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One option could be to use a strategy that Roberto has already implemented with relative success. There are many coffee farms in Veraguas that are practically abandoned because their owners lack knowledge about the business or do not want to invest in their farms, sometimes due to lack of resources and sometimes because they think that the money invested in their farms will never return an acceptable profit. Roberto has negotiated with at least two of these farmers to take over their farm administration. The farmer provides the resources necessary to recondition the farm, and Roberto takes responsibility for overseeing operations.

In addition, since he has the contact, Roberto offers to sell the resulting product to Seatle's, thereby ensuring acceptable production over a four-year period with a highly favorable price. What Roberto has not done so far is receive a commission for the placement of the coffee in the gourmet market, which would be fair since without his intermediation this would not be possible. If Roberto can convince a number of other farmers in similar situations to join him, he would be able to offer Seatle's more coffee and acquire a significant profit through a fair negotiated commission at the same time.

The day after the celebration, work had to be done and important decisions had to be made. Progression of production at Santa Ana Farm Year Hectares cultivated Coffee production in quintals 80 90 1, 2, 3, Note: Data has been modified to maintain confidentiality. Pictures of clinic and camp installations for employees at Santa Ana Farm Annex 5.

Assessment Progress Report - General field: Nuestros instructores implementaran lo aprendido en las ocho plantas de nuestro parque agroindustrial donde llevamos a cabo el aprender haciendo. En el presente reporte se incluyen los siguientes avances: Attach all relevant rubrics. Add more boxes if more than three outcomes were assessed. Entender los procesos de transporte y operaciones unitarias en el proceso de alimentos 2.

Distinguir a los microorganismos de acuerdo a su estructura y metabolismo 2. Discuss the meaning of the learning assessment findings in relation to desired student proficiency. Describe how these findings were used, or are being used to improve student learning very important. If changes are being made to courses or the food science program, summarize these changes. If lessons were learned during implementation of the learning assessment, and changes will be made to future assessments as a result, discuss here. Sometimes an assessment does not go exactly as planned and it is not possible to draw conclusions reliably.

If this occurred, describe what happened and what will be done in the future to remedy it. Martes y Viernes Marcel Dekker, New York. The Wiley Enciclopedia of Packaging Technology. Shelf-Life of Dating Foods. Esto para confiabilidad de los datos. Incluye todas las secciones. Aborda todos los requisitos y los relaciona. Requisitos incompletos faltan de requisitos. Aborda todos los conceptos y los relaciona. Describe apropiadamente los materiales y equipos empleados. Los resultados carecen de unidades. Descrito en prosa, en tiempo pasado. No describe en prosa, en tiempo pasado.

Tablas y Figuras con leyendas, y encabezados. Resultados esperados Descrito en prosa, y no como cuestionario pregunta, respuesta. Descrito en prosa, y no como cuestionario pregunta, respuesta. Sustenta los resultados esperados y discrepancias con lo reportado en la literatura. Concluye en base a los resultados obtenidos.

Incluye recomendaciones Concluye en base a los resultados obtenidos. Al final del documento enlista las referencias. No hay cadencia en el texto. Incluyendo todas las secciones hasta las referencias. Expresa resultados en unidades del SI. Muestran estar bien preparados, con un buen entendimiento de su proyecto. Muestran estar poco preparados, con poco entendimiento. Contenido Exponen y detallan todas las etapas en el desarrollo de su proyecto.

Hispania. Volume 76, Number 2, May 1993

Exponen su proyecto de manera pobre y con muy poco detalle. Los resultados carencen de unidades puntos Descrito en prosa, en tiempo pasado. Solo se limita Contestar las preguntas. Incluye recomendaciones 9 pts Concluye en base a los resultados obtenidos. El documento no sobrepasa 8 pag. Escribe correctamente los nombres de los microorganismos, y los equipos utilizados.

No hay cadencia enel texto. Total pts Anexo 7: Nombre del producto es descriptivo. Producto es bastante original pero se basa en modificaciones de otro producto en el mercado. Nombre del producto no es descriptivo. Producto presenta modificaciones menores de un producto existente en el mercado. Producto es una copia de un producto en el mercado. Sabor y apariencia El producto es sabroso y tiene buena apariencia. El producto es sabroso pero la apariencia debe mejorar. El producto no es muy sabroso, pero gusta y la apariencia debe mejorar. El producto no gusta y la apariencia no es buena.

Beneficios para el mercado meta del producto El producto es coherente y responde claramente las necesidades nutricionales del mercado meta. Nombre, lista de ingredientes, contenido neto. Empaque falta o demuestra poco esfuerzo. Compliance with the competencies has been monitored and an objective evaluation of the learning process has been carried out, thus completing the third assessment cycle. Progress made during the last period includes: Laboratory Report Assessment Methodology.

The grade point average of the five reports was as follows: For the next period, a review of the learning objectives and the implementation of evaluation surveys to assess course objective achievement has been proposed. This report includes the following: Panamerican Agricultural School, Zamorano Name of coordinator: Knowledge of transportation processes and unit operations in food processing.

Ability to use the mass and energy balance in food processing. Knowledge about unit operations required to produce a food product. Method s of Assessment These objectives are evaluated in the Food Engineering Course, which is designed to familiarize students with the principles of engineering. In order to strengthen theoretical knowledge, the course includes the following laboratory practices: The learning is evaluated through problem solving in the laboratory report and a rubric is used as an assessment tool to evaluate the reports Annex 4.

Rubric to evaluate the laboratory report. One of the proposed improvements involves including time and motion videos in the balance of mass in order to have an improved understanding of food transportation; another improvement involves using case studies to reinforce the knowledge obtained. Ability to apply and incorporate the principles of food science in practical and real situations and problems.

Apply critical thinking in new situations Method s of Assessment These learning objectives are evaluated in the New Product Development Course, where students undertake a new product development project to apply their knowledge about science and technology, in addition to using critical thinking in technical problem solving, during the technical design and development of their product. Each team was evaluated based on the presentation of the new product and the final report.

Knowledge about government regulations required for the manufacturing and sale of food. Method s of Assessment In the Food Microbiology Course, students carry out laboratory practices to determine indicator groups in food. They subsequently interpret the results of the food microbiological analysis pursuant to standards established by regulatory agencies that ensure food safety. The evaluation tool to be used is the Rubric to evaluate the laboratory report Annex 6.

Rubric to evaluate the laboratory report With regard to the Meat Science and Technology Course, students carry out a course project where they formulate their own product and apply their knowledge about national and international government regulations. This demonstrates that all the students were able to interpret the results according to the food legislation of their country or region.

Improvements proposed for the next period include developing case studies of the products that did not comply with regulation. Distinguish microorganisms according to their structure and metabolism 2. Describe microbial control measures according to the context of application 3. Use chemical and biological control methods to combat microorganisms 4. Describe the various applications of microorganisms in food production 5.

Use methods of bacteria isolation and quantification. The course uses laboratory practices to strengthen theoretical knowledge. The evaluation tool to be used is the rubric to assess laboratory reports Annex 3. Rubric to evaluate laboratory reports. Summary of Key Findings The laboratory reports prepared in the General Microbiology Course were evaluated, the average scores were as follows: Six objectives aimed mainly at strengthening the technical skills of students in the program were selected. The oral and written presentation of the special graduation project research proposal, which evaluates research objectives related to independent research of scientific information and the competent use of library resources, showed a significant improvement over the previous period.

Average scores rose from 2. The minimum score increased from 2. The report summarizes the evaluation methodologies, tools and analysis of the results obtained in the reported period. As a result of prioritization criteria, not all of the reports are included in this document. We have identified the need to continuously strengthen the faculty on the appropriate approach to competencies and SLOs, use of evaluation methods and tools and proper result measurement and analysis. Tuesdays and Fridays It is a basic course in food preservation and packaging where knowledge acquired in the basic science and food processing courses is applied.

The course focuses on the different traditional and modern preservation and packaging technologies and their implications in the shelf life of food. It fully covers the subject of plastic packaging currently dominating the market and future alternatives that could replace it. Likewise, traditional preservation techniques and modern techniques that are currently replacing them are reviewed in order to understand the causes for these changes. Exposes students to the dynamism of the market, which is affected by new technologies in food preservation and packaging, new packaging materials and container designs, new social concerns, economic factors, rationalist consumer tendencies, minimal processing and recycling.

Recommend processes for food preservation and packaging according to the product and its distribution environment and use. Evaluate quality control parameters of plastic material used in food packaging. Explain the role of corporate responsibility in reducing environmental through food preservation and packaging.

Cooperate in the preparation of a packaging system for a food product. Summary of Learning Evaluation: Evaluation Strategies Percentages 1. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology. The evaluation process must be permanent, systematic and continuous, and the collection and analysis of information must be used to demonstrate the technical and pedagogical performance of the professors, leading to decision making that fosters their professional development and to the continuous improvement of Academic Excellence.

In view of the above, this document sets out the proposed organization, the course and module evaluation processes with their respective schedules, the responsible parties and general principles about the process. The information will be collected from three sources: The primary information source has been student input. A number of Departments organized Focus Groups, evaluation by peers or personal interviews to support the professor in improving the PEA.

It is necessary to reinforce evaluation processes carried out by professors and students increase student participation, observation by peers and implementation of improvements by professors, among others d. The technical process of sending surveys and generating reports through Blackboard offers some support, but improvements can still be made to make it more efficient. Different software possibilities are being analyzed e.

Information analysis is basically descriptive, it is necessary to establish triangulation of different methods and information sources. Because this is a sensitive subject, the processes must be implemented gradually moving from the common assessment paradigm to a paradigm that supports the professional development of the faculty and uses integral evaluation as an input.

Cerda The procedure involves collecting information from the three sources mentioned: The proposed initiative corresponds to the design and pilot phase of the evaluation process; different mechanisms and software are being studied to make the collection, analysis and monitoring of improvement commitments more efficient as part of the continuous improvement cycle. Description of evaluation type Information collection instruments Probable implementation time Students and professor peers 1.

Intermediate and final student evaluation 2. Support to course improvement processes 3. Observation by professor peers, visits to classes and production and analysis of videos, among others post training 4. Focus groups as requested by the department head Intermediated and final course survey Intermediate feedback pre and post observation rubrics, Interview guide I period I period I period Professor evaluated 1.

Self-assessment, professor analysis about co-assessment results 2. Analysis of professor commitments 2. Subsequently, it will socialize the results with other departments that have evaluations scheduled for the following week, when it is an intermediated evaluation, or in week 15 when it is the final evaluation. This to ensure data reliability. Summary 5 pts 5 pts 4 pts 3pts Maximum words in one sole paragraph. Includes Objective s , methodology, results and conclusions. Covers all requisites and clearly relates them. Covers the requisites, but they are not interrelated.

Incomplete requisites missing. Missing 3 or more requisites. Introduction 10 pts 10 pts 9 pts 8 pts Theory: Describes the fundamentals for understanding the exercise. Includes the objective of the exercise. Incomplete description of concepts missing concepts. Missing 3 or more concepts. Includes the objective of the exercise Experimental procedure 15 pts 15 pts pts pts Another person can read the description and repeat the experiment. Another person could not read the description and repeat the experiment. The activities are presented in chronological order.

Not in past tense prose. Incorrect description of equipment or materials. Appropriately describes the materials and equipment used. Written in past tense prose. Results 15 pts 15 points points points Describes results in a logical sequence. Describes results in a logical sequence. Results lack units Only calculations and results are presented. Not written in past tense prose. Tables and graphs are self-explanatory without returning to the text. Lacks heading in tables or graphs to understand the information they contain.

Discussion 20 pts 20 points points points Evidence of understanding Discusses results in a logical sequence. Discusses results in a logical sequence. Only presents calculations and results. Not written in prose. Actual results Covers all of the discussion questions Omits one of the discussion questions. Omits two of the discussion questions. Omits more than two of the discussion questions. Explanation of discrepancies Expected results and discrepancies are supported by scientific literature Expected results and discrepancies are supported by scientific literature Relationship with experiment objectives Strengths and weaknesses of project design How to avoid difficulties in future experiments?

Recommendations on using the exercise as a learning experience Conclusion 10 pts 10 pts 9 pts 8 pts What can be concluded from the results and discussion? Conclusion based on results obtained. Includes recommendations Conclusion based on results obtained. General conclusion unrelated with results obtained Conclusion not based on results obtained.

Repeats the results References 5 pts 5 pts 3 pts 1 pt 0 pts Text references cited after each paragraph. Reference listed at document end. References listed at document end. Follows the format presented in the writing guide for graduation projects Follows the format presented in the writing guide for graduation projects Log Book 5 pts Writing quality 10 pts 10 pts 9 pts 8 pts Grammar Words written correctly with accents.

Uses linking words to structure the information. Proper capitalization and correct use of singular and plural, verb conjugation. Paragraphs are composed of more than two sentences. Sentence length is no more than 3 lines. Words are written correctly except for the omission of some accents. The names of the microorganisms and equipment used are not correctly written Some accents are omitted and verb conjugation is incorrect.

The writing is jerky and there are spelling errors. Sentence exceeds 3 lines. The summary should be no more than words use a minimum font size of 11 pt, minimum line spacing of 1. Technical style The names of the microorganisms and equipment used are correctly written. Results are expressed in IS units. The names of the microorganisms and equipment used are correctly written. Rubric for evaluating Food Engineering laboratory reports Attribute 1 5 points 2 6 points 3 All report sections are included in an orderly fashion. The diagrams are included and labeled. Diagrams are included and are clearly and precisely labeled.

Clear and precise diagrams are included and make the report easier to understand. Data and Calculations Calculations are not shown or the results are inaccurate and not adequately labeled. Some calculations are demonstrated and the results are labeled. Some calculations are demonstrated and the results are correct and appropriately labeled. All of the calculations are demonstrated and the results are correct and appropriately labeled.

Results and Discussion Only the results were written. Results were written with limited explanation. Explanation of some of the results. Explanation of all results. Conclusions Little or no reflective effort is demonstrated. Some conclusions only showing what was learned from the experiment. Logical and clearly explained conclusions.

Includes whether the hypothesis was proven and what was learned from the experiment. Logical and superbly explained conclusions. Includes whether the hypothesis was proven possible error sources and what was learned from the experiment.

El Singular y el Plural en EspaƱol: Reglas y Ejemplos

Clear and precise presentation delivered in a professional manner. Moderately clear and precise presentation delivered in a somewhat professional manner. Little clarity in presentation delivered unprofessionally. Preparation Demonstrate that they are well prepared with a deep understanding of their project. Demonstrate that they are well prepared with a deep understanding of their project. Certain lapses in the explanation. Demonstrate that they are moderately well prepared with an understanding of parts of their project Poorly prepared with little understanding and various lapses in the explanation.

Content Present and detail every stage in the development of their project. Present and detail most of the stages in the development of their project. There are few details about the stages of the project. Poorly presented project with limited details. Responses to questions The team can accurately respond to almost all of the questions about the subject asked by their classmates.

The team can accurately respond to most of the questions about the subject asked by their classmates. The team can accurately respond to several of the questions about the subject asked by their classmates The team is unable to respond to the questions about the subject asked by their classmates Annex 6: Includes the objective of the exercise 10 pts Covers all concepts and clearly relates them 9 pts Covers the concepts, but they are not interrelated. Experimental procedure 15 pts 15 points Another person can read the description and repeat the experiment.

Results 15 pts 15 points Describes results in a logical sequence. Tables and graphs with headings and legends. Results lack units points Written in past tense prose. Only calculations and results are presented. Discussion 20 pts Evidence of understanding Expected results Actual results Explanation of discrepancies Relationship with experiment objectives Strengths and weaknesses of project design.

How to avoid difficulties in future experiments? Recommendations on using the exercise as a learning experience. Covers all of the discussion questions. Expected results and discrepancies are supported by scientific literature. Omits one of the discussion questions.

Only answers the question and does not do so in prose Omits more than two of the discussion questions. Conclusion 10 pts What can be concluded from the results and discussion? Includes recommendations 9 pts Conclusion based on results obtained. Repeats the results References 5 pts 5 pts Text references cited after each paragraph. Follows the format presented in the writing guide for graduation projects. Please read carefully the rubric for each criterion and use it evaluate each product for the selected criteria. No such product exists in the market. Product name is descriptive. It is not clear that the product is unique.

Product is quite original but is based on modifying another product in the market. Product name is not descriptive. Product presents minor modifications on a product existing in the market. Product name is not clear and does not demonstrate effort. Product is a clone of an existing product in the market. Taste and appearance The product is tasty and has a good appearance. The product is tasty, but the appearance could be improved. The product is attractive, but not very tasty and the appearance could be improved.

The product is not attractive, and the appearance is poor. In general terms the product is in line with nutritional needs of the target market. The product is not clearly in line with nutritional needs of the target market. There is no relation between the product and the nutritional needs of the target market. Product formulation Product formulation is carried out according to the specific function of each ingredient based on its properties. An industrial byproduct is used and considered ideal for the product.

Product formulation is generally carried out according to the function of each ingredient based on its properties. An industrial byproduct is clearly used, but is not considered ideal for the product. Product formulation is incomplete and explanation of ingredient use is incomplete and incorrect. An industrial byproduct is used but its use is questionable. Product formulation and explanation of ingredient use is lacking or shows little.

A true industrial byproduct is not used. Label design and packaging Label and packaging have an original professional design attractive to the target market. It includes the necessary information: Name, ingredient list and net weight. Label and packaging have an original professional design attractive to the target market but lacks the necessary information: Label and packaging do not have an original professional design attractive to the target market.

The necessary information is incomplete: Name, ingredient list and net weigh. Packaging is poor and demonstrates little effort. Oral and Written Communication Clear and effective communication. Clear writing without grammatical or spelling errors. Clear and effective communication. Fewer than five grammatical or spelling errors. More than five grammatical or spelling errors. The activities to be carried out are detailed below: With the purpose of achieving academic excellence, the Food Science and Technology program will continue to strengthen the faculty through training in learning assessment, professor assessment strategies and competency-based education.

In order to foster continuous improvement, during this period all the program modules have implemented competency-based learning techniques. A review of the strategies and assessment tools will be carried out. The research results will be announced at a fair, which will be attended by government entities, universities and private companies. Estos recursos financieros han contribuido al bienestar y la calidad de vida de los centroamericanos. These financial resources have contributed to the wellbeing and quality of life of Central Americans. During , we have continued to provide our steadfast support to the process of Central American integration and development.

The principal operations we have financed involve road infrastructure, water and sanitation, health, education and energy programs, in addition to multisector and national security programs. Our support will have important impacts on the inhabitants of the Central American region. The following are some of the significant expected effects: Once again, we have maintained our leadership as the principal provider of long term resources for our beneficiary member countries.

Thanks to this international confidence, we have continued to implement our active strategy of raising financial resources based on diversification and balanced funding. In this regard, we made successful incursions into different international markets, such as Germany, Switzerland, Mexico and the Republic of China Taiwan. The achievements we have made in took place in a financial and economic background that has not yet fully recovered from the effects of the international financial crisis.

The period has been characterized by sluggishness in the economies, deceleration of external demand and permanent fiscal and commercial imbalances.

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Visor de obras.

In spite of this situation, we maintained a positive flow of resources to our beneficiary member countries, while assets, the loan portfolio and equity resumed their trend of sustained growth. This has allowed us to continue meeting the vigorous demand for financial resources and technical cooperation on a regional level. Author, title, and subject indexes plus a detailed table of contents multiply access to all the materials. A glance at two areas, Spanish American and Brazilian Literature, provides a sampling by which to judge the entire book.

In concentrating on literature since , these two scholars profile the field with a thoroughness satisfying both to experts and to beginners. Woodbridge, the doyen of Spanish American bibliographers, again evidences his expertise in the entries that cover this diverse field: David Jackson, of the University of Texas, Austin, introduces Brazilian Literature in a preliminary essay, the Brazilianist and noted bibliographer, Lawrence Hallewell, of the University of Minnesota, selected and annotated the materials for literature and linguistics of this country.

There is no separate section and essay for linguistics, although it is included for both Spanish America and Brazil. In other words, for reasons undoubtedly related to space, this subject matter, in spite of receiving individual attention to the Handbook of Latin American Studies since , is divided between two separate if cognate disciplines, literature and anthropology. And although the present volume compares well both in the humanities as well as the social sciences, it has almost nothing on applied arts or the sciences.

Like every good reference book, Latin America and the Caribbean has the extrinsic value of describing the state of a field. Clearly the sciences in Latin America even ecology do not command world attention. The applied arts have not as yet deserved scholarly focus. The absence of these fields represents a reality, not interpretation or selection. These popular items probably appear indirectly within the references listed in the included categories. The editors are to be commended, however, for the new fields meriting attention: Although dispersed throughout the text; Blacks and Indians are not neglected, e.

Databases, a small section with seven entries on the Humanities, reflects the growing technology of Latin American Studies. Film, under performing arts, receives due space. Unequalled in Latin American reference books to date, the present work is a landmark of information and coordination. Surely anyone can quibble with the criteria for excluding or privileging certain fields. In this case, the compilers have satisfied mainly academia but in so doing they accommodate other clienteles as well. Editor Covington and the forty-nine contributors deserve congratulations.

This is the thesis around which Antonio Cussen has constructed a fascinating account of the Revolution from Bello's perspective as a statesman and writer who sought to reconcile his faith in the Augustan model of power and his desire for political change. As Cussen so aptly puts it: Cussen's excellent book is at once a profound study of the ideological principles and pragmatic issues that governed the colonists' quest for independence, and a perceptive analysis of Bello's poetry in its artistic as well as its socio-political connotations.

Using all the resources a scholar can muster to make the results of his investigation precise and reliable, Cussen has managed to elucidate the complexity of Bello's position regarding such questions as monarchical rule, republicanism, and the Guayaquil negotiations. Bello's sentiment for the Libertador, as expressed in letters, documents, and verse ran the gamut from displeasure, indignation, and overt animosity on the one hand, to esteem and acclamation on the other.

En esta obra de argumento sencillo, lo que predomina son los detalles y el retrato de los personajes.

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This work discusses questions that confront thoughtful scholars in all fields of learning; Merrell does to Borges what Borges does to others: Merrell's study is divided into a preface followed by seven chapters, each with a brief introductory summary. An Interlude is included between the third and fourth chapters. Each chapter in this volume gyrates around Borges with direct reference to broad themes prevalent in his time. At the end following the notes there is a valuable works cited section that offers a bibliography of the principal studies related to Borges and his concern for scientific matters.

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The Interlude that follows illustrates various affinities between scientific and literary imagination. Chapter 4 studies the Einsteinian universe as related to Borges's library of Babel. The almost constant preoccupation with time is the topic of Chapter 5. The next chapter introduces the perplexities of quantum theory along with the rupture of symmetry, and in the final chapter, Merrell considers the problems of natural language as a communicative medium.

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Students and scholars alike will find a great deal of useful information in its pages. This learned volume represents an important contribution to the understanding of relationships between contemporary literature and science. Oberhelman Texas Tech University. Balance, in fact, is one of At Face Value 's many strengths. In addition to categorizing and examining in great depth the common procedures of self-writing as practiced in Spanish America, Molloy is also attentive to eccentric texts that eschew the prominent conventions. Moreover, she explores many theoretical issues, such as the generic ambiguity of the autobiography, the problematic role of memory, the importance of geographical, psychological, and temporal distance, and the relationship of autobiography to national epic in a period of emerging national identity.

At Face Value's most important contributions to the study of Spanish American autobiography, however, are Molloy's perceptive analyses of narrative strategies. Among the most engaging chapters of At Face Value are those that explore the ideological biases of texts. Molloy's analyses of these texts expose them as exercises in cultural elitism, with occasional undertones of racism or ethnic superiority, and acts of communion or bonding of members of conservative circles as defense against perceived threats, such as immigration and social mobility, to the privileged social class.


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Conversely, Molloy's analysis of Norah Lange's Cuadernos de infancia reveals an aggressively non-conformist and experimental posture in a text that was favorably received by a mainstream critical community determined to discern in the respectable genre of childhood memoirs a retreat from Lange's previously eccentric and sometimes scandalous works.

Albujar, and the Condesa de Merlin, is generally sympathetic and always illuminating. Her chapters on Ocampo, Sarmiento, and Vasconcelos are certain to be important resources for future study of these wellknown figures. While Molloy's analytical skills are undoubtedly her foremost asset, one must also admire her clear, forceful, and highly readable literary style, the breadth of her knowledge, and her exhaustive scholarship. Moreover, the text itself has virtually no editorial inaccuracies, such as misspellings, punctuation errors, or inconsistencies.

In short, At Face Value is a fascinating study in the relationship of autobiographical writing in Spanish America to family, community, nation, history, and politics and to other genres of literature. I recommend it very highly for all academic libraries and for anyone with an interest in Spanish American literature, culture and history.

Parsons University of Scranton. All commonalities, including such elements as the creation of Macondo, the use of reappearing characters and episodes, the presence of magical realism, humor, and hyperbole, and an ever-increasing awareness of the reader, are then linked to their later manifestations in the longer fiction. Analysis of individual stories is brief, averaging one page in length, and typically includes pertinent historical or biographical information, a plot summary, and a critical interpretation followed by comparative or contrasting viewpoints by other critics.

These excerpts in the main deal with general topics, such as literary influences, literature and politics, the theme of solitude, and the treatment of reality in fiction. They contain very little specific information about the author's short fiction. Three are excerpted from book-length studies, while a fourth originally formed part of a Festschriften collection.

In several specific cases, for example, some of the ideas developed in these essays have already been discussed or referred to at length in other sections of the book. In another instance of such repetition, Oberhelman, while analyzing the collection, Innocent Erendira in Section One, provides a twelve-line summary of the main points of an essay that is then reproduced almost in its entirety in Section Three. Another problem caused by including excerpted versions of essays that were published elsewhere in their entirety occurs in the abbreviated version of the essay written by Regina Janes in Section Three.

One can assume that in the original unabridged version, initial documentation of Vargas Llosa's comments appeared in a portion of the essay omitted in this abridged version. Such shortcomings are partially ameliorated by an excellent Selected Bibliography that contains relevant explanatory notes, a precise chronology of the uncollected stories, and a valuable summary of available English translations. This volume wisely makes no claim to provide extensive new perspectives on the stories but does complete the admirable and important task of both synthesizing major ideas on the topic and providing a useful chronology of the stories in Section One.

Section Two the interviews would be more appropriate in a less-specific study of the author, while Section Three selected critical perspectives often repeats in detail ideas that have been summarized in the initial segment of the volume. Latin American women and their cultural creations, as Claudia Schaefer notes in her introduction to Textured Lives , have become the focus of a number of studies seeking to trace relationships among gender, class and aesthetic production within the social and historical contexts binding them.

The focal point of her analysis concerns each woman's treatment of relationships of power: Indeed, in each woman's case, Schaefer examines the ways in which the intimate conflicts of the female body and mind parallel and reflect what is going on or wrong with the Mexican social body.

Kahlo's art is thus shown to reflect her personal, tragic parody of traditional prescriptions for women's art as well as the cultural conflicts occurring as Mexico moves out of precapitalism and becomes a modern technological culture. Castellanos' essays employ techniques adopted from fiction, the insider's view of the liberal ideals of the Mexican state, and an ironic narrative voice which never forgets that the abyss between political reality and utopian desire is unbridgeable. Castellanos as a cultural critic never finds herself within a comfort zone, caught as she is between the forces of tradition and those of modernization: Where Castellanos' quest for redemption focuses on the social body, here the physical body of Brimmer and the psychological body of Beloff are the objects of redemption.

Schaefer argues that the Mexican intellectuals' retreat from the social and political crisis of the seventies transforms the private body of these two women protagonists into the site of sacrifice and martyrdom in order to demonstrate the triumph of individual will.

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Schaefer successfully demonstrates in each case how the historical circumstances within which these women work are central to their treatment of the relations existing between women and institutions of power in Mexico. We are also told that the boom corresponds to Modernism or vanguardismo and the post-boom to Postmodernism or postvanguardismo.


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The book examines twenty-five novels published between and In the first of six chapters Sklodowska defines parody and sketches its use from the age of Aristotle to the present. The genre, generally ignored by the classics, came into its own only in the nineteenth century. During the twentieth century English, French, German, and Russian critics have studied it much more than their Spanish counterparts.

Sklodowska's overall purpose is to relate parody to esthetic evolution and changing sociohistoric conditions. The final chapter treats four novels by women writers: Except for rare occasions where Sklodowska's examples of pre-textos seem forced or unconvincing, it is difficult to find fault with this scholarly examination of parody in recent fiction. McMurray Colorado State University. Ciegas esperanzas es una intrincada historia de dolor, de impotencia y desconcierto; una historia tejida con el hilo de muchas historias pasadas, presentes y futuras que se hacen y deshacen y rehacen en un continuo capricho de contar o de narrar.

Dice el narrador que la tal historia: No le resultaba especialmente familiar. Ciegas esperanzas es un texto exhausto que no avanza a nada, que se queda trunco en medio camino. Vicente Cabrera University of Minnesota, Morris. The encounter of the two former schoolmates precipitates a taking stock of their fives and leads to a recovery of a shared past. Each woman is, in turn, writer and intended reader, speaker and listener, in a dialogue with herself and with an other. To read Nubosidad variable is simultaneously to reread the and books and to be reminded of El balneario , where another dream figures prominently, and of Entre visillos and Fragmentos de interior , each of which reproduces the speech patterns of the current generation of adolescents and young adults, as does Nubosidad variable.

Glenn Wake Forest University. Si la novela es memorable, no es por los protagonistas ni por los argumentos, sino por las descripciones de lugares, algunos de los cuales cobran tanta vida que pueden verse como personajes de la novela. Recintos y refugios marcan el transcurrir interior: Estelle Irizariy Georgetown University.

Eusebio Ruvalcaba's penetrating, highly humorous novel brings into focus the pain and posturing of adolescence, while at the same time providing an unflinching look at urban Mexico in the nineties. Like a lot of adolescents, he lives in a fantasy world in which he is the ultimate hero, James Bond and Robin Hood rolled into one. Sex-obsessed and egocentric, he brags about his countless conquests, only to admit later that it is all a lie.

Like youngsters all over the world, he is a product of pop culture. His role models are Kevin Costner and Tom Cruise, with whom he compares himself favorably. The same is true of the assortment of special tricks that he identifies by acronyms and abbreviations: His Dulcinea is Osbelia, a girl he doesn't even know but whom he follows to Guadalajara.

On his way, he is abducted by a con artist who tries to turn him into a petty thief. In the tradition of Borges and the boom writers, Ruvalcaba creates a deliberately ambiguous narrative that lends itself to countless interpretations. But the facts really don't matter. Like Don Quijote , this is a book about psychological, not objective reality. Ruvalcaba has written a witty, warm novel that, in addition to being a good read, could prove a useful tool for teaching about Mexican urban culture in the nineties. En este sentido El arte de hablar no es una obra moderna.

Es consciente de que las lenguas determinan en cierto sentido la actividad mental del individuo. Poet, Mystic, Modern Hero. No amanece el cantor. Debicki, Andrew A, editor. Approaches to the Comedia. Edited by Matthew D. Pasero, and Amy W. Kassel Edition, Reichenberger, Don Juan and the Point of Honor: Seduction, Patriarchal Society, and Literary Tradition.

Pennsylvania State University Press. Edited by Francisco J. Criticism in the Borderlands. Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture, and Ideology. Duke University Press, The Dialects of Our America: Genealogy, Cultural Critique, and Literary History.