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Table of contents
- Números em texto integral
- Synonyms and antonyms of espiritista in the Portuguese dictionary of synonyms
- EUR-Lex - C/E/01 - EN - EUR-Lex
- Vírus Ebola
Lisboa, Editor Arnaldo Bordalo Lisboa, INE , Oxford e Nova Iorque, Berg. Paris, Editions du Seuil. Les structures du quotidien. Consagrado aos Gloriosos S. Lisboa, Officina de Antonio Craesbeck de Mello. O Encantamento das Cores e Sabores da Bahia. Rio de Janeiro, Senac. Economy, Society and Culture , vol. The Power of Identity. Lisboa, Editorial Verbo, Lisboa, Academia do Bacalhau de Lisboa. Porto, Officina de Antonio Alvarez Ribeiro.
Lisboa, Officina de Valentim da Costa Deslandes. Londres e Nova Iorque, Routledge, The Triumph of French Cuisine. Lisboa, Officina de Miguel Rodrigues. Lisboa, Clube dos Colecionadores do Correio. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. A Study in Comparative Sociology.
Nova Iorque, Hippocrene Books. Nova Iorque, Harper and Row. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, A, , A Moveable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization. A Biography of the Fish that Changed the World. Lisboa, Livraria Editora de Mattos Moreira. Therefore, the presence of the ERDF logo on the banner of the exhibition leads to a misunderstanding because only one activity of the whole exhibition was co-financed by the ERDF.
Within the framework of shared management, the responsibility for the selection, management and implementation of projects within programmes lies solely with the Member States, in full compliance with applicable EU and national legislation. The Commission is not aware of any EU co-financed project for building new bullfighting facilities, although it cannot exclude that some of these facilities have indirectly benefited from investments aimed at either upgrading or restructuring local public facilities. The European Union has progressed with legislation on animal welfare, particularly with regard to food production, circuses and zoos.
However, despite the deserved attention given to this subject, none of this legislation has been applied, or is applicable, to the animals involved in bullfights. Is it planning to propose legislation, amend existing legislation or change the way existing legislation is applied, to extend animal welfare issues to bullfights? Why is existing European animal welfare legislation not applied to bullfights? Does the Commission not agree that current animal welfare legislation should prevent bullfights taking place in Europe?
Si tratta di modificare l'attuale Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, col quale si imporrebbe alle aziende ICT del paese di dotare i propri servizi voip, e-mail e peer-to-peer di un accesso privilegiato ad uso delle forze dell'ordine per facilitarne le intercettazioni in ambito di indagine. Nel caso in cui venisse accolta dal sistema americano, ne reputa compatibili le conseguenze con l'attuale normativa vigente in Europa in materia di privacy e trattamento dei dati personali? Qualsiasi trattamento dei dati personali all'interno dell'UE deve rispettare la legislazione applicabile dell'UE sulla protezione dei dati.
It involves amending the existing Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act so as to require ICT companies in the country to equip their VOIP, e-mail and peer-to-peer services with preferential access for use by law enforcement bodies to facilitate interceptions during their investigations. If the proposal is adopted as part of the American system, does the Commission consider the consequences compatible with the rules currently in force in Europe regarding privacy and personal data? Given that the services managed by the companies which would be subject to these rules are also widely disseminated and used in the European Union, does the Commission consider that the rights of its citizens may be put at risk?
Gli operai, cui non viene assicurata nessuna tutela sindacale, sono infatti costretti a turnazioni di 12 ore, ricevono esigui stipendi mensili fra i 70 e i dollari, spesso non dispongono di alcuna garanzia contrattuale e devono sostenere ritmi estenuanti di lavoro per consegnare le commesse in tempi strettissimi. The EU regularly uses meetings with third countries, such as human rights dialogues, to urge third countries to ratify and implement International Labour Organisation ILO conventions concerning the right to form trade unions, to engage in collective bargaining and to enjoy decent conditions of work.
Following the adoption of a Commission Communication on Corporate Social Responsibility in , the Commission is currently developing human rights guidance for specific business sectors and for small and medium-sized enterprises. The Commission will also publish a report on EU priorities for the effective implementation of the UN Guiding Principles by the end of The website nevertheless indicates that Commission-funded humanitarian assistance is implemented through humanitarian organisations European NGOs, UN agencies and international organisations.
It contains the ERC Guidelines and shows in detail what is being funded. Grant Facility funding is no longer operational and therefore its dedicated page on ECHO's website is to be removed. No grants were awarded in Galicia is a region with significant natural diversity. As well as being a natural resource, water creates jobs and is economically important for Galicia. It is therefore essential to ensure that Galician water is clean and used properly. This has been publicly acknowledged by several governments of different political persuasions.
In addition, the sewage system plans included a pipe discharging near a drinking water source in the Sisalde area Arteixo. The Commission is therefore unable to ascertain the alleged seriousness of the situation. The use of sea outfalls to discharge effluents is an option that can be effective to protect coastal waters. In the event of significant negative impact and in the absence of alternative solutions, the project may be authorised only for imperative reasons of overriding public interest.
The project has received funding from the Cohesion Fund. The Commission will continue to follow the situation and will take further measures as appropriate. In recent days, a number of serious revelations have been made by authoritative political and economic figures, including the current head of the State-saving EFSF Klaus Regling, a former head of department at the German Ministry of Finance, referring to the time when Italy entered the euro and expressing strong doubts about whether Italy ever truly met the pre-established convergence criteria for joining the single European currency immediately.
Other authoritative German sources have also revealed that many people knew that the operations carried out by Italy to put its accounts in order were simple window-dressing and lacked any real economic impact. It therefore seems that Italy was the trailblazer for the political complaisance that was soon to allow Greece to join the euro, despite the doubts that have always been expressed about the accuracy of its accounts at the time. Politics cannot however mask the economic and financial shortcomings of a country forever, and the crisis has dramatically brought all this to light, leading Greece to the brink of the abyss and plunging Italy into a profound crisis as well.
Greater rigour and seriousness would probably have made the current situation less serious, and those responsible for this should be held to account. In view of the above, can the Commission investigate these events in detail and shed light on the statements made by these prominent figures, some of whom have important positions in European financial management? La Commissione effettua controlli regolari sui progetti LIFE tramite un sistema di relazioni che i beneficiari devono trasmettere alla Commissione, secondo un calendario di presentazione previsto nella convenzione di sovvenzione, e con l'aiuto di un gruppo di consulenti esterni che riferisce direttamente alla Commissione.
Zelkova sicula is a woodland species endemic to Sicily. Can the Commission say whether it is monitoring the measures being taken by the Region of Sicily for the protection of Zelkova sicula under the above project? The Commission carries out its regular monitoring of the LIFE projects through a system of reports that the beneficiaries have to send to the Commission according to the reporting schedule included in the Grant Agreement, and through the assistance of a group of external consultants, who report directly to the Commission.
However, tendering documentation is verified by the Commission and its external consultants at the latest prior to the execution of the final payment to the Coordinating Beneficiary. Articolul alineatul 2 din Regulamentul CE nr. In many cases, they omit to mention this fact on the product label. Can the Commission specify the legal obligations of processors regarding the addition of powdered milk to fresh milk and regarding consumer information?
Authorised modifications include the modification of the natural fat content by removal or addition of cream or the addition of whole milk, semi-skimmed milk or skimmed milk, the enrichment of milk with milk proteins, mineral salts or vitamins, and the reduction of the lactose content by conversion to glucose and galactose. The addition of milk powder is not allowed. The Commission does not intend to change the legislation in this respect which provides for rules aimed at guaranteeing a high quality of drinking milk in line with consumers' demand.
The European Union has recently announced that it will not ban imports of beef from the United States and will not change its health inspection procedures at customs, even though a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy was recently discovered in California. Can the Commission give the reasons for its decision, and say whether it will continue to monitor the situation and possibly review its position?
The confirmation of this new BSE case in the United States comes as no particular surprise, considering that indigenous BSE cases have already been confirmed in this country. In such a context, an occasional finding only confirms that the local surveillance system is able to detect BSE cases. It should not be interpreted as a sign that the sanitary situation has changed. This new case will have no impact on the classification of the United States as a country of controlled risk for BSE. For these reasons, the Commission does not consider appropriate, at this stage, to take any new measure as regards the import of beef from the United States.
Imports of beef from this country will remain subject to existing EU requirements, including the removal of specified risk material the organs considered to harbour the BSE infectivity. The compliance with these measures is verified by the Commission's inspection service whose reports are published at: The NER funding mechanism, administered by the European Commission, will be used to fund up to 8 carbon capture and storage CCS projects and 34 renewable energy projects across Europe.
Projects will be ranked in increasing order of cost-per-unit performance. The Commission will make award decisions, based on this ranking, in the second half of Furthermore, it is unclear how environmental impacts will be taken into account by the Commission prior to making award decisions.
Números em texto integral
Would the Commission consider an award of funding through the NER funding competition to projects which may have an adverse impact on a Natura site? It will hence not be awarded any funding under the first call for proposals of the NER funding programme. What data is available on the difficulties and charges faced by European industries because of the lack of rare earth metals and the artificially inflated prices imposed by China?
What does it intend to do to increase the possibilities of exploiting the sources of rare earth metals available in the EU? Unfortunately, the consultations did not lead to a mutual satisfactory solution. In this light, the Commission sees no other option but to move to the next stage in World Trade Organisation proceedings, i. The Commission has received numerous complaints from EU businesses about their difficulties related to the lack of secure and affordable access to rare earths inputs — including the necessity to raise the prices of their products, or to relocate — or even cease — some of their operations.
The Commission is also preparing a proposal to launch an Innovation Partnership on raw materials within the Europe Flagship on Innovation Union. We all know about the risks linked to natural disasters, for which there is a special compensation fund set aside. However, not enough is known the risks linked to fires in buildings. Yet, with the development of new materials and technologies, the risk of fire in buildings has increased considerably and has economic and social consequences that are underestimated. Fire safety is a major environmental, economic and social issue. National regulations differ from one country to another, which means that there are wide disparities in fire prevention standards.
Furthermore, European legislation, in particular the directive on the energy performance of buildings, will necessarily continue to have consequences concerning the reaction to fire performance and fire resistance of materials used in buildings. If so, does it plan to commission a statistical study based on national fire statistics, which would enable a precise assessment of fire prevention measures in the Member States?
The safety of buildings falls under the responsibility of Member States. Under these circumstances the Commission does not intend to launch a study identifying the fire prevention measures in the Member States. Technical work is currently ongoing for a possible review the Council Recommendation of on fire safety in existing hotels. Can the Commission please explain why an important accountability measure such as this was not included in the proposed IPA Regulation? Relevant committees in both branches of the legislature are currently considering the proposal.
In line with this conclusion, the importance given to monitoring and evaluation processes as a major part of the overall accountability principle is indeed reinforced throughout the current Commission proposal. Can the Commission please detail why there is such an enormous difference between the funding for the two candidate countries, especially because Turkey has been receiving pre-accession funding since before the current IPA system of pre-accession funding was established?
The allocation of IPA funds to beneficiary countries is done on the basis of objective and transparent criteria which include, inter alia , needs assessment, absorption capacity, respect of conditionalities and capacity of management. With regards to needs, the volume and type of assistance that Iceland requires to prepare for the implementation of the acquis cannot be compared to that of other enlargement countries.
The degree of its alignment with EU legislation achieved through its membership in the European Economic Area as well as its level of economic and social development are notably different from that in other countries. Can the Commission state if there is an EU regulation on private pension schemes? If so, can the Commission please provide details of such a regulation? There are a number of pieces of EU legislation which can apply to private pension schemes depending on the nature of the particular pension scheme and the circumstances. Veleno di animali come medicina del futuro.
Da vipere, scorpioni, lumache, cobra, lucertole e anemoni di mare molti scienziati hanno ricavato farmaci per patologie gravi come il cancro, la sclerosi multipla o l'ipertensione. Se non intende approfondire la ricerca summenzionata al fine di migliorare la salute e la sicurezza dei cittadini? La clorotossina ha dimostrato efficacia sul cancro, nei modelli animali e nella fase iniziale delle prove cliniche.
The venom of certain animals is highly toxic and can even be lethal, but may also be the salvation of many sick people. Scientists have extracted medicines for serious diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis or hypertension from the venom of snakes, scorpions, snails, cobras, lizards and sea anemones. An American magazine has illustrated the dual nature of these animals: The venom of the yellow scorpion, a native of North Africa and the Middle East, may be used against cancer.
Whether studies on animal venoms used as medicine have been carried out recently as part of the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development FP7? Whether any medicines derived from animal venom and distributed in Member States have received authorisation from the European Medicines Agency, the body that coordinates the scientific evaluation of the quality, safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products?
Whether it intends to further the above research with a view to improving public health and safety? In cancer, chlorotoxin has demonstrated efficacy in animal models and early phase clinical trials. There is no marketing authorisation for a medicinal product derived from an animal venom granted by the Commission via the centralised procedure. It is yet too premature to ascertain which could be the specific research issues addressed. Le forze dell'ordine di Venezia, Vicenza e Padova hanno sequestrato oltre tonnellate di alimenti avariati. Otto responsabili sono stati denunciati per commercio di alimentari contraffatti e frode in commercio; sette lavoratori in nero sono stati trovati in uno stabilimento che operava senza autorizzazione.
Se l'Ufficio alimentare e veterinario, che controlla i singoli impianti di produzione alimentare, ha riscontrato incoerenze tra gli strumenti utilizzati dai governi degli Stati membri per controllare i rispettivi produttori di alimenti e le norme di sicurezza alimentare volute dall'UE? L'Ufficio alimentare e veterinario UAV ha effettuato audit regolari negli Stati membri, anche negli ambiti dei sottoprodotti animali e dell'igiene alimentare. I risultati degli audit mettono in luce le incoerenze e le differenze di approccio tra gli Stati membri aventi in certi casi implicazioni per la sicurezza alimentare.
Questi casi sono all'occorrenza oggetto di un follow-up per assicurare che gli Stati membri interessati attuino interventi correttivi per affrontare i rischi identificati. Targeted investigations have uncovered large quantities of fresh, deep-frozen and frozen animal products meat and fish which were no longer suitable for human consumption because they had passed their sell-by date, had oxidised, had become dehydrated or bore counterfeit labelling.
Although they were marketable only as by-products for use in animal feed, they were being fraudulently sold by unscrupulous traders, creating a serious health risk for consumers. Eight of those responsible have been charged with trading in counterfeit food and fraud; in the course of the raids, seven illegal workers were discovered in a plant operating without a licence. Tax investigations have also been launched against those responsible in order to quantify the proceeds of their illegal activities and hold them financially accountable.
Whether it is aware of the raids carried out by law-enforcement agencies in northern Italy? Whether the Food and Veterinary Office, which is responsible for scrutinising individual food production plants, has identified inconsistencies between the national instruments used by Member State governments to monitor food producers and EU food safety standards? No, the Commission has not been informed of the raids referred to by the Honourable Member.
These audits target the performance of the Competent Authorities in relation to their implementation of controls, rather than individual food production establishments. The outcomes of the audits highlight inconsistencies and differences in approach between Member States which in certain cases has implications for food safety. Finora nel almeno cinque persone sono state uccise in conflitti violenti per la terra nei villaggi di Lakang, Apar e Pabbo nel distretto del nord di Amuru. Altre due persone sono state uccise alla fine del nel vicino distretto di Nwoya.
Se l'UE non ritiene di dover coadiuvare l'azione del governo dell'Uganda al fine di prevenire il conflitto? So far in , at least five people have been killed in violent land disputes in the villages of Lakang, Apar and Pabbo in the northern district of Amuru. Two others were killed in late in the nearby district of Nwoya. The Acholi and Langi communities in the Pader district in the north of the country are currently in dispute over ancestral land in the villages of Acwinyo and Lamincwida.
Although the two communities are not armed, there has long been hostility between them.
Unclear border demarcations, such as trees and stone markers, which may have been lost or moved during the years of conflict, have exacerbated land disputes, as has the presence of a youthful regional population with an average age of 14 for females and 13 for males. Land in northern Uganda is held under customary tenure. The lack of official land ownership documents is one of the reasons why people fear losing their land. The government is currently issuing customary ownership certificates in parts of the region, but this is drawing mixed reactions.
Promoting respect for democracy, rule of law and human rights, as well as international humanitarian law and the prevention of conflicts are at the core of the EU's foreign policy. The first phase of PRDP was implemented during the period , and the second will take place in In particular, it will aim to strengthen district capacity for surveying, support land dispute settlement mechanisms, and increase awareness of the current land laws.
Non conosce limiti la ricerca sulle potenziali alternative al petrolio per produrre energia e da Boston si fa strada l'ipotesi che si possa produrre energia dai vetri delle finestre di una casa. Alcuni ricercatori hanno effettuato una sperimentazione per mettere a punto e diffondere un sistema per generare energia solare impiegando vetri domestici in sostituzione delle celle fotovoltaiche al silicio. Ci lavorano dal ma ora i tempi sono maturi: Si tratta di impiegare su scala minore una tecnica largamente usata in diverse centrali solari termodinamiche che sfruttano la forza del sole raccogliendola attraverso grandi specchi parabolici e trasformandola in calore.
Il vetro ha la funzione di una grande lastra di fibra ottica che convoglia la luce verso l'esterno e la trasforma in energia mediante cellule fotovoltaiche disposte lungo la cornice. Quali paesi europei, tra gli Stati candidati e Stati possibili candidati, sono ad oggi in grado di garantire il rispetto dell'acquis comunitario in materia di energia, elemento indispensabile alla conclusione del processo di adesione? Il prototipo di celle solari in parola rientra nella categoria delle celle solari organiche le quali impiegano composti del carbonio come strato attivo.
Per quanto riguarda il quesito relativo a quali paesi europei — candidati e possibili candidati — siano ad oggi in grado di garantire il rispetto dell'acquis UE in materia di energia, elemento indispensabile alla conclusione del processo di adesione, solo la Croazia ha concluso in via provvisoria i negoziati sul capitolo energia. I negoziati con tutti gli altri paesi candidati e potenziali candidati non sono ancora iniziati sul capitolo energia Turchia o non hanno nemmeno avuto inizio tutti gli altri. Research into potential alternatives to oil for producing energy knows no bounds, and work carried out in Boston is now pointing to the possibility of energy being produced from the glass in house windows.
Researchers have carried out an experiment aimed at developing and marketing a system for generating solar energy using domestic glazing in place of silicon photovoltaic cells. Work has being going on in this area since , but there has now been a breakthrough: This involves using, on a smaller scale, a technique that is widely employed in solar thermal power plants, which use large parabolic mirrors to concentrate sunlight and transform it into heat. The team has created a transparent paint using organic materials, which, when applied to glass surfaces, is able to collect sunlight.
The glass works like a large fibre-optic sheet, directing the light towards its edges, where it is converted into energy by photovoltaic cells installed around the frame. This means that any house window could soon become a source of electricity. The Commission is aware of the research activity indicated by the Honourable Member. The prototypic solar cell referred to belongs to the organic photovoltaic class of cells, meaning devices using a carbon-based compound as active layer.
Negotiations on the energy chapter with Iceland have opened, but the Commission cannot indicate when they could be closed. Negotiations with all other candidate countries and potential candidates have either not begun on the energy chapter Turkey or not opened at all all the others. En studie publicerad i Lancet McCann m. A study published in The Lancet in McCann et al. The compromise ultimately reached in the trialogue negotiations was a special warning text on products containing these colours. Products containing these colours must currently be labelled: Several years have now passed and therefore I would like to ask the Commission the following:.
Which studies or research projects have the Commission or the European Food Safety Authority carried out or initiated to increase our knowledge of the adverse effects of E, E, E, E, E and E in combination with E which were demonstrated by the study referred to above? Which studies is the Commission aware of that develop further the serious suspicions highlighted by the study referred to above?
If there are no studies that develop further the suspicions raised in the study by McCann et al.
As the next step the Commission asked EFSA to assess these colours individually as a matter of priority. A causal link between the individual colours and possible behavioural effects was not substantiated by any data. Due to this reason the Commission considers that the warning labelling is sufficient. Furthermore, the Commission has the indication from the food industry and the Member States that a substantial progress has been made with regard to the voluntary withdrawal of all six colours from food products.
If so, is this compatible with the concept of a single market? In this question, the Honourable Member does not specify the services or products to which the query refers in particular. In the absence of further details on the specific issue at hand, it can only be indicated that, in principle, the fact that a Member State excludes citizens from other Member States from the use of a given service cannot be considered compatible with internal market rules. According to the latest Eurostat data, unemployment in Greece is now running at It is also estimated that unemployment will rise even further in , creating a huge social problem.
Furthermore, the prolonged recession is creating a wave of emigration of young scientists, which is impacting on growth and productivity. This critical situation requires immediate drastic measures to be taken at the European level, since the issue of unemployment concerns not only Greece, but all Member States. In view of the above, will the Commission say:. What specific action does it intend to take and what measures has it implemented to give young people access to the labour market?
Has it considered any unified European plan to match graduate specialisations and qualifications with demand in the European labour market? With regard to specific actions under the Commission's Youth Opportunities Initiative. The EU Skills Panorama will help with the matching of supply and demand through updated forecasting of skills needs and information on jobs and occupations mismatches.
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The supply of basic goods and transport for medical treatment are difficult, especially during the winter months when transport connections are reduced. Due to the economic crisis, high fuel prices and the economic problems faced by the ferry companies, together with low passenger traffic, there is now an obvious danger that the Greek islands will remain without ferry services, even in summer. What funding has it granted to Greece for ferry services and what data is available on its use and take-up rate?
In particular, it authorises Member States to impose public service obligations and to conclude public service contracts for regular services to, from and between islands. The decision regarding the extent of public service is the sole responsibility of the national authorities. It is the competence of those authorities to determine whether there is a real need for the public service, define its frequency, the type of vessels that should be deployed as well as to finance such service where necessary.
The Commission actively promotes research into innovative ship technology as well as the provision and use of cleaner alternative fuels. In this respect, it is to clarify that the Structural Funds cannot be used to give direct support to the operational cost of maritime transport, i. According to the Institute for Consumer Protection, unjustified price increases occur frequently in the Greek islands.
Given that high fuel prices are damaging vital sectors of the economy such as transport, agricultural development and fisheries, will the Commission say:. What measures has it taken to limit high fuel prices, which are undermining growth and productivity in the economy of the EU?
Synonyms and antonyms of espiritista in the Portuguese dictionary of synonyms
Does it intend to propose a fiscal policy for fuel that will set an upper limit on fuel taxes? Specifically with regard to Greece, is it aware of the very high price of petrol? What measures has it taken, or does it intend to take, to limit it? Above these minima, Member States can fix levels of taxation as they see fit, taking into account national policy considerations.
Excise duties and other taxes are only one part of the final price and price differences may also result from differences in other price elements, such as distribution costs or profit margins, between Member States and between different areas within a Member State. The Commission does not intend to propose introducing a maximum limit on excise duties on fuels as this would go beyond what is currently necessary to ensure the functioning of the internal market and would thus contradict the principle of proportionality.
Ruggero Franceschini, ha presentato la richiesta alla commissione di conciliazione del parlamento turco organismo parlamentare che sta ascoltando le richieste delle minoranze religiose e sociali in vista della riforma costituzionale ; inoltre l'arcivescovo ha ricordato che, sebbene la Chiesa cattolica non sia legalmente riconosciuta in Turchia, chiede lo stesso la restituzione dei beni sulla base dell'accordo del fra il Gran visir Said Halim Pasa e l'ambasciatore francese Maurice Bompard.
The Turkish Catholic Community, represented by the Archbishop of Izmir and president of the Turkish Conference of Bishops Monsignor Ruggero Franceschini, presented the request to the conciliation committee of the Turkish Parliament a parliamentary body that listens to the requests of religious and social minorities with a view to constitutional reform. The Archbishop also reminded the committee that, although the Catholic church is not legally recognised in Turkey, it was demanding the return of the assets based on the agreement between Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha and French Ambassador Maurice Bompard.
Does the Commission not consider it appropriate to support the request from the Catholic community in Turkey to the Ankara Government based on the principle of respect for religious freedom by the Turkish Islamic Committee in its dealings with minorities? The Commission follows closely the issue of return of seized properties to foundations of non-Muslim communities. This was the fourth attempt of the Turkish authorities since to restore the property rights of non-Muslim communities.
This legislation provides that non-Muslim community foundations can register in the Land Registry, under their names, immovable property entered in their declarations. Interested parties will have to apply for the return of properties. The market value of foundation properties currently registered with third parties will be paid. This covers properties seized and sold to third parties, and which cannot be returned to the foundations. The Commission is also aware of the problems resulting from the lack of legal personality of non-Muslim communities. This has implications at least for their property rights, their access to justice and their ability to raise funds.
The consumer confidence index fell to historically low levels in Greece during the first quarter of , according to figures from the latest Nielsen Global Consumer survey. Consumer confidence in Greece was lower than ever in the first quarter of , with a second successive fall in the consumer confidence index to an all-time low of 37 points.
Will the Commission say how it can boost growth in Greece and what action plan could be implemented? The ultimate objectives of the economic adjustment programme of Greece is to correct the fiscal and external imbalances of the Greek economy which are necessary to restoring sustainable growth and jobs in a medium-term perspective.
In a context of liquidity constraints and given the size of the required fiscal adjustment, the programme is supported by unprecedented financial assistance provided by the euro area Member States and the IMF. The programme includes a wide-range of growth-enhancing policies which aim at modernising the public sector, rendering product and labour markets more efficient and flexible, and creating a business environment that is friendly to investors. She completed her feat in order to raise money for research on the rehabilitation of patients with reduced mobility resulting from accidents.
Lomas, 32, lost the ability to move her body from the chest downwards when she fell from the horse she was riding during an outing in The strategy aims at facilitating the social and occupational integration of all persons with a disability, and ensuring that they can fully exercise their rights as enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The strategy also included support of research on new technologies addressing both assistive technology and accessible mainstream solutions. In particular, it includes the promotion of knowledge and innovation in assistive technology, and a study on the assistive technology market with a view to improve its functioning; the objective will be to make sure that the fruits of research reach their potential users.
Funding of research relevant to persons with disabilities will happen through different instruments, including FP7 and its proposed successor, Horizon Furthermore, accessibility is the first of the strategy's eight focus areas: The European Accessibility Act is an action foreseen by the strategy; the European Commission is preparing a proposal for legally binding measures, aiming at creating more favourable conditions for the development of a well-functioning market in accessible mainstream goods and services.
This will facilitate the participation in society of persons with disabilities in their everyday life on an equal footing with the rest of the population. Vliegtaks miljoenenstrop voor Europese luchtvaartmaatschappijen. De topman van Lufthansa verwacht dat deze kosten de komende jaren verder oplopen en dat passagiers hiervoor zullen opdraaien. He expects that these costs will increase further over the coming years and that passengers will have to foot the bill. Does the Commission agree with the PVV that criticism by major airlines such as Lufthansa and KLM should be taken seriously and that this criticism is another confirmation of the failure of the flight tax?
If not, why not? Does the Commission agree with the PVV that the flight tax is a fatal blow to the European airline industry, which is already suffering economic difficulties? Does the Commission agree with the PVV that in view of the criticism from countries, consumers and airlines inside and outside Europe, there is no basis for the European flight tax and that scrapping it is unavoidable? Proposta dell'emittente televisiva Al Quds Educational. L'emittente palestinese Al Quds Educational Television, che ha collaborato con l'Unione europea per diversi programmi, vorrebbe creare un nuovo canale satellitare indipendente.
Inoltre, la proposta dell'emittente consiste concretamente nella trasmissione di programmi per bambini altamente educativi sui seguenti temi: Grazie alla connessione con la rete satellitare egiziana NILESAT, i programmi non saranno visibili solo nei territori palestinesi ma nell'intera regione araba, promuovendo ovunque cultura e benessere.
Alla luce di quanto precede, sarebbe la Commissione interessata a dare un sostegno finanziario al progetto? Il sistema radiotelevisivo e i media non rappresentano un settore primario per l'UE nel quadro della ripartizione dei compiti tra i donatori nei territori palestinesi occupati e la Commissione non prevede di proporre finanziamenti UE per progetti in questo campo.
The Palestinian broadcaster Al Quds Educational Television, which has collaborated with the European Union on various programmes, plans to create a new independent satellite channel. Besides this, the services the television station actually provides consist of broadcasting highly educational programmes for children on the following topics: These are to be developed in conjunction with international organisations and NGOs such as Unicef and Save the Children.
In view of the above, would the Commission consider it worthwhile providing financial support for the project? There is however the possibility of submitting project proposals under the different calls for thematic instruments and the specific Euromed Audiovisual III programme for the Neighbourhood South countries. Is this step being taken because of the political factors relating to the existence of this installation and its possible expansion, or is the visit intended to be a continuation of the stress tests carried out by the Nuclear Safety Regulators Group?
Whichever of the above is the case, on what legal basis or other mandate does the Commission intend to base these visits? Does the Commission have specific authorisation for these visits, and if so, of what type? Does the Commission agree with the view that, if no such authorisation has been granted, this would necessarily be an arbitrary and unauthorised step? Taking into account these characteristics, this manuscript was especially famous for containing recipes for the manufacture of oil media at a very early period.
But, apart from these instructions, the manuscript is mostly dedicated to painting and illuminating and, especially, to the preparation of colours. This text is thus, at different levels, a precious witness for the. Unfortunately, the manuscript was lost in the Strasbourg Library fire. However, the artistic recipes have survived in a nineteenth-century transcription made for Charles Eastlake. Since this date, several editions of the text have been published, firstly those of Eastlake, with the Material for a History of Oil Painting Eastlake, , those of Berger Berger, and those of Borradaile Borradaile, Like most medieval recipe books, the Strasbourg Manuscript results from compilation of older or contemporary texts.
It thus shares some of its content with other books. For two years, new textual evidence has been discovered and the Strasbourg family currently corresponds to a corpus of sixteen manuscripts. Thanks to a philological and codicological analysis, it is now possible to propose not only a geographical area in which the manuscripts of the so-called Strasbourg tradition were produced, but also a chronological range from to The manuscripts of the Strasbourg family mainly originate from the south of Germany Upper German.
The three main dialects of this region Franconian, Alemannic and Bavarian can be identified in the different versions. Some of them present consistent feature errors suggesting transpositions of an Alemannic original 2. In the first instance, the opportunity of such a group would offer us not only a chance to reconstruct the text of the lost manuscript but also to compare different versions of a nearly identical text in order to visualize a structural basis, to study its recurrence and its evolution through time and the different members of the family, at each stage of the copying process.
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Initially, it focussed on manuscripts written during the medieval period and especially on those from Germany and some border countries. More than examples have been systematically recorded in a specific setting within the database, containing information about the title, the current location, place and date of origin, scribes or authors when possible, description of the other contents and additional information. As a second step, their content has been divided according to each of the recipes that they contain.
Up until now, over manuscripts have been treated and 4, recipes have been transcribed. The greatest part of these instructions relate to colours used in painting and illuminating 3. They have been recorded in a second dedicated file which is accessible from the first interface, dedicated to descriptions of the manuscripts. This project forms part of my doctoral thesis, some results of which are presented in this paper.
Other arts have also been entered, such as metalwork, and the dyeing of textiles, leather, wood or bone. From these instructions, a complete index of ingredients has been set-up. This glossary file lists each ingredient and includes their original formulation, the actual appellation in German, English and French and a short description. For most of them, the glossary also mentions their scientific name. Futhermore each ingredient has been coded using an abbreviation corresponding to the first letter of its name and a consecutive number.
The glossary file is linked to a list from which it is possible to select an ingredient according to its abbreviation. This technique allows to encode each recipe as a succession of abbreviations, which reflects the specific association and chronological intervention of ingredients in a given recipe.
Thanks to this abbreviation technique, it is possible to retrieve the recipes linked to a specific ingredient or a specific preparation process. When creating these associations, we have borne in mind that some ingredients were not explicitly cited. This is frequently the case when the scribe makes an allusion to an ingredient prepared in a previous recipe. Next, each association has been recorded in another file of the database. The database has been cross-checked for integrity and consistency using random queries techniques.
Thanks to subject classifications, queries can also be done by keywords for specific recipes, methods or materials. The global frequency and recurrence for each ingredient can be derived from the corpus of texts. Moreover, it is possible to observe, through factors such as frequency in the corpus, basic structure, and evolution, the way in which recipes were modified over time or by other external phenomenon. Functions of the database A survey of the materials In parallel to scientific research and material analysis, information about the possible use of certain materials, ingredients and techniques can be obtained from the research of historical written sources.
Our database enables access to this kind of information by allowing the researcher to find quickly and easily the technical instructions he needs. Searching with the database is carried out using keywords arranged in different thesauri that allow us to fine tune the result. We can thus combine the search of an ingredient, mentioned in a specific group of texts Strasbourg Family, Heraclius, Mappae Clavicula, Theophilus,… with a specific technique illuminating, painting, dyeing,…. The database will count the number of recipes dedicated to this ingredient or involving it in a procedure.
As an example, graph 1 presents pigments used in the Strasbourg family recipes that produce a red coulour. We note the frequent recurrence of cinnabar and Brazil wood mentioned in recipes dedicated to illumination and, less frequently, the use of gum lake but also Papaver Rhoeas L.
The associations Concerning associations, initial research was solely concentrated on the associations or recipes which are similar to those found in the Strasbourg Manuscript.
EUR-Lex - C/E/01 - EN - EUR-Lex
This helped us not only to recognize the witnesses belonging to the Strasbourg family but also to demonstrate their membership. So far, recipes have been found to be common to at least two manuscripts of the Strasbourg family. These similar recipes have been put in parallel as a means of comparing them. This comparative approach allows us to highlight the basic structure of certain recipes.
Quite often, it corresponds to a small number of frequent ingredients associated together in a great number of recipes. As an example, one of the most repeated associations is a recipe employing copper and acetic acid contained in vinegar. This instruction usually serves to obtain a green copper pigment. This was a very well known procedure in the Middle Ages and has been detected in a great number of cases in the Strasbourg family texts. Moreover, it has been identified in a very consistent formulation,which involves an identical text. We also noted that more complex procedures, involving a certain number of ingredients, are repeated less frequently in the same form throughout the different manuscripts.
Of the recipes dedicated to the preparation of green copper pigment using copper and vinegar, 66 include tartar, 53 add honey and 30 involve salt. Moreover, amongst the recipes common to at least two manuscripts of this tradition, many of the instructions are not isolated recipes but they are contained in different sequences.
These sequences are often characterised by a more or less similar order and a specific artistic technique. These common sequences may be interpreted as the reflection of older — and probably lost — artistic manuals which perhaps served as a partial basis for the compilation of the manuscripts of the. When we concentrated solely on the Strasbourg Manuscript, we observed that it seems to derive partly from two distinct sequences.
The first one appears to correspond to a treatise on illumination, which has been frequently copied over time and place and from which at least a small part is found in each manuscript of the family. The oldest manuscripts partly originated from this treatise on illumination and their recipes seem to respect more or less the same order. The second sequence from which the Strasbourg Manuscript may derive appears to be a more local treatise — which is only otherwise found in the so-called Colmarer Kunst Kunstbuch and the Bamberger Malerbuch — and mostly dedicated to the mixing of colours and the preparation of media.
Therefore, the Strasbourg Manuscript is largely the result of a text that was widely diffused and modified, as well as another more local one. These observations may be put in parallel with an examination of the recurrence or diffusion of recipe procedures within the Strasbourg family. For example, a great number of recipes are related to Brazil wood: Graph 2 presents the relative percentage of recipes dedicated to the preparation of Brazil wood in the different texts of the Strasbourg family, arranged according to their date.
We observe that the older ones contain a great number of recipes dedicated to the preparation of Brazil wood but that this number decreases more or less linearly, especially in the earliest manuscripts, except for the Colmarer Kunstbuch. However, we have already noted that this manuscript is specifically dedicated to the mixing of colours and is less focussed on preparation. This sequence is thought to correspond to a lost treatise on illumination.
It would thus seem plausible to find a greater number of recipes dedicated to preparation of Brazil wood. In the earliest examples, we have also seen that this sequence has been modified, there are fewer recipes in common and these manuscripts are also characterised by new additions to their content in the form of treatises on metalwork for example with the exception of the Codex Palatinus Germanicus — H1 — and the manuscript N2 which is a manuscript copy of the Illuminier Buch of Valentin Boltz von Ruffach.
Evaluating the modification of recipe process Not all manuscripts belonging to the Strasbourg family have their entire contents in common with each other. Moreover, the degree of similarity is quite sometimes different between the examples. Thanks to the database, we can examine not only the recurrence and the diffusion of a recipe or a type of recipe within the family but also its modification through time or through the different examples of the family.
When looking at the relation between the recipes of the Strasbourg texts, we can observe, on the one hand, a certain number of instructions which are exactly the same or which perhaps differ only in the dialect or the use of some words. This implies both a similar procedure but also an identical text. On the other hand, some recipes are slightly different in terms of the modification of vocabulary, additions or suppression of information. Quite often, we observe that the change of recipe process is often due to the addition or suppression of an ingredient.
So, as the recipe books evolved and were modified by adding new texts and procedures, the recipes themselves could be modified in their technical formulations during their transmission from one manuscript to another. It is often stated that the main reason for this change is the role the text played as a technical and instructive text. It therefore seems likely that an author may, voluntarily, have corrected the text, or added information to it.
However, a great deal of evidence suggests that these recipes were also assembled in book form to serve a more literary, non-practical purpose. This phenomenon could indeed be explained in several ways: Furthermore, changes to the recipe may occur with a misunderstanding of the procedure. Looking at the first sequence from which the Strasbourg Manuscript originated, the procedures are almost the same to the ones occuring in the older examples of the family. They seem to respect more or less the same order of recipes.
In the later ones, the content has been reorganised and the recipes are more complex. If we focus more specifically on the procedure in itself within the texts of the Strasbourg family, and looking at instructions dedicated to the preparation of the Brazil wood, the database counts up to sixty five entries.
Graph 3 summarizes the basic procedures and their frequency in the family texts. In the Strasbourg family texts, we noted in particular two different ways in which the recipe is modified: Modification 1 addition Comparing the characteristic associations, we see that some basic recipes are still present as a sort of nucleus to which other ingredients may have been added. The colour can next be fixed on alumine or alum.
Example 2 substitution In some other cases, ingredients have been replaced by other ones. Chalk can be added in order to modify the characteristics of the colour. Quite often, it is obtained from crushed egg shell. In the earliest ones, we found recipes where vinegar is mixed with beer or the lye is mixed with urine. Thanks to the database, it is possible to identify the basic structure of a great number of recipes as well as study the differences and modifications appearing in the Strasbourg family texts.
It is also possible to try to postulate in which ways the procedure has been modified, and, by highlighting similar or parallel recipes, to trace back the route of the artistic instructions, in a certain way, to reconstruct the life of a recipe. Comparison with a larger group This method makes sense in the current framework of my PhD thesis which seeks to demonstrate and to study the place and the originality of the Strasbourg Manuscript within the family.
However, comparison with a larger corpus of medieval artistic texts emanating from German-speaking countries would allow me to highlight the originality and the newness of certain processes for the manufacture of colours described in the Strasbourg family texts. Example of anthocyanin recipes As an example, we have seen that the Strasbourg family texts convey recipes dedicated to the manufacture of red pigment or more exactly colorant obtained from poppies graph1.
The typical red colour of this species is due to the presence of anthocyanin colorant. The use of anthocyans is very frequent in the Strasbourg family texts. If we compare it to a larger group we see that more than sixty percent of the procedures including anthocyans come from the Strasbourg family texts. Graph 4 presents the proportion of recipes found in the database and employing several species of flowers or fruits for their anthocyanin colorant agent.
The Strasbourg family texts are marked in red and the other encoded manuscripts are in blue. We observe the use of poppies and. Eighty percent of recipes that include poppies can be found in the Strasbourg family and more than seventy percent of recipes with cornflowers. Oppositely, the use of berries such elderberry or other Sambucus species is more frequent in the other texts. Conclusion and perspectives Up until now a comparative analysis has been performed for every recipe in common between the Strasbourg Manuscript and the other witnesses of the textual tradition in order to study the recurrence and evolution of the recipes.
One may think that, through these texts, we have a survey of illuminating practices in a more or less clearly-defined framework. Several explanations may be suggesting for explaining these modifications. Moreover, the nature of certain variations or errors across the text can often tell us something about the author and the context of compilation.
Let us take the example of substitution, which is a change in ingredients used in a recipe. On the one hand, substitution may be due to palaeographical problems that resulted in a word being misunderstood and thus being replaced by another well-known one; on the other hand, it may correspond to a deliberate technical improvement by the scribe of the recipe.
Finally, as illustrated through these few examples from a well known family texts, we would insist on the fact that a recipe or a manuscript should not be studied in isolation. Comparison with a larger corpus of medieval artistic texts coming from german language countries allows us to underline the originality and the newness of certain processes for the manufacture of colours described in the Strasbourg family texts. On another way, it is also possible to relate the history of number of prescriptions and to correlate them with more widely diffused techniques. Borradaile, Rosamund and Viola.
The Art of All Colours: Materials for a History of Oil Painting. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. The Cologne database for painting materials and reconstructions. Stijnman eds , Art of the Past: Sources and Reconstructions, Ein buch von alten Farben. Technologie der Textilfarben im Mittelalter mit einem Ausblick auf die festen Farben. Festschrift Hermann Heimpel, — Resumo As cores da iluminura: Abstract The Colours of miniature paintings: One, for the manufacturing of lapis-lazuli blue, came from the great painter Michelino da Besozzo, who seems to have made extensive use of this most expensive pigment of the mediaeval palette in the few exquisite books he illuminated in Milan and Venice.
The first recipe is a gilding process, the second for brazil lake and the last ones for two kinds of copper-green, but sinopis red, saffron yellow and lazurium are also quoted. Biographical datas support an identification of the illuminator with the so-called Master of the Policraticus, active in Paris in the last third of the XIVth Century.
La Couleur, octobre , p. Clarke, The Art of All Colours: Tosatti, Trattati medievali di tecniche artistiche, Milan, , chap. Books and Book Production in Paris around , Louvain, , p. Le Vetrate del Duomo di Milano, Milan, , p. Frezzato, Vicence, , chap. Le rideau du fond est un ton en dessous, bleu nuit. Deux valeurs symboliques sont donc possibles pour la couleur: La recette de rose 22 n. Elle peut servir en peinture et pour dessiner, mais aussi comme encre rose. La couleur et ses pigments, , p. Travaux pour Pasquino Capelli, conseiller du duc de Milan vers et pour Valentine Visconti Recette de Michelino da Besozzo Item in eodem exemplari sic erat scriptum: Hoc sequens experimentum hujusmodi, in Veneciis, die martis IIII maii, anni , a Michelino de Vesucio, pictore excellentissimo inter omnes pictores mundi.
Recipe libram unam lapidis lazuli et tere bene in lapide porfirico. Postea ablue ipsum cum aqua clara, deinde desica et reduce ipsum in pulverem. Et cum videas resoluta, pone piscem pulverizatam et permitte parum bullire donec omnia fuerint bene incorporata. Postea cola per pannum in aqua frigida et mancetur manibus unctis oleo communi, et postea pulver lazulli incorporetur super lapidem cum dicto pastillo et optime, et dimittatur per tres dies in dicto pastillo.
Postea extrahatur azurrum de pastillo hoc modo: Si vero non exiret, ponatur aqua magis calida, et sic gradatim, mittendo aquam calidiorem et miscendo donec aliquid exiverit. Ultimo ponatur aqua quando magis fervet, et extracto toto azurro et separato ab aqua et sicato, fiat lexivium fortissimum et ponatur azurrum in planis vasis et superius ponatur lexivium, sicut nosti, ut exeant immondicii pastilli, quo purgato, dulcifica cum aqua clara, etc.
Prenez une livre de lapis-lazuli et broyez-le bien sur une meule de porphyre. Et postea anno de mense decembris, idem Johannes qui jam per plusquam annum reversus fuerat a partibus Lombardie, videlicet a Bononia, ubi erat curia apostolica noviter unita, correxit in pluribus partibus ea, secundum plures informationes quas inde postea per plures libros autentiquos de talibus narrantes, et aliter habuerat, et rescripsit ea ad nettum ut sequitur.
Ad ponendum aurum in papiro, in pergameno seu carta, et in tabulis ligneis creta alba dealbatis quod aurum burniatur seu poliatur, accipe gersam seu cretam albam et modicum ocre de ru, per tertiam partem quantitatis crete et totum simul subtilia, et tere cum aqua clara magis spissum quam poteris, idest cum pauca aqua, super lapidem equalem durum cum molleta lapidis similiter.
Postea pone ipsum colorem, qui aliter tempera vel assisia auri dicitur, in conchilla aut in scutella figuli vitriata aut in vase vitri. Et cum operari vis, accipe de ipso in conchilla alia parviori quantum vis et modera ipsum cum claro ovi spongiato ad rationabilem molliciem seu liquiditatem pro pingendo aut scribendo de ipso. Et si habes tempus cum temperaveris, dimittas inveterari per plures dies vel septimanas ipsam temperam, quia melior erit putrida quam recens. Postea de ipsa scribe, pinge et protrahe que vis et ubi vis, et dimittas siccari.
Postea sis in loco recluso cum aurum vis ponere et elige tempus ydoneum ut supra dictum est. Et habitis ydoneis loco et tempore et remediis, ponas aurum in locis carte vel papiri quibus ipsum colorem vel assisiam posuisti, et super trahe et premendo primo leviter, postea fortius burnissorem, scilicet dentem apri vel equi, et polias tantum dictum aurum quod adereat colori et lucidum fiat ut supra jam dictum est.
Ideo cum aurum poni vult, color talis remansus de alia positione auri alias facta melior est, dum ex interpollata visitatione deductione et ovi aut aque interpositione conservatus sit in debita liquiditate, ita quod ad totalem siccitatem vel nimiam putrefactionem et alterationem deductus non sit. Ad faciendum rosam pro operando in carta et in papiro et in ligneis tabulis creta dealbatis, accipe brixillium rasum subtiliter cum cutello vel cum vitro et liga in subtili pecia lini non stricte, sed late et fluctuanter.
Et sic ligatum, pone in vase figuli vitriato novo ad temperandum in lixivio aut in urina hominis ebriatoris potantis forte vinum, et si urina sit vetera tanto melius. Et si non possis habere talem, accipe lessivium fortissimum et pone de creta alba in ipso lessivio, cum dicta pecia in qua est braxillium et per quantitatem de tribus vel quatuor vicibus quantitatis brixilii ad pondus et etiam sicut inspiciendo melius videbis convenire plus et minus secundum bonitatem brixillii.
Postea pone de alumine glacie crudo, pisto in pulverem, quod sit tantum quantum est quartum dicte crete vel circa, et ante plus quam minus, et misceas hec omnia insimul dimittendo semper ligatum in dicta pecia dictum brixillium et dimittant sic per horam unam vel circa. Postea ponas vas ad ignem non lignorum sed carbonum et bulliant non nimis fortiter et per spacium quarte partis hore vel minus, ita quod solum alumen fondatur.
Postea de ipso vase tollatur dicta pecia brixillii et exprimatur et extorqueatur fortiter ut color de ipsa totaliter exeat in eodem vase. Postea tollatur ipse color ita calidius ab igne et ponatur super lapidem crete concave vel super laterem de terra etc. Postea facias ex toto siccari ad solem, deinde eleva ipsum colorem, que rosa est cum cutello a lapide vel latere, et repone servando pro usu. Et cum de ipsa operari vis, accipe de ipsa quantum vis et subtilia, idest tere super lapidem durum et planum cum aqua gummata que fit per duas partes gummi arabici fusi in tam pauca aqua, quod pene coperiatur ipsa gumma cum in ipsa ponitur aqua, et colati postea per telam lineam, et per tertiam partem sit aqua clara insimul cum dicto gummi fuso et colato.
Et de ipsa aqua gommata ipso modo facta distempera dictam rosam ad debitam molliciem et operaberis de ipsa que volueris, tam scribendo quam pingendo ac protrahendo. Ad faciendum viride in substancia clarum et non corpulentum, idest substanciam non habentem, ut verbi gratia clarus atque sine substancia est color safrani, idest croci qui non cooperit alios colores pro ejus subtilitate, claritate et raritate, qua alii colores apparent per medium ipsum et ex hoc ipse pro raritate sua, ut et dictus color viridis remanet obfuscatus, et nil vel minimum apparet, neque multum apparere potest super alios colores.
Sed ipse color viridis non est dulcis sicut est dictus color croci, ymo ex sua natura est acer et corrosivus, et taliter quod destruit et rodit alios colores si ponatur super ipsos, vel ipsi super ipsum, et hoc pro viride eris qui in ipso ponitur, et est talis conditionis. Et ponitur in carta et in papiro. Postea omnia que in carta et in papiro protrahere vis, protrahe, ac vacuum, videlicet per lineas de colore scilicet nigro, postea de ipso colore viridi sic facto ut dictum est, colora ad libitum ea que ut dictum est protraxeris.
Et nota quod super ipsum colorem viridem ut dictum est, nullus alter color debet poni neque ipse super alios nisi solum super cartam albam vel papirum, et non super colorem aliquem album artificiatum seu pictum, quia ipse color viridis illo modo factus est fortis seu acer et pro sua acritudine destruit alios colores ut supra jam dictum est. Postea ipsum pone in conchella vel in scutella figuli vitriata, et distempera cum dicta aqua gummata et cum dicto succo ipsius herbe.
Et dicta aqua gummata debet fieri de gummi arabico lucido et collata, ne cum infusum sit gummi in ipsa, adsint in ipsa ulle pallee, terra vel alie turpitudines. Et postea de ipso colore viridi scribe, protrahe et pinge que vis. Et nota quod succus rute esset melior quam suprascripte herbe ad ponendum in dicta compositione dicti viridis coloris. Et alii sunt qui ponunt succos quarumdam aliarum herbarum. Et color suprascriptus est talis qnod potest super ipso pingi cum aliis coloribus, et super ipso poni aurum etc.
She has published two books: Her research work concerns mainly three fields: Pedro Afonso, conde de Barcelos. Pedro Afonso, comte de Barcelos. E Aariz he uylla em que moraron os barboros. Fiesole, Nardini Editori, , cap. Pedro Afonso, Comte de Barcelos. Cette dissertation, ayant le titre: Vicenza, Neri Pozza Editore, , pp. Un de souffre pour cinq de mercure, dans O livro de como se fazem as cores; deux pour un, dans le Mappae Clavicula un par deux dans le Theophile.
Voir O livro de como se fazem as cores, cap. Si vis facere Vermiculum, accipe ampullam vitream et lini deforis de luto, et sic accipe unum pondus vivi argenti, et duo pondera sulfuris albi aut crocei coloris, et mitte ipsam ampullam super iij. Cruz de Coimbra Composto por Philippe Nunes natural de Vila Real. Voir ici les fls. Madrid, Visor, , p. Nacional de Paris, Fonds portugais, n. Urraca et El Cid; fl. Abstract The choice of the binding media in manuscript illumination was one of the most important technical aspects as each medium interacts differently with pigments and optical results can be quite different.
Most medieval treatises on art technology dedicate extensive parts on tempering pigments for illumination, explaining with details their preparation, mixtures and use. The paper will study and organize the information regarding binding media quoted in these important historic textual sources, with the aim to clarify several technical issues concerning the choice of a binder in relation to the pigment to be used or the wanted final appearance of colours; and second, to provide a useful tool for the documentary support of laboratory analysis and for the correct interpretation of analytical results.
Introduction Manuscript illumination is an aqueous painting technique and therefore needs a binder to keep the pigment particles together, facilitate its application with a reed, quill or brush, and also improve its adherence to the surface of parchment, the writing material par excellence in European Middle Ages. The choice of the binding medium was very important because each medium interacts differently with pigments and can change its optical properties. Thus, medium preparation and mixture with pigment was one of the essential parts of the whole process of manuscript illumination.
A good example is the scheme of painting materials and techniques in medieval treatises on art technology, where tempering is as important as pigment identification, preparation and mixtures. What is more, the anonymous author of the late eleventh century treatise De clarea warns that to make something beautiful it is necessary to prepare materials properly, in his case the different ways to prepare glair Thompson Medieval treatises on art technology are one of the most important sources for the study of binding media in manuscript illumination Clarke Illumination was a major sumptuary art, as illuminated manuscripts were gifts of high esteem due to the wealth of materials and the symbolic value of images.
For this reason, it is not surprising that illumination is one of the techniques that constantly appear in these treatises, either as specific technical process or as part of pictorial arts. The study and organization of this information can, first, clarify several technical issues concerning the choice of a binder in relation to the pigment to be used or the wanted final appearance of colours; and second, can provide a useful tool for the documentary support of laboratory analysis.
Binding media The principal binding media used in manuscript illumination were clarified egg white or glair clare, albumen, glarea, albugine ovi ; gums, such as gum arabic gumma: In most cases binders were applied alone, but depending on the technique or pigment, mixtures were also prepared in different proportions. Glair Glair from the late Latin clarea, from Latin clarus, clear is the settled liquid of the egg white froth.
There are three ways to prepare glair that, ultimately, are the three ways to make the egg white in to foam. First, by whipping egg whites verberata, fracta, percutita with a wooden whisk 1 or spoon; second, by pressing and squeezing them with a sponge cassata, spongiata ; and, third, by passing them through a wool or linen cloth. A survey of medieval treatises points out that until the twelfth century whipping was the only method used. The reason is given by the anonymous author of De clarea treatise who states that the use of a sponge or a filter could contaminate glair either with grease and dirt of hands or with impurities of the sponge or cloth and the result would be a weak and brittle binding media Thompson When Theophilus in his Schedula diversum artium 2 refers to glair it is always the one prepared by whipping Hawthorne and Smith, However, it seems that since the thirteenth century the sponge method gained currency and the references to clara ovi spongiata become more common 3.
In very few cases it is recommended the use of a funnel-shaped wet linen filter to prepare glair Heraclius treatise, Merrifield, Glair beating was a laborious and complicated process, mostly because any failure would mean the loss of its adhesive power. De clarea text is quite explicit: The last comment is interesting because it shows also how everyday experience interferes with artistic praxis: Moreover, if egg white is not well beaten pigments could not be tempered easily, states again our anonymous author Thompson Again the author of the De clarea treatise draw special attention to the fact that if glair was not well beaten it would behave as if it was glue, so pigments would not run well from the pen of the scribe and the colour would appear unsightly on parchment Thompson The proof that glair was well whipped was that foam could remain adhered to the container without running.
Then glair was left to rest with the container tilted, so when the. At the De clarea treatise we have a very good description and even a drawing of this wooden whisk f. At the De arte illuminandi a brush pinzellum situlare was also used to whip egg Brunello Current research considers that the treatise is a composite text and the author or authors was a compilation; see Clarke, M.
For example, Experimenta de coloribus Merrifield Old glair was a very common varnish in manuscript illumination and bookbinding as it forms resistant and elastic films, although its permeability and solubility decreases with ageing Colombini and Modugno For example, Theophilus recommends old glair to varnish gilded areas Hawthorne and Smith In that moment it was really important to control environmental conditions as low temperatures could freeze glair and high ones could dry it.
Finally, glair was kept in a glazed clay pot or even in the shell of the egg because according to a widespread medieval belief, the natural container of substances was the best to conserve them. It seems that old glair was more appreciated than the new one. The author of De coloribus faciendis recommends to use a three or four days old glair as a binder for the mixture of red lead and vermilion, because colour would look shine with a short of varnish brilliancy Merrifield Theophilus in his treatise recommends beating egg white with water in summer and without it in winter, so it would never become too dry or too aqueous Hawthorne and Smith, Glair was an optimal medium for miniature painting, free flowing and easily applicable, but there were also some inconveniences in its use as a binding media, besides the above-mentioned difficulties.
The main disadvantage was the formation of bubbles while pigments were tempered spumositates de coloribus , which was really annoying to illuminators.
The recommendation of almost all authors to avoid this problem was to add earwax ceroti auricule in the mixture, especially if it was going to be used with azurite blue and vermillion Liber diversarum arcium, Libri Another problem was the fact that if glair stayed too long mixed with pigments it could damage them.
It seems that, again, blue pigments were the problem, as many authors warn not to work more than a day with the pigment tempered with glair, because becomes darker and its beauty gets spoiled Livro de como se fazen as cores, Blondheim Another inconvenience is that, unlike egg yolk and gums that can be used more or less immediately, glair needs to be prepared a few hours before it can be used, as it has to sit and the older it is, the better it gets. Many of these difficulties were resolved with the mixture of adhesives.
For example, as glair dries fast, yolk was added and, at the same time, the intensity and brilliancy of yolk was combined with the durability of glair Bolognese manuscript, Merrifield Egg yolk Egg yolk vitello ovi was the foremost medium for panel painting in late medieval and early Renaissance Europe. But, according medieval treatises on art technology, it was rarely used alone as a binder in manuscript illumination.
As the author of De clarea stated, the reasons was that it had not a good adhesive power, as it is more greasy than glair, pigment surface cracked and made spots Thompson But as egg yolk left pigments brighter, he also recommended mixing it with glair and taking advantage of the characteristics of both media. The use of this mixture is also found in the Marciana manuscript, where putrefied glair and yolk is specially recom-.
Finally, pigments tempered only with yolk clot on the brush, so only a small amount could be applied each time. Therefore, the amount of water in the tempering process would be really important, as it could influence the transparency of the colour. The preparation process was really easy: Gums Gum arabic was one of the most common binding media for pigments in manuscript illumination and the exclusive medum in writing inks.
As the author of the Liber diversarum arcium states Libri The gum was very easy to prepare and use: Then it was tested with fingers: Finally, it was filtered with a linen cloth and mixed with pigments. The main advantages of gum arabic are its high solubility in water, its good adhesive power, and the fact that gives intensity to colours, as it saturates pigments. The disadvantage is its brittleness, and normally it had to be emulsified with natural plasticizers like honey. It is obvious that access to true gum arabic depended on commercial routes to and from Northeast Africa Senegal still is the main gum Arabic producing country , something that not always was possible.
But the fact that it was very common to commercialize local fruit trees gums under the name of gum arabic does not mean necessarily that artists were tricked into using a gum of lower quality. For example, in the text Hi sunt omnes colores we read that pigments for books were tempered with cherry gum, because it could be used either with water or wine and it could maintain. The term albam here is not used in the sense of something opaque white, but in the sense of something bright and transparent; for example, a common adjective for water is also albam.
That is why the author of De Arte Illuminandi recommends to chose always a gum that is lucidisima or albam et claram Brunello A century later, the author of the treatise De coloribus naturalia exscripta et collecta, gives a recipe to prepare an artificial gum arabic, using also cherry gum Thompson