale di cittadinanza, centrato su quattro dimen- sioni principali: Muovendoci in questa dire- zione, faremo anche riferimento a un testo di Cogan, Grossman e Liu che con grande chiarezza descrive sia le quattro dimensioni in oggetto sia la cittadinanza come processo di apprendimento civico, di scelta e di azione. La conoscenza della storia e del passato possono certamente costituire un importante strumento di soste- gno alla comprensione del valore della cittadinanza.
Si evidenzia, inoltre, un approccio maggiormente ottimistico di questi, rispetto a quanto espresso dagli esperti di politica scolastica. Non sorpren- de, quindi, a maggior ragione, la sostanziale concordanza tra i risultati delle due indagini. Vengono identificati quattro tipo- logie di progetti: Sembra che Freire avesse deciso di dedicare la propria attenzione a questa tematica e che avesse cominciato a condividere rifles- sioni in merito con i propri collaboratori, ma fu colto dalla malattia, prima di poter dare concretezza a questo interesse di ricerca. Il progetto di una nuova civilizzazione planetaria si fonda sui seguenti elementi trasformativi: Infatti, esistono diversi lavori che utilizzano modelli comunicativi poetici, allusivi, simbolici.
Il paradigma ecopedagogico si basa su un concetto fondamentale: Fino a oggi le correnti ecologiste, secondo Gadotti ivi, pp. La cittadinanza planetaria presenta differenti sfaccettature: Emerge, dunque, in modo evidente il forte tenore civico e sociopoliti- co della prospettiva ecopedagogica, che, lungi dal poter essere circoscrit- ta tra le pedagogie ambientaliste, merita un posto privilegiato tra gli orien- tamenti pedagogici internazionali che tematizzano il rapporto con la dimensione globale.
Egli scrive con chiarezza: Da qui discendono due riflessioni: Il punto focale degli insegnamenti necessari indicati da Morin ivi, pp. La nuova coscienza olistica ed ecologica del mondo propone una nuova partecipazione al cosmo e un nuovo senso di appartenenza alla natura Santerini, , pp. Ferguson, Les enfants du verseau. Pour un noveau paradigme, Calmann-Levy, Paris Ma quali sono i significati salienti che affiorano nella rilettura comparata di quanto fin qui riportato?
European research in socio-economic sciences and the humanities should help European Union economies thrive, resist the international competition and innovate. At the same time, more research is needed in order to increase rates of employment and the quality of jobs. Within this area, 16 projects have been funded, from which one regards the topic of educational research: Governance of educational trajectories in Europe.
Access, coping and relevance of education for young people in European knowledge societies in comparative perspective. Combining economic, social and environmental objectives in a European perspective: European research in socio-economic sciences and the humanities is to understand how social cohesion has been made possible in Europe and how it can be affected by current problems, taking into consid- eration that sustainable development is at the same time a challenge and an opportunity.
In this area, 17 projects have been approved, with none of them pertaining to the field of educational research. Major trends in society and theirimplications: European research in socioeconomic sciences and the humanities should address the main scientific and policy concerns about major social changes such as ageing, migration, families, work, multicultural societies, racism, to quote but a few.
Within this area, 26 projects have been funded, with two of them regarding educational research: Europe in the world: European research in socio-economic sciences and the humanities is to address the new reality of the multipolar world with its economic, social and political developments and upheavals and study the role of Europe in this new context.
In this area, 19 projects have been approved, with none of them pertaining to the field of educational research. The citizen in the European Union: In this area, 20 projects have been approved, with none of them pertaining to the field of educational research. Socio-economic and scientific indicators: European research in socio-economic sciences and the humanities should study the use of indicators in policy-making and especially try to develop new indicators that are not strictly economic but integrate new social or environmental data. Within this area, 11 projects have been funded, with one of them regarding educational research.
European educational research quality indicators Foresight: European research in forward looking activities aims at identifying major trends, tension and potential transitions for Europe and the world. It also develops likely scenarios for the future of Europe. It builds new tools for forecasting main social, economic, environmental and technological issues. In this area, 9 projects have been approved, with none of them pertaining to the field of educational research. In this area, 14 projects have been approved, with none of them pertaining to the field of educational research.
In fact, the analysis in those papers is that there is too much fragmentation in European science and technology. Sharpening the focus should reduce fragmentation: Clarifying objectives, reducing complexity, avoiding duplication simplifying and broadening participation, increase impact of EU funding , more collaboration between science and business.
Related to this issues, the Green Paper envisages a common strategic framework that shall tackle societal challenges, strengthen competitiveness and strengthen the EU science base and EU Research Area.
Often, what it provides is new understanding, which then enters into a complex process of assimilation into policy and practice, but is rarely the only source of the policy or practice, which emerges. Often too the conduct of educational and other social science research itself stands in a close relationship with the sites of practice: There is not such a clear separation between research and development as there is in e.
The point is that the requirements for reporting and impact in educational and social science research need to be tailored to the particular ways in which research functions in these areas. European Research on Education and Training: News of EERA, The whole document can be consulted at: Nevertheless, education is considered by the EC the key of development of Lisbon strategy through it main policy programme of ET Education and Training Programme ; and in continuity with this, the key of EU flagship initiative, through the ET The long-term strategic objectives of EU education and training policies are:.
Making lifelong learning and mobility a reality; Improving the quality and efficiency of education and training; Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship; Enhancing creativity and innovation, including entrepreneurship, at all levels of education and training European Commission, idem. EU level activities are being developed to address priority areas in each of the different levels of education and training — early childhood, school, higher, vocational and adult education — based on these overall aims.
A series of benchmarks are set for The benchmarks for are: Research and Analysis in the context of ET To serve these ambitious objectives, the European Commission has launched a number of studies and research into areas of common concern for the education and training sector across Europe. These help to promote comparative research and ensure that European policies have a solid factual basis. So far, efforts have looked into fields including: These topics are more than just wider areas of interest: A timetable for action has been agreed, with preparation of the surveys lasting until and data collection up to The first international report should be finalised in and a series of thematic reports should be released from onwards.
It means gaining, processing and assimilating new knowledge and skills, as well as seeking and making use of guidance. Education ministers from across the EU suggested that the development of indicators should be started in this field in The European Commission brought together an expert group to develop an instrument to measure learning-to-learn competences in different countries, together with support from the CRELL Learning to learn; research centre. Altogether, 2 year-olds from 49 schools were tested and each country made recommendations to improve the instrument.
The findings of this pilot survey are being used to develop a full-scale European indicator in the field. Data will then enable education decision-makers to undertake thorough analyses of how learning-to-learn abilities are acquired, taught and measured in different national settings. This, in turn, will give greater understanding of curricula developments and teaching methods.
In addition, Member States are currently carrying out major assessments of the situation in a number of these key areas, often as part of joint international surveys, as shown in the following table. For the first time, teachers in 19 EU Member States and associated countries have completed a comprehensive survey on the main aspects of their learning environment and working conditions, as part of wider international efforts. Recommendations to come out of the report for policy-makers are that an increased focus on appraisal, feedback and a positive school climate can contribute to the development of schools and improve the quality of teaching.
EU Member States are involved in international research efforts looking into how well education and training systems deliver these skills to young people. The work covers areas such as democracy and citizenship, national identity, social cohesion and diversity. The results from the study have been released in June Civic skills are identified as one of the 16 core indicators for education and training in Europe, and the Commission will use the results of the ICCS study to assess progress in this area.
Actions to improve vocational education and training help to provide the skills, knowledge and competences needed in the labour market. Skills in foreign languages are becoming ever-more important as economies become increasingly globalised and people travel abroad more often. The EU is looking into how well education and training systems in different countries teach languages.
The European Survey on Language Competences is a major initiative by the European Commission to support the development of language-learning policies across Europe. It will also collect data on how demographic, social, economic and educational factors affect language proficiency. The data collected in the survey will be used to construct an indicator to measure progress towards EU objectives of improving the learning and teaching of foreign languages across Europe. However, the challenges facing higher education are similar across the EU and there are clear advantages in working together.
The role of the European Commission is to support national efforts. Higher education in Europe Higher education plays an essential role in society, creating new knowledge, transferring it to students and fostering innovation. EU-level actions help higher education institutions throughout Europe in their efforts to modernise, both in terms of the courses they offer and the way they operate.
Europe has around 4 higher education institutions, with over 19 million students and 1. Some European universities are among the best in the world, but, overall, potential is not being fully realised. Curricula are not always up to date, not enough young people go to university, and not enough adults have ever attended university. European universities often lack the management tools and funding to match their ambitions.
Eurydice, the official information network on education in Europe providing information on and analyses of European education systems and policies. Cedefop, the centre of reference for vocational education and training for the European Union. An analysis of studies commissioned make visible that mainly private societies, as well as University research centers from UK, France, Belgium, Germany, and with less participation, Netherlands, and Scandinavian countries are the main implementers of these studies.
Beyond this framework of research for policy recommendation, the EC promotes exchanges of information on different policy options, eventually supported by research, that can help advance reforms in national education and training systems and form a key part of European co-operation in education and training. Meanwhile, the Copenhagen Process organises peer learning activities for vocational education and training, and the working group on the Adult Learning Action Plan organises peer learning in adult education7. This could encompass, in the future, that a lot of interesting educational practices, even when guided by principles of innovation and development, could be loosely connected to the educational research agenda.
In fact, LLP urges for design projects that cover specific policy priorities, and inside them, it requires research background supporting proposals. Nevertheless, proposals are not only approved by their scientific solidity, and many LLP projects implement interesting ideas, more concerned on covering activities than in producing valid and reliable evidence for future practice. The analyses should be based on comparable data, statistics, knowledge and analysis to underpin lifelong learning strategies and policy development and to identify strategic areas for particular attention.
Particular attention is paid to dissemination and exploitation of the results of studies and research carried out under this Action. The activities of the Action include comparative studies and research, research networks and research conferences as well as publication and dissemination of results. Priority is given to studies and research which provide an added value to state of the art of knowledge in the field and which focus on topics not yet covered by recent or ongoing and forthcoming studies funded under this action. Before submitting an application, applicants should, therefore, ensure that the proposed topic has not yet been and will not be covered by another study funded by EU education programmes9.
The priority topics for comparative research to strengthen the evidence base for policy and practice in education and training are EC, Projects are intended not only for individual students and learners, but also for teachers, trainers and all others involved in education and training. Provision and demand for adult learning: Studies focus are comparative or in-depth country analyses of organisational, management and funding models designed to create a high quality and efficient adult learning system formal, non-formal and informal , supported by guidance, validation, electronic learning platforms and other key features, thereby providing concrete ways to enable adults to learn and improve their qualifications over their entire life course.
Acquisition of key competences in education and training throughout lifelong learning. Studies addresses the following issues: Attractiveness of vocational education and training VET. Measuring competences and anticipating future skills. As we can see, the big umbrella of LLP can create real good opportunities for the development of educational research initiatives. So participation and agenda should dialogue with practices and agenda of educational researchers as consolidated group.
Social inclusion in education and training, including the integration of migrants. In addition, the programme includes Jean Monnet actions which stimulate teaching, reflection and debate on European integration, involving higher education institutions worldwide. Scientific issues would become more complex in the years following the war, and to expand the expertise available to it in its advisory service to the government, the NAS created the National Research Council under its charter in To keep pace with the growing roles that science and technology would play in public life, the National Academy of Engineering was established under the NAS charter in , and the Institute of Medicine followed in Educational research has its own well recognized role among other topics, as it is possible to see on the annual reports of the four areas concerned with research policies in USA: So this makes 11 of 31 projects, with clear focus of concern on science, technology and math education, from teachers training to advanced training within higher education.
In fact, education is linked specifically to the nation competitiveness. But most of the measures went unfunded until the economic stimulus package was created early in In the above mentioned reports, it is clear that building U. Talent in Science and Technology in USA depends on the capacity of educate high specialized work force and teachers.
In general, the results pointed out specific facts addressing further policies: The concern for the U. Regards the increasingly uncertain path that this fact represents since as many of these international students may choose to return to their home countries. In addition, K science and mathematics teachers need better preparation, and high school programs should emphasize college readiness. Another focus of concern for the U. Most K education reform efforts in recent years have included a focus on improving the quality of teaching, which studies show could have the greatest potential effect in raising student achievement.
Yet there is little definitive evidence about which particular approaches to teacher preparation yield high-quality educators whose students are successful. The report Preparing Teachers: Building Evidence for Sound Policy10 calls for better data collection and research to. Science and Technology for Children — Books 3. Building Evidence for Sound Policy 4. Review and Critique 5. Computer Games, Simulations, and Education 7. Research is badly needed on specific factors in teacher education that may ultimately affect student learning, with particular attention to different aspects of teacher knowledge, clinical experiences, and the quality of entering teacher candidates.
Department of Education should develop a national education data network that incorporates comprehensive data related to teacher education. Research reviewed in the report confirms that reading, mathematics, and science teachers need strong subject-matter knowledge as well as familiarity with how students learn a particular subject. Many mathematics teachers, in particular, lack the needed level of preparation in mathematics content. The Science education is a critical aspect of capacity building.
Within educational research, the raising debate is, again, on the needs of developing theory-driven research, that creates a disciplinary identity for education science. In fact, as highlighted by Anyon , no fact, investigation, or conclusion can be theory-free; she claims, in fact, for more awareness about the theories underlying empirical research in U.
The focus of discussion amongst U. As Anyon claims, in order to understand any educational phenomenon, educational researchers need also to look at the larger social, economic, and political contexts within which that phenomenon is embedded, and to seek out theories that connect these. Furthermore, theories can be used not just to understand the individuals, situations, and structures studied, but also to change them.
Council study was funded by the U. From the first experiment to the latest technology, they facilitate our actions in and on that world, enabling us not to mirror, but to bump against, to perturb, to transform that material reality. In this sense scientific theories are tools for changing the world. So the debate of educational researchers in U. The American Educational Research Association AERA , founded in , is concerned with improving the educational process by encouraging scholarly inquiry related to education and evaluation and by promoting the dissemination and practical application of research results.
AERA is the most prominent international professional organization, with the primary goal of advancing educational research and its practical application. Its more than 25, members are educators; administrators; directors of research; persons working with testing or evaluation in federal, state and local agencies; counselors; evaluators; graduate students; and behavioral scientists.
The broad range of disciplines represented by the membership includes education, psychology, statistics, sociology, history, economics, philosophy, anthropology, and political science. It is worth to consider two recent lines of research of AERA, transversal to educational research activities, aiming to acquire quality of research outcomes: Undertaken jointly by these two scholarly and scientific organizations, a first-time-ever assessment examined education research doctorate programs in graduate schools and colleges of education in the United States.
In fact, the field of education could be considered large and robust with its production of approximately 1, doctorates each year; nevertheless, there has been no prior comprehensive assessment of doctorate programs.
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This assessment examined the national picture for programs in 16 major fields of education research that have distinct programs of doctoral study, including mathematics and science education, teaching and teacher education, curriculum and instruction, educational psychology, education measurement and statistics, higher education, and educational policy.
The focus of the assessment was the quality of educational research to be undertaken in a nation that should restrain resources of research. The SBR definition set forth below was supported by the AERA Council as a framework that offers sound guidance to members of Congress seeking to include such language in legislation.
AERA provided this definition in response to congressional staff requests for an SBR definition that was grounded in scientific standards and principles. The request derived from an interest in averting the inconsistencies and at times narrowness of other SBR definitions used in legislation in recent years. The American Educational Research Association: Specifically, such research requires: The examination of causal questions requires experimental designs using random assignment or quasi-experimental or other designs that substantially reduce plausible competing explanations for the obtained results.
These include, but are not limited to, longitudinal designs, case control methods, statistical matching, or time series analyses. This standard applies especially to studies evaluating the impacts of policies and programs on educational outcomes. The term applies to all mechanisms of federal research support, whether field-initiated or directed. This definition implies specific interest on addressing research based policies, as well as decision taking in the context of Education for the government of U.
Final Remarks regarding Educational Research in Europe and USA Until this point, we have highlighted key challenges of Educational Research in a societal context of change — demographic change, globalisation, and sustainability —, that European education and training systems, as well as the U. From one hand each social and economic development model brings about a whole set of implications for educational systems, that will require political attention for a long time to come; from the other hand, educational research afford scientific inner concerns that shape the agenda and features of research activities.
This last issue has its roots into philosophical conditions of development. We have grouped at the beginning these implications into three dimensions, that are mutually overlapping: It is self-evident that our future-oriented exercise has a brainstorming character that contains a lot of imponderability. There is no scientifically rigorous way of saying how global and regional societies will look like in the next ten years, and it is hence impossible to perfectly determine the role of educational research as a block of the whole building of society and the world.
There are a lot of possible future scenarios in the broader sense of society and the restrict sense of educational research participation, for which there is no rigorous basis to argue from. What we have attempted, is to frame the debate by documenting the way in which educational. As we have demonstrated here, educational research across Europe is mainly undertaken by certain institutions in certain geographical areas, responding to a specific European agenda. We have briefly summarized agendas in the U. In the case of U. Furthermore, policy-making as well as research agendas are defined linearly; they proceed in a series of moments of debate, agreement, launch of initiatives, testing, and feed-back; from the identification of a key issue within research, many years can separate the concrete application of principles to everyday life.
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In fact, conventional models of policy implementation often assume that once a particular policy has been developed it will be straightforwardly adopted. However, all of the research projects which have focused on innovation and modernisation underscore the difficulty of effecting change. There are a number of factors that contribute to the gap between policy and practice. Some of these relate to the context in which the policy is being implemented. Some derive from the tensions and limits of the policies themselves. It is not just that implementing change is hard, there are sometimes vested interests in resisting change.
Implementing new technologies, for instance, is not about installing computers and providing staff development courses although these are important. If their potential is to be realised, it will require radical shifts in the ways in which learners and teachers see themselves. In fact, policy-makers often overestimate the scope of change that can be effected in and by schools. New technologies, for instance, have been heralded as a means of simultaneously transforming learning, widening participation, reducing social exclusion and aiding European integration.
This is where educational research have to respond with a clear agenda, with not only evidence but also values that come from an inner consistency, from an international community of researchers that play an specific part in shaping policies, rather than in responding to them to keep a place and pace in the context of social sciences and humanities development.
Invited lecture presented at the TLRP event: Methodological Development, Future Challenges. Bridging the gap between educational research and educational practice: The need for critical distance. Educational Research and Evaluation 13 3 , Council of Europe The sources of a science of education. Southern Illinois University Press. From Challenges to Opportunities: British Journal of Educational Studies vol: Excellence in research on schools. Institute for Employment Studies.
Improving learning cultures in Further Education. The troubling history of educational research. The tact of teaching: The meaning of pedagogical thoughtfulness. De ontwikkeling van wetenschap. It will lay down the theoretical, pragmatic and normative foundations in the field of education, according to an international and multidisciplinary view. Within such context, this contribution offers a new perspective towards the understanding and the interpretation of formativity, meant as a cultural construction. By doing so, its related sociohistorical profile is examined.
Esta cultura, ligada al llamado conocimiento. Investigar las identidades locales, regionales y nacionales, y buscar los patterns comunes, constituye todo un programa por hacer. La memoria nos constituye como sujetos y como comunidad. Europe s , Paris: Social structures and cultural patterns, London: Europa en el caleidoscopio. Schooling in Western Europe. The new order and its adversaries, London: Penser l Europe, Paris: The formation of an education space, Boston: Ortega y Gasset, J.
De Europa meditatio quaedam, Madrid: La svolta neobarocca dell educazione, Milano: ABSTRACT The article documents the history of activity theory as an activist and interventionist theory, in which theoretical developments are intertwined with practical transformations in work and educational practices through research interventions. Seeds for research interventions in cultural-historical activity theory are identified in the rich heritage of the works of Vygotsky and other classic authors.
The article points out that the future of activity theory depends on the understanding and creative development of this heritage of Vygotsky and those who pursued his work. The article also introduces two interventionist epistemological principles stemming from the history of activity theory, namely the principle of double stimulation and the principle of ascending from the abstract to the concrete.
Understanding the relationship between these principles is seen as a possible direction to orient future studies in activity theory. Le terapie cliniche nella tradizione freudiana Freud, rappresentano altri tipi di interventi.
Allora la pratica era colonia della teoria, dipendente in tutti i suoi aspetti dalla metropolis. La teoria non era in alcun modo dipendente dalla pratica. Successo o insuccesso nella pratica non avevano alcun effetto sul divenire della teoria. Adesso ci troviamo nella situazione opposta. Nella sperimentazione tradizionale gli strumenti sono utilizzati per amplificare la percezione sensoriale del ricercatore, che ha un accesso diretto ai fenomeni in esame.
Istruzione e diritto, commercio e industria, vita sociale e medicina non sono state influenzate da questo movimento. Ha ancora senso allora parlare oggi della crisi in psicologia? Molti studiosi di Vygotskij sono fermi alla nozione di interiorizzazione. Tanta sperimentazione e straordinari sforzi creativi furono generati in tutti gli ambiti culturali e sociali. Vygotsky e i suoi colleghi trovarono rifugio in Ucraina. Anche dopo la morte di Vygotskij, i suoi libri furono requisiti dai suoi archivi.
Sudiosi progressisti come Urie Bronfenbrenner, Jerome Bruner, e Michael Cole, portano le opere dei fondatori nei circoli accademici americani. Nello stesso periodo Vygotskij ha istituito un laboratorio di psicologia presso la Scuola di Formazione degli Insegnanti a Gomel: Luria , riflettendo sul lavoro di Vygotskij in questo periodo, scrisse: Il lavoro intellettuale di Vygotskij si fonda su queste preoccupazioni pratiche del suo tempo.
Luria e Alexei N. Levitin sottolinea che: Ilyenkov , ha fondato la sua filosofia sulle pratiche educative concrete della scuola diretta da Meshcheryakov a Zagorsk. Ilyenkov citato da Levitin, ha pubblicamente affermato quanto segue: Il principio della doppia stimolazione deriva direttamente da Vygotskij.
La doppia stimolazione si riferisce al meccanismo secondo cui gli esseri umani possono intenzionalmente venir fuori da una situazione di conflitto e cambiare le circostanze in cui si trovano. Si tratta propriamente di un principio di trasformazione. Fino ad ora il soggetto era esclusivamente in balia di questi motivi contrastanti, ma ora comincia a controllare il proprio comportamento.
Gli esseri umani utilizzano artefatti che trasformano in segni, dando loro un significato. In alcuni di questi esperimenti sono gli sperimentatori stessi che preparano i secondi stimoli e li mettono a disposizione dei soggetti sperimentali quando questi si confrontano con i problemi concettuali. In altri esperimenti, invece, gli sperimentatori attendono che i soggetti costruiscano ed utilizzino spontaneamente i secondi stimoli Vygotskij, Marx poi ha dato a questo metodo una interpretazione materialista. Pensare e apprendere secondo Davydov significa generalizzare, vale a dire astrarre significato da un insieme iniziale diffuso.
Davydov distingue tra due tipi di astrazioni, empiriche e teoriche. Se si mira invece alla generalizzazione genetica o teorica, bisogna identificare il nesso funzionale di base tra i fenomeni. Per usare le parole di Davydov Un esempio di cellula germinale tratto da Engels e riportato da Vygotskij Origins of the psychological experiment as a social institution.
American Psychologist, 40, — Substantial generalization and the dialectical materialistic theory of thinking. Methodological and epistemological aspects of the activity theory of learning and teaching pp. Types of generalization in instruction: Logical and psychological problems in the structuring of school curricula. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. A new approach to the interpretation of activity structure and content.
The emergence of learning activity as a historical form of human learning. An activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Developmental work research as educational research: Looking ten years back and into the zone of proximal development. Journal of Nordic Educational Research, 16, Essays on dream interpretation, hypnosis, transference, free association, and other techniques of psychoanalysis.
Pedagogie per un mondo globale | Silvio Premoli - efycymepodor.tk
The clinical interview in psychological research and practice. The life and the creative path of A. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 43 3 , Gli studi sui gemelli di Luria e Yudovich e gli studi di Meshcheryakov sui bambini di Zagorsk sono esempi eminenti di studi in cui questi nessi sono facilmente identificabili Sannino, Activity, consciousness, and personality. Rehabilitation of hand fuction. One is not born a personality: Profiles of Soviet education psychologists. Action research and minority problems.
Journal of Social Issues, 2 4 , pp. The making of mind: A personal account of Soviet psychology. A dialogue with The Making of Mind. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Vygotskij, Pensiero e linguaggio: Activity theory as an activist and interventionist theory. The creation of settings and the future societies. Methodological thinking in psychology: Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences. The development of higher psychological processes.
The collected works of L. Problems of General Psychology. The historical meaning of the crisis in Psychology: In The collected works of L. Problems of the theory and history of psychology. Tool and symbol in child development. Inclusive education, Bisogni educativi speciali, Formazione degli insegnanti, Formazione alla ricerca.
Essi condividono lo scopo antico e sempre fondante della Pedagogia Speciale di promuovere la rifles-. The variability of the participants is one feature of special education research that makes it more complex. La prima linea di ricerca-forma-azione riguarda le domande di inclusione da parte degli studenti e delle famiglie e le relative risposte educative. Le risposte della scuola sono pertinenti?
Sono valide e generalizzabili? Sono appropriate dal punto di vista comunicativo? Per vivere il proprio lavoro come professionisti riflessivi. La didattica inclusiva assicura la consultazione degli allievi per ogni supporto supplettivo necessario alla loro formazione. In questa linea di ricerca i focus di indagine riguardano: La didattica inclusiva richiede specifiche competenze deontologiche, metodologiche, relazionali, tecnologiche, progettuali e valutative.
Le piste di indagine pertanto si svilupperanno a largo spettro su:. In questa linea di ricerca-forma-azione si esaminano anche i raccordi tra scuola e i servizi territoriali, le strutture sociali e sanitarie di supporto, le agenzie formative esterne. Qualitative studies in special education. Exceptional Children, 71 2 , Insegnanti specializzati per il sostegno. La gestione della classe.
Modelli di ricerca e implicazioni della pratica. Pedagogia speciale e integrazione. Dal pregiudizio agli interventi educativi. Students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disvantages. Research in Special Education: Scientific Methods and EvidenceBased Practices. Effective teaching as effective intervention. A Multi-disciplinary Journal, 10 4 , Preparing general educators to teach in inclusive classrooms: Educational Research, 67 1 , Ricerca didattica e counseling formativo.
Lecce - Iseo BS: It does so by investigating the international scientific literature on the topic, looking for researches and trends that have characterized this field during last thirty years. Since the Eighties, these models show key-moments of paradigmatic rupture that changed its definition, hence the research tradition. This work constitutes a starting point for the achievement of the following goals: Such a comparison will be a useful reference for the evaluation of recent contributions in research; b the identification of the theoretical bases and of the most promising research paths deriving from those issues, such as the New literacies Research addressed in this paper.
Questo lavoro vuole contribuire allo sviluppo di un quadro teorico sul concetto di literacy, rintracciando nella letteratura scientifica internazionale le ricerche e le tendenze che hanno caratterizzato questo settore, negli ultimi trenta anni. Questo lavoro costituisce il punto di partenza per raggiungere due obiettivi: Understanding digital literacy, Tornero ; EU Digital Literacy Review, c; A European approach to media literacy in the digital environment, b. Inoltre, esistono diverse interpretazioni e prospettive teoriche differenti che hanno determinato uno sviluppo complesso.
Stando ai significati forniti dal dizionario inglese o ai lessici internazionali TESE —Thesaurus for Education Systems in Europe , il termine literacy potrebbe essere tradotto in vari modi: Tuttavia, anche se queste definizioni sono utili per indicare a grandi linee di che cosa si tratta, non riescono a descrivere le dimensioni e le modifiche semantiche acquisite nel tempo con le conseguenti sfumature di significati.
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