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Ertz , Stefan , Fischart und die Schiltburgerchronik: Eupolemius , , Das Bibelgedicht , ed. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Evans , Tamara S. Exodus, Die altdeutsche , ed. Eybl , Franz M. Fehr , Karl , Jeremias Gotthelf. Feldges , Brigitte , and Stadler , Ulrich , E. Eine Interpretation nach der Methode des vierfachen Schriftsinnes , Berne: Fetscher , Justus et al.

Fetzer , John , Romantic Orpheus. Profiles of Clemens Brentano , Berkeley: Fetzer , John F. Fichte , Joerg O.


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Finney , Gail , The counterfeit idyll: Fischer , Bernd , Ironische Metaphysik. Fischer , Hanns ed. Fischer , Jens Malte , Karl Kraus: Fischer , Ludwig ed. Routledge, , pp. Fliegner , Susanne , Der Dichter und die Dilettanten: Flood , John L. Institute of Germanic Studies, Kulturpolitische Entwicklungen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland , Munich: Five studies in European Petrarchism , Cambridge: Pantheon, , pp.

Fout , John C. Holmes and Meier, Fox , Thomas C. University Press of America, Fox , Thomas , Border crossings: University of Michigan Press, Frank , Manfred , Der kommende Gott. Vorlesungen , Frankfurt a. Franke , Hans-Peter et al. Von bis zur Gegenwart , Stuttgart: Frederiksen , Elke ed.

Texte und Dokumente , Stuttgart: Freeman , Thomas , Hans Henry Jahnn. Eine Biographie , Hamburg: Hoffmann and Campe, Freund , Winfried ed. Neue Deutungen seiner Dramen: Todesjahr Christian Dietrich Grabbes , Munich: Jahrhunderts , Bibliotheca Germanica 24 , Berne and Munich: Friedrichsmeyer , , Sara , , and Becker-Cantarino , , Barbara , eds.

Friess , , Ursula , , Buhlerin und Zauberin: Eine Untersuchung zur deutschen Literatur des Frings , Theodor , and Schieb , Gabriele eds. Sente Servas — Sanctus Servatius , Halle a. Kritische Ausgabe , Berlin, New York: Frommann , Georg Karl ed. Furness , Raymond , The twentieth century — , The literary history of Germany, vol. Furst , Lilian , All is true: Duke University Press, Furst , Lilian R. Gaier , Ulrich , Annette und das Geld: Gallas , Helga , and Heuser , Magdalene eds. Ganz , Peter F. Eine kritische Studie zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte der Germanistik , Stuttgart: Garber , Klaus ed.

Garland , Henry B. Einzeldarstellungen , 3 vols. Volkund Wissen, , , Geith , Karl-Ernst , Carolus Magnus. Jahrhunderts , Berne and Munich: Geith , Karl-Ernst ed. Genesis, Die altdeutsche , ed. Gentry , Francis G. Engelhard , 3rd edn, rev. Gereke , Paul ed. Die Legenden , 3 vols. Niemeyer, —7 ; rev. Gerlach , Ingeborg , Abschied von der Revolte. Gillespie , George T. Gilman , , Sander , L. Hall, , pp. Gilman , Sandor L.

University of Nebraska Press, , pp. Glaser , Hermann , Bundesrepublikanisches Lesebuch. Drei Jahrzehnte geistiger Auseinandersetzung , Munich, Vienna: Glaser , Hermann , Kulturgeschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland , 3 vols. Hanser , , Glaser , Horst A. Realismus — , Reinbek: Glaser , Horst Albert ed. Eine Sozialgeschichte , vol. Von der Handschrift zum Buchdruck. Eine Sozialgeschichte , 10 vols. Glier , Ingeborg , Artes amandi.

Glossen zum Alten Testament, Althochdeutsche , ed. Godman , Peter , Poetry of the Carolingian renaissance , London: Godman , Peter , Poets and emperors. Frankish politics and Carolingian poetry , Oxford: Godman , Peter , and Roger , Collins eds. New perspectives on the reign of Louis the Pious , Oxford: Goodman , , Katherine , R. German women writers around , Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, Studies in German literature in honor of Helga Slessarev , ed. Bouvier, , pp.

Gottschall , Dagmar , and Steer , Georg eds. Green , Denis H. A crusading epic , Cambridge: Green , Dennis H. Greiner , Ulrich , Der Tod des Nachsommers. Grenzmann , Ludger , and Karl , Stackmann eds. Grimm , Reinhold , Love, lust and rebellion: University of Wisconsin Press, Grimminger , Rolf ed. Ausgabe der bisher bekannten Fragmente vermehrt um den Neufund aus St. Sidney , and Murdoch , Brian O. Grotzer , Peter ed. Gustafson , , Susan , E. Guthke , Karl S. Weltbild im Werk , 2nd edn, Munich: Haas , Alois Maria , Sermo mysticus.

Haase , Horst , et al. Volk und Wissen, Suhrkamp, [Ist edn ]. Hadley , Michael , The German novel in A descriptive account and critical bibliography , Berne: Neue deutsche Literatur der 7oer Jahre , Frankfurt a.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Hage , Volker , Schriftproben. Zur deutschen Literatur der achtziger Jahre , Reinbek: Hage , Volker et al. Hahn , Barbara , and Isselstein , Ursula eds. Hahn , Gerhard , Walther von der Vogelweide. Hahn , Karl August ed. Hahn , Ulla , Literatur in der Aktion. Zur Entwicklung operativer Literaturfarmen in der Bundesrepublik , Wiesbaden: Secker and Warburg, Johns Hopkins Press, Harich , Wolfgang , Jean Pauls Revolutionsdichtung. Versuch einer neuen Deutung seiner heroischen Romane , Reinbek: A poet of the German Baroque , Stuttgart Hartung , Harald , Deutsche Lyrik seit Chronik und Positionen , Berlin: Hauck , Karl ed.

Haug , Walter , Literaturtheorie im deutschen Mittelalter. Jahrhunderts , 2nd, rev. Hauschild , Jan-Christoph and Vahl , Heidemarie eds. Das junge Deutschland Neue Forschungen , ed. Klett, , pp. Haymes , Edward R. University of Illinois Press, Raimund und Nestroy , Darmstadt: Heinzle , Joachim , Mittelhochdeutsche Dietrichepik. Heinzle , Joachim ed. Willehalm nach der Handschrift der Stiftsbibliothek St. Heliand und Genesis , ed. Niemeyer, ; trans.

German Genzmer , Felix , Heliand Stuttgart: English Scott , Mariana , Chapel Hill: Henkel , Nikolaus , and Palmer , Nigel F. Das Theater der achtziger Jahre , Frankfurt a. Henzen , Walter , Schriftsprache und Mundarten , 2nd edn, Berne: Herf , Jeffrey , Reactionary modernism: Cambridge University Press , Argument, , Eine Beispielreihe , Heidelberg: Stiehm, , pp. Hermand , Jost , Kultur im Wiederaufbau. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland — , Frankfurt a.

Hermand , Jost ed. Hermand , Jost , and Grimm , Reinhold eds. Hermand , Jost , and Silberman , Marc eds. Herminghouse , Patricia , and Hohendahl , Peter eds. Yale University Press, Hertz , Deborah , The literary salon in Berlin — The social history of an intellectual institution , Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Herzog , Urs , Der deutsche Roman des Eine kommentierte Dokumentation der Rezeptionsgeschichte Grimmelshausens im Jahrhundert — , Frankfurt a.

Hesson , Elizabeth C. Heym , Stefan , and Heiduczek , Werner eds. Hinck , Walter , Von Heine zu Brecht: Hinck , Walter ed. II of Neues Handbuch der Literaturwissenschaft , ed. Hinderer , Walter , Arbeit an der Gegenwart. Hinske , Norbert ed. Hinton Thomas , R. West German writers and the challenge of the s , Manchester: Hoffmann von Fallersleben , A.

Hoffmann , Werner , Altdeutsche Metrik , Stuttgart: Hoffmeister , Gerhart , German Baroque literature.


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      Jelavich , Peter , Munich and theatrical modernism: Joeres , Ruth-Ellen B. University of Chicago Press, Jones , Martin H. Junghans , Helmar ed. Festgabe zu seinem Geburtstag , 2 vols. Jungk , Peter Stephan , Franz Werfel: Junk , Victor ed. Jahrhunderts , 2 vols. Hiersemann, —9 ; repr. Kahn , Lothar , Insight and action: Associated University Presses, Kaiser , Gerhard , Geschichte der deutschen Lyrik. Von Heine bis zur Gegenwart , Frankfurt a. Kaiser , Gerhard R. Kaiser , Gerhard ed. Eine Sammlung von Einzelinterpretationen , Stuttgart: Analysen und Gesamtdeutung , Munich: Kaiser , Herbert , Studien zum deutschen Roman nach Die Ritter vom Geiste, Gustav Freytag: Soll und Haben, Adalbert Stifter: Der Nachsommer , Duisburg: Kaiser , Nancy A.

      Jahrhunderts und zum Werk Adalbert Stifters , Stuttgart: M and P, Kamenetsky , Christa , The Brothers Grimm and their critics.

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      Folktales and the quest for meaning , Athens: Ohio University Press, Kaminski , Nicola , Der liebe Eisen-harte Noth. Kane , Martin ed. Lebenswerk und Nachleben , ed. Schwann, ; esp. Das geistige Leben , ed. Karnein , Alfred ed.

      Kartschoke , Dieter , Altdeutsche Bibeldichtung , Stuttgart: Kartschoke , Dieter , Bibeldichtung , Munich: Kartschoke , Dieter ed. Zur Entwicklung und Adaptation eines literarischen Konzepts , Germ. Beiheft 5 , Heidelberg: Kastinger-Riley , Helene M. Francke, , pp. Keith-Smith , Brian ed. Kemper , Dirk , Sprache der Dichtung. Kerth , Thomas ed.

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      Kiening , Christian , Reflexion-Narration. Voraussetzungen und Entstehung des literarischen Markts in Deutschland , Munich: Kindermann , Heinz , Theatergeschichte der Goethezeit , Vienna: King , Janet K. Institute of Germanic Studies, , pp. Kinzel , Karl ed. Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, Kittler , Friedrich , Der Traum und die Rede: Klaus , von , Germanische Verskunst , Stuttgart: Kleiber , Wolfgang ed. Klein , Dorothea , Bildung und Belehrung. Untersuchungen zum Dramenwerk des Hans Sachs , Stuttgart: Klein , , Karl , Kurt et al.

      Klotz , Volker , Bertolt Brecht: Kluge , Gerhard ed. Kluge , Reinhold ed. Nach der Heidelberger Pergamenthandschrift Pal. Die politischen Anschauungen Arnims in ihrer Entwicklung. Knab , Doris , Das Annolied. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Knapp , Gerhard P. Arbeiten zur Rechts- und Sprachwissenschaft, Koebner , Thomas , Unbehauste. Koebner , Thomas ed. Kohl , Stephan , Realismus: Theorie und Geschichte , Munich: Eine forschungsgeschichtliche Darstellung , Amsterdam: Scheltema and Holkema, Koopmann , Helmut ed.

      Kord , Susanne , Ein Blick hinter die Kulissen: Korte , Hermann , Geschichte der deutschen Lyrik seit , Stuttgart: Koselleck , Reinhard , Kritik und Krise. Suhrkamp, [Ist edn, Freiburg i. Koselleck , Reinhart , Critique and crisis: Kramer Ruoff , K. Kraus , Carl ed. Winter, ; pp. Kreuzer , Helmut , and Koch , Roland eds. Kreuzer , Helmut ed. Kurzke , Hermann , Romantik und Konservatismus. Volkssprachliche Hohelied-Auslegung und monastische Lebensform im Lachmann , Karl ed.

      Texte , 37th edn, rev. Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, , pp. Lamport , Frank J. Theatre, humanity and nation — , Cambridge: Langosch , Karl , Lateinisches Mittelalter , 4th edn Darmstadt: Langosch , Karl , Profile des lateinischen Mittelalters , Darmstadt: Langosch , Karl , Waltharius. Die Dichtung und die Forschung , Darmstadt: Langosch , Karl ed. Largier , Niklaus ed. Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, Mitteilungen 74 , —9. Le Rider , Jacques , Modernity and crises of identity: Leitzmann , Albert , and Wolff , Ludwig eds. Erec , 6th edn, rev. Lewis , Hanna Ballin trans. Limon , Jerzy , Gentlemen of a company.

      English players in central and eastern Europe — , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , pp. Lipp , Carola , and Bechtold-Comforty , Beate eds. Lloyd , Albert J. Lohse , Bernhard , Martin Luther. Lorenz , Dagmar , Franz Grillparzer: Dichter des sozialen Konflikts , Vienna: Loyn , Henry R. Eine Zwischenbilanz , Opladen: Literatur im Umbruch , Frankfurt a. Ludwig , Michael , Arbeiterliteratur in Deutschland , Stuttgart: Luft , David S. Harper and Row, Grosset and Dunlap, Lutz , Eckhart Conrad , Spiritualis fornicatio.

      Mahoney , David F. Mandelkow , Karl-Robert , Goethe in Deutschland. Rezeptionsgeschichte eines Klassikers , 2 , vols. Humboldt's advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring. Between and , Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America , exploring and describing it for the first time from a modern scientific point of view.

      His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. Humboldt was one of the first people to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined South America and Africa in particular. Humboldt resurrected the use of the word cosmos from the ancient Greek and assigned it to his multi-volume treatise, Kosmos , in which he sought to unify diverse branches of scientific knowledge and culture.

      This important work also motivated a holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity.

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      Alexander von Humboldt was born in Berlin in Prussia on 14 September Humboldt's father, Alexander Georg von Humboldt, belonged to a prominent Pomeranian family, although not one of the titled gentry; a major in the Prussian Army , who had served with the Duke of Brunswick. Alexander Georg and Maria Elisabeth had three children, a daughter, who died young, and then two sons, Wilhelm and Alexander. Her first-born son, Wilhelm's and Alexander's half-brother, was something of a ne'er do well, not often mentioned in the family history.

      Alexander Georg died in , leaving the brothers Humboldt in the care of their emotionally distant mother. She did have high ambitions for Alexander and his older brother Wilhelm, hiring excellent tutors, who were Enlightenment thinkers, including Kantian physician Marcus Herz and botanist Karl Ludwig Willdenow , who became one of the most important botanists in Germany.

      Due to his youthful penchant for collecting and labeling plants, shells and insects, Alexander received the playful title of "the little apothecary". Heyne and anatomist J. Banks also mobilized his scientific contacts in later years to aid Humboldt's work. Humboldt's passion for travel was of long standing.

      Humboldt's talents were devoted to the purpose of preparing himself as a scientific explorer. Werner , leader of the Neptunist school of geology; [27] from anatomy at Jena under J. Loder ; and astronomy and the use of scientific instruments under F. During this period, his brother Wilhelm married, but Alexander did not attend the nuptials.

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      Humboldt graduated from the Freiberg School of Mines in and was appointed to a Prussian government position in the Department of Mines as an inspector in Bayreuth and the Fichtel mountains. Humboldt was excellent at his job, with production of gold ore in his first year outstripping the previous eight years. He opened a free school for miners, paid for out of his own pocket, which became an unchartered government training school for labor.

      He also sought to establish an emergency relief fund for miners, aiding them following accidents. Humboldt's researches into the vegetation of the mines of Freiberg led to the publication in Latin of his Florae Fribergensis, accedunt Aphorismi ex Doctrina, Physiologiae Chemicae Plantarum , which was a compendium of his botantical researches. Goethe had developed his own extensive theories on comparative anatomy.

      Working before Darwin, he believed that animals had an internal force, an urform , that gave them a basic shape and then they were further adapted to their environment by an external force. Humboldt urged him to publish his theories. Together the two discussed and expanded these ideas. Goethe and Humboldt soon became close friends. Humboldt would often return to Jena in the years that followed. Goethe remarked about Humboldt to friends that he had never met anyone so versatile. Humboldt's drive served as an inspiration for Goethe. In , Humboldt returned to Jena for three months.

      During this time Goethe moved from his residence in Weimar to reside in Jena. Together Humboldt and Goethe would attend university lectures on anatomy and conduct their own experiments. One experiment involved hooking up a frog leg to various metals. They found no effect until the moisture of Humboldt's breath triggered a reaction that caused the frog leg to leap off the table. Humboldt would describe this as one of his favorite experiments because it was as if he was "breathing life into" the leg.

      During this visit, a thunderstorm killed a farmer and his wife. Humboldt obtained their corpses and analyzed them in the anatomy tower of the university. In Humboldt was admitted to the famous group of intellectuals and cultural leaders of Weimar Classicism. Goethe and Schiller were the key figures at the time. Humboldt contributed 7 June to Schiller's new periodical, Die Horen , a philosophical allegory entitled Die Lebenskraft, oder der rhodische Genius.

      In and Humboldt was in Vienna ; in he made a geological and botanical tour through Switzerland and Italy. Although this service to the state was regarded by him as only an apprenticeship to the service of science, he fulfilled its duties with such conspicuous ability that not only did he rise rapidly to the highest post in his department, but he was also entrusted with several important diplomatic missions.

      The death of his stern mother, on 19 November after a year's suffering with cancer, set him free. Neither brother attended the funeral. Humboldt was able to spend more time on writing up his research. With the financial resources to finance his scientific travels, he sought a ship on a major expedition. Meantime, he went to Paris where his brother Wilhelm was now living. Paris was a great center of scientific learning and his brother and sister-in-law Caroline were well connected in those circles. Louis-Antoine de Bougainville urged Humboldt to accompany him on a major expedition, likely to last five years, but the French revolutionary Directoire placed Nicolas Baudin at the head of it rather than the aging scientific traveler.

      He had already selected scientific instruments for his voyage. Discouraged, the two left Paris for Marseilles , where they hoped to join Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt. But North Africans were in revolt against the French invasion in Egypt and French authorities refused permission to travel. Humboldt and Bonpland eventually found their way to Madrid , where their luck changed spectacularly. In Madrid, Humboldt sought authorization to travel to Spain's realms in the Americas; he was aided in obtaining it by the German representative of Saxony at the royal Bourbon court.

      Baron Forell had an interest in mineralogy and science endeavors and inclined to help Humboldt. The Bourbon Reforms sought to reform administration of the realms and revitalize their economies. For Humboldt, "the confluent effect of the Bourbon revolution in government and the Spanish Enlightenment had created ideal conditions for his venture. These were lengthy, state-sponsored enterprises to gather information about plants and animals from the Spanish realms, assess economic possibilities, and provide plants and seeds for the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid founded When Humboldt requested authorization from the crown to travel to Spanish America, most importantly, with his own financing, it was given positive response.

      Spain under the Hapsburg monarchy had guarded its realms against foreigner travelers and intruders. The Bourbon monarch was open to Humboldt's proposal. With Humboldt's experience working for the absolutist Prussian monarchy as a government mining official, Humboldt had both the academic training and experience of working well within a bureaucratic structure.

      Humboldt had not mapped out a specific plan of exploration, so that the change did not upend a fixed itinerary. He later wrote that the diversion to Venezuela made possible his explorations along the Orinoco River to the border of Portuguese Brazil. With the diversion, the Pizarro encountered two large dugout canoes each carrying 18 Guayaqui Indians.

      The Pizarro ' s captain accepted the offer of one of them to serve as pilot. Humboldt hired this Indian, named Carlos del Pino, as a guide. Venezuela from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth was a relative backwater compared to the seats of the Spanish viceroyalties based in New Spain Mexico and Peru, but during the Bourbon reforms, the northern portion of Spanish South America was reorganized administratively, with the establishment of a Captaincy-General based at Caracas. Cacao plantations were the most profitable as world demand for chocolate rose.

      Also described the Guanoco asphalt lake as "The spring of the good priest" " Quelle des guten Priesters ". In February , Humboldt and Bonpland left the coast with the purpose of exploring the course of the Orinoco River and its tributaries. Around 19 March , Humboldt and Bonpland discovered dangerous electric eels , whose shock could kill a man.

      To catch them, locals suggested they drive wild horses into the river, which brought the eels out from the river mud, and resulted in a violent confrontation of eels and horses, some of which died. Humboldt and Bonpland captured and dissected some eels, which retained their ability to shock; both received potentially dangerous electric shocks during their investigations. The encounter made Humboldt think more deeply about electricity and magnetism, typical of his ability to extrapolate from an observation to more general principles. Humboldt laid to rest the persistent myth of Walter Raleigh 's Lake Parime by proposing that the seasonal flooding of the Rupununi savannah had been misidentified as a lake.

      On 24 November , the two friends set sail for Cuba, landing on 19 December, [55] where they met fellow botanist and plant collector John Fraser. Humboldt, who was already in Cuba, interceded with crown officials in Havana, as well as giving them money and clothing. Fraser obtained permission to remain in Cuba and explore.

      Humboldt entrusted Fraser with taking two cases of Humboldt and Bonpland's botanical specimens to England when he returned, for eventual conveyance to the German botantist Willdenow in Berlin. Humboldt is considered to be the "second discoverer of Cuba" due to the scientific and social research he conducted on this Spanish colony.

      During an initial three-month stay at Havana , his first tasks were to properly survey that city and the nearby towns of Guanabacoa , Regla and Bejucal. Those three areas were, at the time, the first frontier of sugar production in the island. During those trips, Humboldt collected statistical information on Cuba's population, production, technology and trade, and with Arango, made suggestions for enhancing them.

      He predicted that the agricultural and commercial potential of Cuba was huge and could be vastly improved with proper leadership in the future. On their way back to Europe from Mexico on their way to the United States, Humboldt and Bonpland stopped again in Cuba, leaving from the port of Veracruz and arriving in Cuba on 7 January , staying until 29 April In Cuba, he collected plant material and made extensive notes.

      After their first stay in Cuba of three months they returned the mainland at Cartagena de Indias now in Colombia , a major center of trade in northern South America. Mutis was generous with his time and gave Humboldt access to the huge pictorial record he had compiled since This type of careful recording meant that even if specimens were not available to study at a distance, "because the images traveled, the botanists did not have to.

      Humboldt had hopes of connecting with the French sailing expedition of Baudin, now finally underway, so Bonpland and Humboldt hurried to Ecuador. This was a world record at the time, but a thousand feet short of the summit. At Callao , the main port for Peru, Humboldt observed the transit of Mercury on 9 November and studied the fertilizing properties of guano , rich in nitrogen, the subsequent introduction of which into Europe was due mainly to his writings.

      Humboldt and Bonpland had not intended to go to New Spain, but when they were unable to join a voyage to the Pacific, they left the Ecuadorian port of Guayaquil and headed for Acapulco on Mexico's west coast, landing there on 15 February Since Acapulco was the main west coast port and the terminus of the Asian trade from the Spanish Philippines, having accurate maps of its location was extremely important.

      Humboldt set up his instruments, surveying the deep water bay of Acapulco, to determine its longitude. Humboldt was also given a special passport to travel throughout New Spain and letters of introduction to intendants, the highest officials in New Spain's administrative districts intendancies.

      This official aid to Humboldt allowed him to have access to crown records, mines, landed estates, canals, and Mexican antiquities from the prehispanic era. They spent the year in the viceroyalty, traveling to different Mexican cities in the central plateau and the northern mining region. The first journey was from Acapulco to Mexico City, through what is now the Mexican state of Guerrero. The route was suitable only for mule train, and all along the way Humboldt took measurements of elevation.

      When he left Mexico a year later in , from the east coast port of Veracruz, he took a similar set of measures, which resulted in a chart in the Political Essay , the physical plan of Mexico with the dangers of the road from Acapulco to Mexico City, and from Mexico City to Veracruz. A great deal of his success in gaining a more general readership for his works was his understanding that "anything that has to do with extent or quantity can be represented geometrically.

      Statistical projections [charts and graphs], which speak to the senses without tiring the intellect have the advantage of bringing attention to a large number of important facts. Humboldt was impressed with Mexico City, which at the time was the largest city in the Americas, and one that could be counted as modern. He declared "no city of the new continent, without even excepting those of the United States, can display such great and solid scientific establishments as the capital of Mexico.

      Humboldt spent time at the Valenciana silver mine in Guanajuato , central New Spain, at the time the most important in the Spanish empire. His report on silver mining is a major contribution, and considered the strongest and best informed section of his Political Essay. Although Humboldt was himself a trained geologist and mining inspector, he drew on mining experts in Mexico. Humboldt also consulted other German mining experts, who were already in Mexico. His aim was to muster evidence that these pictorial and sculptural images could allow the reconstruction of prehispanic history.

      For American-born Spaniards creoles who were seeking sources of pride in Mexico's ancient past, Humboldt's recognition of these ancient works and dissemination in his publications was a boon. He read the work of exiled Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero , which celebrated Mexico's prehispanic civilization, and which Humboldt invoked to counter the pejorative assertions about the new world by Buffon, de Pauw, and Raynal. One of his most widely read publications resulting from his travels and investigations in Spanish America was the Essai politique sur le royaum de la Nouvelle Espagne , quickly translated to English as Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain Leaving from Cuba, Humboldt decided to take an unplanned short visit to the United States.

      Knowing that the current U. Jefferson warmly replied, inviting him to visit the White House in the nation's new capital. In his letter Humboldt had gained Jefferson's interest by mentioning that he had discovered mammoth teeth near the Equator. Jefferson had previously written that he believed mammoths had never lived so far south.

      Humboldt had also hinted at his knowledge of New Spain. Arriving in Philadelphia , which was a center of learning in the U. After arriving in Washington D. C, Humboldt held numerous intense discussions with Jefferson on both scientific matters and also his year-long stay in New Spain. Jefferson had only recently concluded the Louisiana Purchase , which now placed New Spain on the southwest border of the United States.

      The Spanish minister in Washington, D. Humboldt was able to supply Jefferson with the latest information on the population, trade agriculture and military of New Spain. Jefferson was unsure of where the border of the newly-purchased Louisiana was precisely, and Humboldt wrote him a two-page report on the matter. Jefferson would later refer to Humboldt as "the most scientific man of the age".

      Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the treasury said of Humboldt, "I was delighted and swallowed more information of various kinds in less than two hours than I had for two years past in all I had read or heard. After six weeks, Humboldt set sail for Europe from the mouth of the Delaware and landed at Bordeaux on 3 August Humboldt kept a detailed diary of his sojourn to Spanish America, running some 4, pages, which he drew on directly for his multiple publications following the expedition.

      Following German reunification, the diaries were returned to a descendant of Humboldt. For a time, there was concern about their being sold, but that was averted. Humboldt's decades' long endeavor to publish the results of this expedition not only resulted in multiple volumes, but also made his international reputation in scientific circles. Humboldt came to be well-known with the reading public as well, with popular, densely illustrated, condensed versions of his work in multiple languages.

      Bonpland, his fellow scientist and collaborator on the expedition, collected botanical specimens and preserved them, but unlike Humboldt who had a passion to publish, Bonpland had to be prodded to do the formal descriptions. Many scientific travelers and explorers produced huge visual records, which remained unseen by the general public until the late nineteenth century, in the case of the Malaspina Expedition, and even the late twentieth century, when Mutis's botanical, some 12, drawings from New Granada, was published.

      Humboldt, by contrast, published immediately and continuously, using and ultimately exhausting his personal fortune, to produce both scientific and popular texts. Humboldt's name and fame were made by his travels to Spanish America, particularly his publication of the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain. His image as the premier European scientist was a later development. For the Bourbon crown, which had authorized the expedition, the returns were not only tremendous in terms of sheer volume of data on their New World realms, but in dispelling the vague and pejorative assessments of the New World by Guillaume-Thomas Raynal , Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon , and William Robertson.

      The achievements of the Bourbon regime, especially in New Spain, were evident in the precise data Humboldt systematized and published. This memorable expedition may be regarded as having laid the foundation of the sciences of physical geography , plant geography , and meteorology.

      Key to that was Humboldt's meticulous and systematic measurement of phenomena with the most advanced instruments then available. He closely observed plant and animal species in situ, not just in isolation, noting all elements in relation to one other. He collected specimens of plants and animals, dividing the growing collection so that if a portion was lost, other parts might survive. Humboldt saw the need for an approach to science that could account for the harmony of nature among the diversity of the physical world. For Humboldt, "the unity of nature" meant that it was the interrelation of all physical sciences —such as the conjoining between biology , meteorology and geology —that determined where specific plants grew.

      He found these relationships by unraveling myriad, painstakingly collected data, [87] data extensive enough that it became an enduring foundation upon which others could base their work. Humboldt viewed nature holistically , and tried to explain natural phenomena without the appeal to religious dogma. He believed in the central importance of observation, and as a consequence had amassed a vast array of the most sophisticated scientific instruments then available. Each had its own velvet lined box and was the most accurate and portable of its time; nothing quantifiable escaped measurement.

      According to Humboldt, everything should be measured with the finest and most modern instruments and sophisticated techniques available, for that collected data was the basis of all scientific understanding. This quantitative methodology would become known as Humboldtian science. Humboldt wrote "Nature herself is sublimely eloquent.

      The stars as they sparkle in firmament fill us with delight and ecstasy, and yet they all move in orbit marked out with mathematical precision. His Essay on the Geography of Plants published first in French and then German, both in was based on the then novel idea of studying the distribution of organic life as affected by varying physical conditions. It was a fold-out at the back of the publication.

      These detailed the information on temperature, altitude, humidity, atmosphere pressure, and the animal and plants with their scientific names found at each elevation. Plants from the same genus appear at different elevations. The depiction is on an east-west axis going from the Pacific coast lowlands to the Andean range of which Chimborazo was a part, and the eastern Amazonian basin. The map was the basis for comparison with other major peaks. By his delineation in of isothermal lines, he at once suggested the idea and devised the means of comparing the climatic conditions of various countries.

      He first investigated the rate of decrease in mean temperature with the increase in elevation above sea level, and afforded, by his inquiries regarding the origin of tropical storms, the earliest clue to the detection of the more complicated law governing atmospheric disturbances in higher latitudes.

      His discovery of the decrease in intensity of Earth's magnetic field from the poles to the equator was communicated to the Paris Institute in a memoir read by him on 7 December Its importance was attested by the speedy emergence of rival claims. His services to geology were based on his attentive study of the volcanoes of the Andes and Mexico, which he observed and sketched, climbed, and measured with a variety of instruments.

      By climbing Chimborazo, he established an altitude record which became the basis for measurement of other volcanoes in the Andes and the Himalayas. As with other aspects of his investigations, he developed methods to show his synthesized results visually, using the graphic method of geologic-cross sections.

      Humboldt was a significant contributor to cartography, creating maps, particularly of New Spain, that became the template for later mapmakers in Mexico. His careful recording of latitude and longitude led to accurate maps of Mexico, the port of Acapulco, the port of Veracruz, and the Valley of Mexico, and a map showing trade patterns among continents. Lebensjahr besteht 31 , Kinder mit hochnormalen Werten zwischen 2 bis Die Ergebnisse der Autoren sind vergleichbar mit schwedischen Daten Eine Limitation der vorliegenden Studie ist die fehlende serologische Kontrolle durch einen 2.

      Anthropometrische Daten und Laborbefunde konnten mit serologischen Befunden kombiniert werden. Im Vergleich zu noch wachsenden Kindern 15 , 29 , 35 liegen bei Erwachsenen wenig, kontrollierte Daten vor. Noch wachsende Kinder aus einer Risikogruppe Tabelle 3 sollten auch bei Abwesenheit von Symptomen getestet werden 2 , 3. Zimmer sind an einer von der Firma Euroimmun mitfinanzierten Studie beteiligt.

      The prevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents in Germany— results from the KiGGS study. Dtsch Arztebl Int ; The English version of this article is available online: Schuppan D, Zimmer KP: The diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease. Z Gastroenterol ; European society for pediatric gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; Clinical features of celiac disease: A prospective birth cohort.

      Usefulness of symptoms to screen for celiac disease. Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; Epidemiology and clinical presentations of celiac disease.